Clinical outcomes of low-pressure pneumoperitoneum in minimally invasive urological surgery
Journal of robotic surgery. 2022;:1-10
The adoption of minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques has revolutionised urological practice. This necessitates a pneumoperitoneum (PNP) and the impact the PNP pressure has on post-operative outcomes is uncertain. During the current COVID-19 era guidance has suggested the utilisation of lower PNP pressures to mitigate the risk of intra-operative viral transmission. Review the current literature regarding the impact of pneumoperitoneum pressure, within the field of urology, on post-operative outcomes. A search of the PubMed, Medline and EMBASE databases was undertaken to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines were adhered to. Ten studies, that included both randomised controlled trials and retrospective case series reviews, were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The effect of PNP pressure on outcomes following prostatectomy, live donor nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and a variety of benign upper tract procedures were discussed. Low pressure PNP appears safe when compared to high pressure PNP, potentially reducing post-operative pain and rates of ileus. When compared to general surgery, there is a lack of quality evidence investigating the impact of PNP pressures on outcomes within urology. Low pressure PNP appears non-inferior to high pressure PNP. More research is required to validate this finding, particularly post-cystectomy and nephrectomy.
The role of preoperative dutasteride in reducing bleeding during transurethral resection of the prostate: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Asian journal of urology. 2022;9(1):18-26
OBJECTIVE Bleeding is one of the most common complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Several previous studies reported that administering dutasteride before surgery could reduce perioperative bleeding. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative dutasteride treatment in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients undergoing TURP by performing a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS A comprehensive literature search was performed through the electronic databases including Medline, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrial.gov in October 2020. RCTs evaluating the role of dutasteride for TURP were screened using the eligibility criteria and the quality of RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The heterogeneity was assessed using I (2) statistic. The measured outcomes were hemoglobin (Hb) levels, perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion, microvessel density (MVD), and operation time. Data were pooled as mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR). RESULTS A total of 11 RCTs consisting of 627 samples from the treatment group and 615 samples from the placebo group were analyzed. Patients that received dutasteride had less reduction in Hb levels (MD -1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.39 to -0.81, p<0.00001). Dutasteride also significantly reduced the operation time (MD -1.79, 95% CI -2.97 to -0.61, p=0.003) and transfusion rate after surgery (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.77, p=0.009) compared to the control group. However, the MVD (MD -3.60, 95% CI -8.04 to 0.84, p=0.11) and perioperative blood loss in dutasteride administration for less than 4 weeks (MD 46.90, 95% CI -144.60 to 238.41, p=0.63) and more than 4 weeks (MD -190.13, 95% CI -378.05 to -2.21, p=0.05) differences were insignificant. CONCLUSION Preoperative administration of dutasteride is able to reduce bleeding during TURP, as indicated by less reduction in Hb level, lower transfusion rate, and less operation time.
Dorsal Dartos Flap Prepared Before Urethroplasty, Less Bleeding of Operation: A New Perspective on Hypospadias
Turkish journal of urology. 2022;48(2):150-154
BACKGROUND The benefits of preparing the dorsal dartos flap before urethroplasty were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with coronal, subcoronal, and distal penile hypopadias without severe cordee who underwent surgical repair between October 2016 and September 2020 were included in the study. Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty technique was applied to all patients. The patients were divided into two groups: In Group 1, the dorsal dartos flap was prepared after urethroplasty, which is the commonly used technique today, and sutured on the neourethra. In Group 2, the dorsal dartos flap was prepared before the post-degloving urethroplasty. The amount of bleeding, the duration of the surgery, and the complications between the two groups were recorded and compared. RESULTS Twenty-two patients who could be followed up for at least 3 months were examined. There were 10 patients in Group 1 and 12 patients in Group 2. A statistically significant difference was found between the amount of bleeding of the operation in the two groups. Duration of operation, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, or glanular dehiscence were not observed in any patient. CONCLUSIONS Preparing the dorsal dartos flap, before urethroplasty significantly reduces the amount of bleeding. This may be a new modification alternative in hypospadias surgery.
Can high-dose tranexamic acid have a role during transurethral resection of the prostate in large prostates? A randomised controlled trial
Arab journal of urology. 2022;20(1):24-29
OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy and safety of high-dose tranexamic acid (TXA) during bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (B-TURP) in patients with large prostates compared to placebo. PATIENTS AND METHODS From February 2018 to May 2020, 204 patients with enlarged prostates of 80-130 g and in need of surgical intervention were randomised into two groups. Patients in Group A underwent B-TURP and received TXA as an intravenous loading dose of 50 mg/kg over 20 min before induction of anaesthesia followed by a maintenance infusion of 5 mg/kg/h until resection was completed. The patients in Group B (placebo) received a saline infusion of a similar volume. RESULTS There was highly significant drop in haemoglobin in the placebo group at 4- and 24-h postoperatively compared with the TXA group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the blood transfusion rate between the two groups with five patients (5.5%) in the placebo group and four (4.2%) in the TXA group requiring a transfusion (P = 0.74). The procedural time was significantly less in the TXA group vs the control group, at a mean (SD) of 79.93 (22.18) vs 90.91 (21.4) min (P = 0.001). Also, the intraoperative irrigation fluid volume and postoperative irrigation duration were significantly less in the TXA group vs the control group, at a mean (SD) of 19.21 (3.13) vs 23.05 (3.8) L and 14.75 (5.15) vs 18.33 (5.96) h, respectively (P = 0.001). Catheterisation and hospital stay durations were comparable between both groups (P = 0.384 and P = 0.388, respectively). No complications were recorded with use of high-dose TXA. CONCLUSION High-dose TXA was effective in controlling blood loss during B-TURP in patients with large prostates, with no adverse drug reactions.
Autologous platelet gel improves outcomes in tubularized incised plate repair of hypospadias
Journal of pediatric surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND hypospadias is one of the most widespread male congenital anomalies, occurring in 1:250 to 1:300 live births. Several repair techniques have been developing to improve the outcomes. PURPOSE a randomized prospective controlled study was adopted to evaluate effectiveness of autologous platelet gel in healing promotion and improving the outcomes of hypospadias repair. METHODS thirty children who aged between 6 months and 12 years were recruited and subdivided into two groups; group A had tubularized incised plate (TIP) repair with autologous platelet gel application and group B had TIP repair without autologous platelet gel. RESULTS there was no significant difference in duration of operation between both groups. All patients in groups A and B had slit-like meatus shape in the distal glans. While all those of group A had one urine stream, yet only 11 of group B had one. There were complications that happened exclusively in group B such as spray stream (27%) and fistula (20%). Whereas other complications occurred insignificantly more in group B than in A including meatal stenosis (53 versus 27%), glans dehiscence, (20 versus 7%), bleeding (33 versus 13%), infection (33 versus 27%), edema (27% versus13), respectively. The incidence of skin necrosis was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION autologous platelet gel usage in TIP hypospadias repair can be a reliable technique to promote wound healing, and to limit of postoperative surgical complications.
Efficacy of tranexamic acid in decreasing primary hemorrhage in transurethral resection of the prostate: A novel combination of intravenous and topical approach
Urology annals. 2021;13(3):238-242
BACKGROUND Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the gold standard for benign prostatic enlargement; however, hemorrhage still remains one of the major complications. OBJECTIVE The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing intraoperative blood loss and need for blood transfusion. Secondary parameters compared were operating time, volume of irrigation fluid used, and reduction in hemoglobin concentration. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A total of 70 eligible patients undergoing TURP were randomized based on computer generated table into two groups. The study group (1) received IV TXA 500 mg after induction of anesthesia and 500 mg in each irrigation fluid bottle (dual mode) and the control group (2) received none. RESULTS The mean age (68.20 vs. 66.5 years), prostate size (57 vs. 51 g), and preoperative hemoglobin (13.3 vs. 13.5 g/dl) were similar between the groups. Intraoperative blood loss in the TXA group was found to be significantly reduced (174.60 ± 125.38 ml vs. 232.47 ± 116.8; P = 0.04). Blood transfusion was required in 2.8% of cases as compared to 14.2% in controls. Operating time, volume of irrigation fluid, and postoperative reduction of hemoglobin were not significant between the groups. No complications were observed in both groups. CONCLUSION In this study, we observed that TXA, when used as a combination of Intravenous and topical route, effectively reduced intra-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion.
Efficacy of fibrin sealant as waterproof cover in improving outcome in hypospadias surgery
African journal of paediatric surgery : AJPS. 2021;18(4):215-218
BACKGROUND This prospective comparative study aims to assess the efficacy of fibrin sealant to improve outcomes in paediatric patients operated for hypospadias. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty consecutive patients with hypospadias were randomised into two groups of twenty patients each. The first group underwent hypospadias repair, technique depending on the type of hypospadias, whereas in the second group, fibrin sealant was used to reinforce the urethroplasty. Assessment was done with respect to the type of hypospadias, type of repair done, operative time, immediate post-operative complications (early ooze and skin flap-related complications), intermediate complications (urethra-cutaneous fistula) and delayed post-operative complications (penile torsion and poor cosmetic outcome) at follow-up. We also compared the overall improvement in outcome among the two groups. RESULTS First Group: The mean operative time was 1 h and 45 min. Complications were seen in nine patients: Early ooze (n = 2); skin flap-related complications (n = 3); fistula (n = 7); poor cosmetic outcome (n = 7) and penile torsion (n = 4). Second Group (Fibrin Sealant): The mean operative time was 1 h and 30 min. Post-operative complications were observed in five patients: Coronal fistula (n = 3) and poor cosmetic outcome (n = 3). On comparing, the differences in outcomes of ooze, skin flap-related complications and torsion were found to be statistically significant with P < 0.05. The differences in the urethra-cutaneous fistula and cosmetic appearance were not found to be statistically significant. The difference in overall improvement in complications was found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION Fibrin sealant, when applied over the urethroplasty suture line as a waterproof cover, may help to improve the outcome in patients with hypospadias.
The effects of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(7):7866-7873
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in prostate cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. METHODS A total of 87 patients with prostate cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomies in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into a control group (the CNG, n=43, conventional infusion) and an observation group (the OG, n=44, acute hypervolemic hemodilution). Blood gas analyses were performed at different time points, and the patients' cognitive dysfunction was evaluated. RESULTS The intraoperative blood transfusion rates of the OG and the CNG were 11.36% and 30.23%. The average intraoperative blood transfusions in the OG and the CNG were (315.46±24.49) ml and (486.95±42.17) ml (P < 0.05). The CVP and JVP levels in the OG and the CNG at T2 and T3 were significantly higher than the levels at T0 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels of the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T0 (P < 0.05), and the Hb level in the OG at T4 was lower than it was at T1 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels in the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T1 (P < 0.05), and the Hb levels in the OG at T1 and T2 were lower than they were in the CNG (P < 0.05). The MMSE cognitive function scores were lower than the scores recorded on the day before the operations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Acute hypervolemic hemodilution in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients can maintain their hemodynamics in a stable state, help reduce blood transfusion, improve the oxygen supply to the brain tissue to maintain the supply and demand balance, and reduce the impact on the patients' cognitive function.
A Modified Pressure Dressing to Avoid Severe Bleeding After Circumcision With a Disposable Circumcision Suture Device and a Discussion on the Mechanism of Bleeding With the Disposable Circumcision Suture Device
Sexual medicine. 2021;9(2):100288
INTRODUCTION A novel type of a disposable circumcision suture device (DCSD) has been proved to be effective and safe; however, a few cases of severe bleeding took place after circumcisions. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of a modified double-layer pressure dressing to avoid severe bleeding after circumcision with the DCSD, in our department in a prospective randomized controlled study, and discuss the mechanism of bleeding with DCSD. METHODS Patients with redundant foreskin or phimosis were included between September 2018 and November 2019 and divided into 2 groups: In group A, the conventional pressure dressing was performed; in group B, an modified double-layer pressure dressing was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The main outcomes and complications (surgical time, incidence of glans ischemia, severe bleeding rate, infection rate, pain level, total cost, and overall satisfaction) were collected and analyzed. RESULTS A total of 624 patients were recruited for this study. There was no difference in the average age and body mass index between 2 groups. No patient suffered obvious glans ischemia. In group B, lower pain level, lower incidences of severe bleeding, and better satisfaction were recorded. CONCLUSION The mechanism of bleeding with the DCSD was discussed in this study, and the modified pressure dressing was proved effective, safe, and easy to perform. W Jiang, J-li Fu, W-l Guo, et al. A Modified Pressure Dressing to Avoid Severe Bleeding After Circumcision With a Disposable Circumcision Suture Device and a Discussion on the Mechanism of Bleeding With the Disposable Circumcision Suture Device. Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.
Impact of perioperative blood transfusions on oncologic outcomes after radical cystectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies
Surgical oncology. 2021;38:101592
This study aimed at systematically analyzing and evaluating the impact of perioperative blood transfusions (PBT) on oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. This systematic review follows the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Interventions and was conducted in line with the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR II criteria. A comprehensive database search was performed based on the PICO criteria. Two independent reviewers performed all screening steps and quality assessment. Risk of bias and certainty in evidence were assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for non-randomized trials and the GRADE approach. Of 1123 identified studies 20 were eligible for qualitative analysis and 15 for quantitative analysis reporting on 21,915 patients. Receiving a PBT was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.29 [1.18, 1.40]; p < 0.001), cancer-specific mortality (HR [CI]: 1.27 [1.15; 1.41]; p < 0.001) and disease recurrence (HR [CI]: 1.22 [1.12; 1.34]; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis of transfusion timing revealed a significantly increased risk of mortality with intraoperative or combined intra- and postoperative transfusions compared to postoperative transfusion only for all three outcomes (p < 0.001). Leukocyte-depletion was associated with increased all-cause mortality, but not cancer-specific mortality. The administration of PBT negatively impacts oncological outcomes after radical cystectomy. Therefore, careful treatment indication and strict adherence to transfusion guidelines is encouraged in order to avoid adverse effects during the perioperative course.