Clinical characteristics and treatment of terlipressin-induced ischemic skin necrosis: A synthesis of 35 literature reported cases
Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2022
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE The clinical features of terlipressin-induced ischemic skin necrosis are unknown. The purpose of this study is to explore the clinical features of terlipressin-induced skin necrosis. METHODS We searched Chinese and English databases to collect case reports of terlipressin-induced skin necrosis for retrospective analysis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A total of 42 patients (31 males and 11 females) from 35 studies were included, with a median age of 54 years (range 0.17-84). The onset of skin ischemia ranged from a few hours to 21 days. The most common clinical manifestations were bulla (15 cases, 35.7%), cyanosis (12 cases, 28.6%), necrosis (11 cases, 26.2%), and purpura (10 cases, 23.8%). The following were often affected: the legs (26 cases), 61.9%), abdomen (13, 31.0%), scrotum (10 cases, 23.8%), feet (10 cases, 23.8%), upper extremities (8 cases, 19.0%), and hands (7 cases, 16.7%). Skin biopsy showed fibrin thrombus (7 cases, 38.9%), nonspecific inflammation (6 cases, 33.3%), and necrosis (10 cases, 55.6%). After discontinuation of terlipressin, skin symptoms improved in most patients. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION Ischemic skin necrosis is a rare and serious adverse effect of terlipressin. Patients receiving terlipressin therapy should be monitored closely for terlipressin-related ischemic complications. Terlipressin should be discontinued immediately if ischemic complications occur.
Proton pump inhibitor treatment initiated prior to endoscopic diagnosis in upper gastrointestinal bleeding
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2022;1:Cd005415
BACKGROUND Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common reason for emergency hospital admission. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce gastric acid production and are used to manage upper GI bleeding. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the clinical efficacy of proton pump inhibitors initiated before endoscopy in people with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of PPI treatment initiated prior to endoscopy in people with acute upper GI bleeding. SEARCH METHODS We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases and major conference proceedings to October 2008, for the previous versions of this review, and in April 2018, October 2019, and 3 June 2021 for this update. We also contacted experts in the field and searched trial registries and references of trials for any additional trials. SELECTION CRITERIA We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared treatment with a PPI (oral or intravenous) versus control treatment with either placebo, histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H(2)RA) or no treatment, prior to endoscopy in hospitalised people with uninvestigated upper GI bleeding. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS At least two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Outcomes assessed at 30 days were: mortality (our primary outcome), rebleeding, surgery, high-risk stigmata of recent haemorrhage (active bleeding, non-bleeding visible vessel or adherent clot) at index endoscopy, endoscopic haemostatic treatment at index endoscopy, time to discharge, blood transfusion requirements and adverse effects. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS We included six RCTs comprising 2223 participants. No new studies have been published after the literature search performed in 2008 for the previous version of this review. Of the included studies, we considered one to be at low risk of bias, two to be at unclear risk of bias, and three at high risk of bias. Our meta-analyses suggest that pre-endoscopic PPI use may not reduce mortality (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.70; 5 studies; low-certainty evidence), and may reduce rebleeding (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.06; 5 studies; low-certainty evidence). In addition, pre-endoscopic PPI use may not reduce the need for surgery (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.26; 6 studies; low-certainty evidence), and may not reduce the proportion of participants with high-risk stigmata of recent haemorrhage at index endoscopy (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.21; 4 studies; low-certainty evidence). Pre-endoscopic PPI use likely reduces the need for endoscopic haemostatic treatment at index endoscopy (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.93; 3 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). There were insufficient data to determine the effect of pre-endoscopic PPI use on blood transfusions (2 studies; meta-analysis not possible; very low-certainty evidence) and time to discharge (1 study; very low-certainty evidence). There was no substantial heterogeneity amongst trials in any analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS There is moderate-certainty evidence that PPI treatment initiated before endoscopy for upper GI bleeding likely reduces the requirement for endoscopic haemostatic treatment at index endoscopy. However, there is insufficient evidence to conclude whether pre-endoscopic PPI treatment increases, reduces or has no effect on other clinical outcomes, including mortality, rebleeding and need for surgery. Further well-designed RCTs that conform to current standards for endoscopic haemostatic treatment and appropriate co-interventions, and that ensure high-dose PPIs are only given to people who received endoscopic haemostatic treatment, regardless of initial randomisation, are warranted. However, as it may be unrealistic to achieve the optimal information size, pragmatic multicentre trials may provide valuable evidence on this topic.
Timing of intraoperative crystalloid infusion may decrease total volume of infusate without affecting early graft function in live related renal transplant surgery: A randomized, surgeon-blinded clinical study
Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India. 2022;38(1):53-61
INTRODUCTION Early graft function is crucial for successful kidney transplantation. Intravascular volume maintenance is paramount in ensuring reperfusion of transplanted kidney. This study was planned to compare whether the timing of fluid infusion can help to decrease amount of fluid given without altering early graft function during renal transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study included forty recipients, randomized into standard (Group-S) or targeted fluid therapy (Group-T). Group S received fluid according to conventional fasting deficit while Group T received at 1 ml/kg/h from the start of surgery till start of vascular anastomosis after which fluid infusion rate in both group was increased to maintain a central venous pressure of 13-15 mm of Hg till reperfusion. Primary outcome measured was serum creatinine level on first postoperative day while secondary outcomes were IV fluid given, perioperative hemodynamics, onset of diuresis, graft turgidity, urine output, and renal function during first 6 postoperative days. RESULTS The study showed Group T postoperatively had early fall in serum creatinine (day 3) than S (day 6) although this difference was not statistically significant. Group T had received significantly less fluid per kg of dry weight (T-42.7 ± 9.7 ml/kg, S-61.1 ± 11.1 ml/kg, P < 0.001), had early diuresis, better graft turgidity and urine output than Group S. CONCLUSION Targeted hydration significantly decreases the total amount of fluid infused during the intraoperative period without altering early graft function. Targeted hydration during vascular anastomosis produced stable hemodynamics and early diuresis without any side-effects pertaining to hypo or hyper-volemia.Clinical trial identifier number-CTRI/2016/07/007111.
Tranexamic acid vs placebo and its impact on bleeding, transfusions and stone-free rates in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Central European journal of urology. 2022;75(1):81-89
INTRODUCTION Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the standard of care for the treatment of large renal stones. Bleeding-related complications remain a major concern when performing this procedure. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has recently been studied in both urologic and non-urologic procedures to reduce bleeding, transfusions and complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS In June 2021 a systematic review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines on randomized prospective studies comparing the effects of TXA on bleeding complications during PCNL. Data was analyzed using Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS Eight studies were included with a total 1,201 patients, of which 598 received TXA and 603 received placebo. TXA was associated with less bleeding (decreased change in hemoglobin) -0.79 Hb g/dl [-1.09, -0.65] p <.00001 and decreased transfusion rates (OR 0.31 [0.18, 0.52] p <0.0001). This was also associated with lower complication rates, both minor, major and overall, OR 0.59[0.41, .85] p = 0.005, OR 0.31 [0.17, 0.56] p = 0.0001 and OR 0.40 [0.29, 0.56] p <0.00001 respectively. TXA was also associated with improved stone-free rates as compared with placebo (OR 1.79 [1.23, 2.62] p = 0.003). TXA resulted in shorter operative times (11.51 minutes [-16.25, -6.77] p =.001) and length of stay (-0.74 days [-1.13 -0.34] p = 0.0006). Two pulmonary embolisms were registered in a single study in the TXA group. CONCLUSIONS In this meta-analysis, the use of TXA during PCNL was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the following parameters when compared with placebo: change in hemoglobin, transfusion rates, complication rates, operative time, and length of stay. It was also associated with improvement in stone-free rates. These data should be considered by surgeons performing PCNL.
Efficacy of Endoscopic Intervention plus Growth Inhibitor and Patient Self-Management in the Treatment of Esophagogastric Variceal Bleeding in Cirrhosis
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2022;2022:6837791
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor and patient self-management in the treatment of esophagogastric variceal bleeding. METHODS Between January 2019 and December 2021, 60 patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding treated in our hospital were assessed for eligibility and randomly recruited. They were concurrently and randomly assigned at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive either endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor (control group) or endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor and patient self-management (observation group). The endpoint is clinical efficacy. RESULTS All eligible patients showed a similar time of hemostasis, success rate of hemostasis, rebleeding rate, and disappearance rate of varicose veins (P > 0.05). Endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor and patient self-management were associated with a lower incidence of complication (6.67%, including 1 (3.34%) case of ulcer and 1 (3.34%) case of fever) than endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor (26.67%, including 3 (10.00%) cases of ulcer, 2 (6.67%) cases of retrosternal pain, and 3 (10.00%) cases of fever) (P < 0.05). Patients in the observation group had significantly higher life satisfaction scores (25.17 ± 4.28 and 23.68 ± 5.17) than those in the control group (22.13 ± 2.24 and 18.12 ± 3.28) (P < 0.05). A decrease in life satisfaction scores was observed at 6 months after treatment, and the patients given patient self-management showed a higher satisfaction (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor and patient self-management yielded remarkable clinical efficacy in the treatment of esophagogastric variceal bleeding as it reduces the incidence of complication and enhances the life satisfaction of patients, and so it is worthy of clinical promotion.
Prevention of delayed post-polypectomy bleeding by prophylactic clipping after endoscopic colorectal polypectomy: a meta-analysis
International journal of colorectal disease. 2022
PURPOSE This meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of prophylactic clipping after endoscopic colorectal polypectomy or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in prevention of delayed bleeding (DB) following polypectomy. METHODS We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of prophylactic clipping versus no clipping on DB since inception to 22nd April 2022. We then performed a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. RESULTS We included 8 studies with 5648 patients and 10,436 lesions. Prophylactic clipping did not reduce the overall risk of DB compared with no clipping (1.54% vs 2.05%; Log RR, -0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.59, 0.01; P = 0.06). In subgroup analyses, clipping significantly reduced DB rate in polyps ≥ 2 cm (Log RR, -0.63; 95% CI, -1.08, -0.18; P = 0.01), in non-pedunculated polyps (Log RR, -0.63; 95% CI, -1.01, -0.24; P = 0.00), and in large (≥ 2 cm) proximal polyps (Log RR, -0.81; 95% CI, -1.56, 0.05; P = 0.04), but not in polyps < 2 cm (Log RR, 0.01; 95% CI, -.40, 0.42; P = 0.95). CONCLUSION Prophylactic clipping does not prevent post-polypectomy bleeding after all EMR and should not be performed as a routine practice. Although prophylactic clipping may reduce DB rate following resection of large proximal polyps and non-pedunculated polyps, more high-quality studies are needed to determine the effects of factors such as polyp location, polyp morphology, antithrombotic drug use and complete or partial closure on the effectiveness of prophylactic clipping.
Comparing the effect of administering gelatin- low dose albumin versus albumin on renal function in liver transplantation: A randomized clinical trial
Clinical transplantation. 2022;:e14791
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury is a common complication after liver transplantation that is independently associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of administering gelatin-low dose albumin versus albumin on renal function and other early outcomes in liver transplantation. METHODS This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 140 patients undergoing liver transplantation from brain death donors. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: albumin or modified gelatin with albumin. Blood samples were collected before (T0) and on the first (T1), second (T2), third (T3), fifth (T4), and last day of hospitalization (T5) after liver transplantation for the detection of laboratory parameters, including renal and liver function tests. RESULTS The incidence of acute kidney injury on the basis of RIFLE criteria was 31.42 % in the gelatin group (R: 59.10 %, I: 36.40 %, and F: 4.50 %) and 25.71 % in the albumin group (R: 66.70 %, I: 27.80 %, and F: 5.50 %) (P = 0.845). Two patients in the gelatin and one in the albumin groups required renal replacement therapy. There was no significant difference between groups when the trends of changes in renal and liver function parameters were assessed during the study period (T0-T5). Furthermore, the incidence of complications was similar across groups. CONCLUSION This study showed that modified gelatin could be used without inappropriate outcomes on renal function in patients with normal preoperative kidney function tests undergoing liver transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Desmopressin Acetate in Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Native Kidney Biopsy in Patients with Reduced Kidney Function: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
Iranian journal of kidney diseases. 2022;16(4):238-245
INTRODUCTION Bleeding events are the most common complications after kidney biopsy. This study aims to evaluate the effect of desmopressin administration on bleeding complication, in native kidney biopsy candidates with reduced kidney function. METHODS This double-blind randomized clinical trial enrolled 18 to 80 years old patients with 15 < eGFR < 90 mL/min/ 1.73m² from July 2017 to August 2020. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 3 µg/kg of intranasal desmopressin acetate or 1 mL/kg of intranasal sodium chloride 0.65%, one hour before ultrasound-guided, percutaneous native kidney biopsy. The primary outcome was the post-biopsy bleeding complications, and secondary outcomes were the volume of perirenal hematoma, and changes of post-biopsy hemoglobin and hematocrit level, plasma sodium and blood pressure (Clinical Trial Registration ID: IRCT20090701002112N3). RESULTS A total of 120 patients (58 men and 62 women), 60 patients in each group, were analyzed. The mean age and eGFR of the patients were 45.29 ± 15.95 years and 51.77 ± 18.02 ml/min/ 1.73m², respectively. Desmopressin administration significantly decreased post-biopsy perirenal hematoma compared to placebo (7/60 [11.6%]) vs. 33/60 [40%]; P < .05), and the hematoma volume was significantly smaller in the desmopressin group, in case of hematoma formation (2.31 ± 1.17 vs. 7.72 ± 5.45 mm³, P < .05). CONCLUSION Desmopressin administration before kidney biopsy is a safe and effective strategy to prevent bleeding complications. Considering absolute risk reduction of about 28%, the number needed to treat is about 4 procedures. We recommend considering desmopressin administration before percutaneous native kidney biopsy. DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6966.
Adult patients with kidney disease, who were candidates for percutaneous native kidney biopsy (n= 120).
Intranasal desmopressin acetate (n= 60).
Placebo: intranasal sodium chloride (n= 60).
Desmopressin administration significantly decreased post-biopsy perirenal haematoma compared to placebo (7/60 [11.6%]) vs. 33/60 [40%]), and the haematoma volume was significantly smaller in the desmopressin group, in case of haematoma formation (2.31 ± 1.17 vs. 7.72 ± 5.45 mm³).
Should Cell Salvage be Used in Liver Resection and Transplantation? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Annals of surgery. 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of intraoperative blood salvage and autotransfusion (IBSA) use on red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and postoperative outcomes in liver surgery. BACKGROUND Intraoperative RBC transfusions are common in liver surgery and associated with increased morbidity. IBSA can be utilized to minimize allogeneic transfusion. A theoretical risk of cancer dissemination has limited IBSA adoption in oncologic surgery. METHODS Electronic databases were searched from inception until May 2021. All studies comparing IBSA use to control in liver surgery were included. Screening, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment were conducted independently, in duplicate. The primary outcome was intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion (proportion of patients and volume of blood transfused). Core secondary outcomes included: overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), transfusion-related complications, length of hospital stay, and hospitalization costs. Data from transplant and resection studies were analyzed separately. Random effects models were used for meta-analysis. RESULTS Twenty-one observational studies were included (16 transplant, 5 resection, n=3,433 patients). Seventeen studies incorporated oncologic indications. In transplant, IBSA was associated with decreased allogeneic RBC transfusion (MD -1.81, 95% CI[-3.22, -0.40], P=0.01, I2=86%, very-low certainty). Few resection studies reported on transfusion for meta-analysis. No significant difference existed in OS or DFS in liver transplant (HR=1.12[0.75, 1.68], P=0.59, I2=0%; HR=0.93[0.57, 1.48], P=0.75, I2=0%) and liver resection (HR=0.69[0.45, 1.05], P=0.08, I2=0%; HR=0.93[0.59, 1.45], P=0.74, I2=0%). CONCLUSION IBSA may reduce intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion without compromising oncologic outcomes. The current evidence base is limited in size and quality, and high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed.
Patients undergoing oncologic and non-oncologic liver surgery (either resection or transplantation), (21 studies, n= 3,433).
Any intraoperative blood salvage and autotransfusion (IBSA) device.
No IBSA use.
Data from transplant and resection studies were analyzed separately. Despite significant heterogeneity, most studies reported lower rates and volumes of intraoperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing IBSA. In transplant, IBSA was associated with decreased allogeneic red blood cell transfusion (mean difference: -1.81, very-low certainty). Few resection studies reported on transfusion for meta-analysis. There was no significant difference in overall survival or disease-free survival in liver transplant and liver resection.
The role of polyglycolic acid sheets in the management of post-endoscopic submucosal dissection gastrointestinal bleeding and esophageal stricture: A PRISMA compliant systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND As a relatively minimally invasive technique, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal lesions. However, it is associated with complications, such as postoperative bleeding, stricture, and perforation. A covering method using polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets for ESD-induced ulcers has been reported to be effective in reducing the risk of post-ESD bleeding and esophageal stricture. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of PGA sheets in the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding and esophageal stricture after ESD. METHODS We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases on October 15, 2019. All eligible articles were selected based on the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main outcomes were the rates of post-ESD gastrointestinal bleeding and esophageal stricture. Cochrane's Q statistic and I2 test were used to identify heterogeneity between the studies. When there was no obvious heterogeneity (I2 < 50%, P > .1), a fixed-effect model was used. When there was obvious heterogeneity (I2 > 50%, P < .1), a random effect model was used. Funnel plots and the Egger regression test were used to assess publication bias. RESULTS Fifteen articles were included in the meta-analysis, of which 7 were exclusively about the use of PGA sheets to prevent postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding, and the remaining reported the use of PGA sheets to prevent postoperative esophageal stenosis. Our analysis showed that preventive therapy with PGA sheets decreased the rates of post-ESD gastrointestinal bleeding (risk ratio [RR] = 0.35, 95% confidential interval [CI]: 0.19-0.64, P < .001) and esophageal stricture (RR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27-0.79, P = .005), and the gastrointestinal bleeding and esophageal stricture rates after preventive treatment with PGA sheets were 5.7% (95% CI: 3.6%-8.8%) and 20.6% (95% CI: 14.5%-28.4%), respectively. CONCLUSION The utilization of PGA sheets after ESD has an excellent outcome in reducing the risk of postoperative gastrointestinal bleeding and esophageal stricture.