The Effect of the Premedication with Systemic Corticosteroids and Antibiotics on Inflammation and Intraoperative Bleeding During Sinonasal Endoscopic Surgery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP)
The Journal of craniofacial surgery. 2022
INTRODUCTION Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a disease characterized by a variety of inflammatory mechanisms. Extensive genetic analyses have shown that among the molecules that are involved in its genetic base, interleukins (ILs) play a critical role in the development and progression of CRSwNP. ILs, such us IL-4 (5q31.1), IL-5 (5q31.1), IL-13 (5q31.11), and IL-25 (14q11.2) are found to be overexpressed. PURPOSE Our aim is to investigate, through a systemic review, the effect of the premedication with systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics on inflammation and intraoperative bleeding during sinonasal endoscopic surgery for CRSwNP. MATERIALS AND METHODS The search period covered January 1979 to February 2021, using the scientific databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Cochrane Library και Google Scholar. Search terms were "effect, premedication, systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, intraoperative, bleeding, inflammation, sinonasal, endoscopic surgery, chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polypοsis." RESULTS From an initial 80 titles found in the above medline databases, the evaluations led to the final inclusion of 15 papers. Eighty titles found in the above medline databases. Eleven titles were excluded as they did not include a summary and full text in English language. Sixty-nine titles collected and duplicate references were searched. Twelve titles were excluded due to double reporting. Fifty-seven articles remained for systematic review. Fourty-two articles were excluded after systematic review and correlation with the research field. Fifteen articles were eventually included in the literature review. CONCLUSIONS The effect of corticosteroids and antibiotics on the size of nasal polyps, nasal symptoms, and systemic markers of inflammation is significant. Each of the above factors acts on different pathogenetic inflammatory mechanisms.The use of perioperative corticosteroids reduces blood loss and operation time and improves the quality of the surgical field. There are no other medications that have been shown to improve the surgical field and outcome. Whether there is an additive effect on systemic corticosteroids on top of nasal corticosteroids is unclear. The european position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps steering group advises to use (nasal) corticosteroids before endoscopic sinus surgery.However, it should be considered in future studies whether some minor differences are due to differences in the initial doses of corticosteroids or during treatment in the preoperative period. It is worth mentioning that although high doses of corticosteroids are required to control the progression of rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, the optimal initial dosage and the total duration of the treatment have not yet been standardized in patients with CRSwNP and future studies are required to determine the 2 above parameters (optimal dosage and duration of treatment). There are, therefore, known risks from corticosteroid administration, and clinicians should consider them when evaluating each patient. Each patient should be considered as an individual case with individualized treatment.
The analgesic and anti-hemorrhagic efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in tonsillectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery. 2022
AIM: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the analgesic and anti-hemorrhagic efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) among patients undergoing tonsillectomy. METHODS PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Google Scholar databases were screened from inception until July 2021, and updated in December 2021. Risk of bias of the included studies was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The efficacy endpoints were summarized as risk ratio (RR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS Seven RCTs were analyzed, comprising a total of 392 patients. Risk of bias evaluation showed an overall high risk in one RCT, low risk in four RCTs, and some concerns in two RCTs. The pooled results revealed that the mean postoperative pain score was significantly reduced in favor of the PRP group compared with the control group (SMD=-1.38, 95% CI [-1.91, -0.85], p<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed the effect estimate was statistically significant for early postoperative pain (day 0 to day 3), without substantial difference between both groups on late postoperative pain (day 5 and day 7). Moreover, the rate of postoperative hemorrhage was significantly reduced in favor of the PRP group compared with the control group (RR=0.16, 95% CI [0.05, 0.50], p=0.001). Subgroup analysis showed the effect estimate was statistically significant for the rate of primary and secondary hemorrhage. CONCLUSION PRP was associated with significant reduction in postoperative pain and hemorrhage among patients undergoing tonsillectomy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Can intraoperative suturing reduce the incidence of posttonsillectomy hemorrhage? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology. 2022;7(4):1206-1216
OBJECTIVE This study was to compare tonsillectomy with intraoperative suturing (TIS) and tonsillectomy without intraoperative suturing (TsIS) in preventing postoperative tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH). METHODS The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was followed. Articles compare TIS and TsIS in preventing PTH were included. The quality of eligible studies was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) by two independent investigators. Random effect models were used to determine odds ratio (OR) with 95% CIs. RESULTS A total of 15 studies were analyzed. The pooled results showed the PTH rate was lower in the TIS group (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.47-0.88). The TIS group had a lower primary and secondary PTH rate than the TsIS group with OR values of 0.44 (95% CI, 0.30-0.64) and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.54-0.90), respectively. However, suturing did not show an advantage in reducing the risk of returning to the operation room for hemostasis (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.13-2.47). Adults might benefit from the intraoperative suturing procedure (OR = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16-0.60). Patients with more than three stitches on each side had a lower PTH rate (OR: 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.60). Suturing the tonsillar fossa and pillars simultaneously could reduce the PTH rate (OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.34-0.64). CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative suturing is a good strategy for preventing PTH. More multicenter randomized controlled studies should be conducted to demonstrate the efficacy of this procedure. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5.
Treatment of oroantral communication with Platelet-Rich Fibrin: A systematic review
Journal of stomatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2022
BACKGROUND Oroantral communication (OAC) is the opening between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity, which constitutes a gate for the mucosal infection in the maxillary sinus. On the other hand, an OAF develops when the OAC does not close spontaneously, remains manifest and is epithelialized. Several methods have been proposed to solve these situations, however, they are associated with increased postoperative morbidity and/or higher associated costs and require some experience of the surgeon to perform them. To overcome these disadvantages, the use of Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) is proposed. The present study aims to perform a systematic review of the literature, collecting cases in which PRF was used in the treatment of OACs/OAFs. MATERIALS AND METHODS An electronic search of the MEDLINE database (via PubMed) and Web of Science was performed using the following MeSH terms (Medical Subjects Headings): (oroantral communication OR oroantral fistula OR buccosinusal communication) AND (platelet-rich fibrin OR prf OR fibrin mesh). The criteria used were those described by the PRISMA® Statement. The search was not time-restricted and was updated to April 2021. RESULTS After searching, 11 articles were included that met the established criteria. In these, PRF was used alone or in combination with bi- or trilaminar techniques achieving complete resolution in 100% of cases (n=116). CONCLUSIONS With the limitations of this study, it can be established that PRF can be used alone for the treatment of OACs/OAFs up to 5 mm and, in larger defects, it is advisable to combine it with bi- or trilaminar techniques. PRF is an effective therapeutic option, with minimal associated postoperative morbidity compared to other techniques and allows the position of the mucogingival junction to be preserved. Its combination with bone grafting improves the starting point before the replacement of the missing tooth with a dental implant.
Hot Saline Irrigation for Haemostasis in Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2021;:1-25
Tympanic membrane regeneration using platelet-rich fibrin: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2021
PURPOSE Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) results in satisfactory wound healing. This analysis focuses on assessing the effectiveness of PRF in the treatment of tympanic membrane (TM) perforations. MATERIALS AND METHODS The literature was searched using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases from inception to February 28th, 2021. The following healing and hearing outcomes were measured: closure rate, pre-and postoperative auditory results, and incidence of postoperative infections. Data were pooled and expressed as the odds ratio (OR). RESULTS Ten studies were eligible for qualitative review, and seven of them were included for the final quantitative comparison. The OR for the closure rate of acute perforations was 4.30 (95% CI 1.35-13.70, I(2) = 0%), and the OR in the chronic subgroup was 5.42 (95% CI 2.57-11.43, I(2) = 0%). The total OR value for the completed closure rate was 5.10 (95% CI 2.72-9.54, I(2) = 0%), indicating that the utilization of PRF can enhance the closure of both acute and chronic perforations. The qualitative review did not find improved hearing results with the use of PRF. In addition to promoting closure, PRF can reduce the incidence of infections (OR = 0.14). The sensitivity analysis did not change the final results, and there was no publication bias in this analysis. CONCLUSION PRF can increase the closure rate of acute perforations, enhance the survival rate of autografts in TM surgeries and reduce the incidence of infections. However, the literature indicates that PRF does not influence the hearing outcomes. This study shows that PRF is an effective agent for TM regeneration.
Comparative efficacy of platelet-rich plasma applied in myringoplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2021;16(1):e0245968
BACKGROUND Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is quite common in the clinical setting. Chronic TM perforations require surgical treatments such as myringoplasty. Currently, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a novel, effective substance that is increasingly utilized for TM perforation repair. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP in the application of TM perforation repair. METHODS A systematic search was conducted to screen the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus and Web of Science databases up to July 2020. Studies were identified in accordance with the selection criteria by two coauthors independently. Data regarding the healing and hearing outcomes were pooled and analyzed via Review Manager version 5.3 and STATA version 12.0 software. Odds ratio (OR) was utilized to compare the closure rate. Furthermore, the results of hearing improvements and incidence of complications were also compared to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP. RESULTS A total of eight studies with 455 participants were eligible according to the selection criteria. Compared to conventional surgery, the OR of closure was 2.70 (95% CI: 1.27 to 5.76, P = 0.01, I2 = 0%) in randomized controlled trial (RCT) subgroup and 6.18 (95% CI: 2.22 to 17.25, P = 0.0005, I2 = 0) in non-RCT subgroup. The overall OR of closure was 3.69 (95% CI: 2.02 to 6.74, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%), suggesting a significant effect on the healing of TM perforation. Between preoperative and postoperative hearing results, there is no statistical difference between the PRP and the control groups. Additionally, the use of PRP resulted in a lower incidence of complication than the use of conventional approaches. CONCLUSION The application of PRP during the TM surgeries can enhance the closure rate, provide similar hearing improvements and decrease the incidence of postoperative complications. Given these advantages, PRP can be considered an effective treatment for TM regeneration.
Post-Tonsillectomy Ibuprofen: Is There a Dose-Dependent Bleeding Risk?
The Laryngoscope. 2021
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a potentially life-threatening complication. A recent meta-analysis suggests that ibuprofen may increase the risk of PTH. The aims of this study were to 1) re-evaluate the effect of ibuprofen on PTH given additional recent evidence and 2) to evaluate a potential dose effect of ibuprofen. STUDY DESIGN Meta-analysis and meta-regression; single-institution retrospective review. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of 12 studies comparing postoperative ibuprofen analgesia to non-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) controls. Next, we performed a meta-regression analysis to assess for an effect of dose, if any, on rates of PTH. Five studies specifying a dose of 5 mg/kg (828 patients, 1,411 controls) and 7 studies using 10 mg/kg (5,633 patients, 7,656 controls) were included. We then conducted a novel single-institution, retrospective review of data for 1,046 patients prescribed intermediate-dose 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen. RESULTS Ibuprofen was not associated with an increased rate of PTH (log odds ratio [OR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.15, 0.57). Meta-regression showed that ibuprofen dose (5 and 10 mg/kg) did not have a statistically significant effect on PTH (OR, 1.32; 95% CI 0.30, 5.84). Uncontrolled, aggregate rates of PTH across all studies were 2.29% (N = 828) for 5 mg/kg and 4.65% (N = 5,633) for 10 mg/kg dosing. The rate of secondary hemorrhage in patients prescribed 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen was 3.10% (N = 1,046). CONCLUSION We found no statistically significant increased risk of PTH when ibuprofen is prescribed at the low or high range of commonly used clinical dosages, compared to a non-ibuprofen regimen. Further studies with less heterogeneity are needed to determine if there is a clinically relevant dose-dependent difference in PTH with ibuprofen. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 3 Laryngoscope, 2021.
Haemostatic devices in parotid surgery: a systematic review
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2021;:1-7
OBJECTIVE The Harmonic Scalpel and Ligasure (Covidien) devices are commonly used in head and neck surgery. Parotidectomy is a complex and intricate surgery that requires careful dissection of the facial nerve. This study aimed to compare surgical outcomes in parotidectomy using these haemostatic devices with traditional scalpel and cautery. METHOD A systematic review of the literature was performed with subsequent meta-analysis of seven studies that compared the use of haemostatic devices to traditional scalpel and cautery in parotidectomy. Outcome measures included: temporary facial paresis, operating time, intra-operative blood loss, post-operative drain output and length of hospital stay. RESULTS A total of 7 studies representing 675 patients were identified: 372 patients were treated with haemostatic devices, and 303 patients were treated with scalpel and cautery. Statistically significant outcomes favouring the use of haemostatic devices included operating time, intra-operative blood loss and post-operative drain output. Outcome measures that did not favour either treatment included facial nerve paresis and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION Overall, haemostatic devices were found to reduce operating time, intra-operative blood loss and post-operative drain output.
The efficacy of Tranexamic Acid Administration in Patients Undergoing Tonsillectomy: An Updated Meta-Analysis
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. 2021;:34894211045264
OBJECTIVE There is controversy regarding the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing tonsillectomy-related hemorrhage. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prophylactic role of TXA in tonsillectomy. METHODS We searched 6 databases to identify studies that directly compare the effect of TXA versus controls in tonsillectomy patients. Standardized mean difference was applied to summate the findings across the studies. Dichotomous data were expressed as relative risk. RESULTS Ten studies representing a total of 111 898 patients were included. The pooled results showed a significant reduction of intraoperative blood loss by 39.02 ml (SMD = -1.05, 95% CI: -1.91 to -0.20, P = .016) and the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (RR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.65, P < .0001), with no significant difference in reduction of further intervention risk (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.45 to 1.35, P = .373). CONCLUSIONS Overall, this study indicates that TXA may reduce blood loss and frequency of post-operative hemorrhage associated with tonsillectomy. Further large, high-quality clinical trials are still needed to explore TXA's effect on post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage and the safety of its use.