Does the intramedullary femoral canal plug reduce blood loss during total knee arthroplasty?
Khanasuk Y, Ngarmukos S, Tanavalee A
Knee surgery & related research. 2022;34(1):31
INTRODUCTION The benefit of the femoral canal bone plug during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in reducing blood loss has never been proven. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether the femoral canal bone plug significantly reduces blood loss in primary TKA. METHOD All studies published before December 2021 were searched. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials comparing blood loss between TKA with plugged and unplugged femoral intramedullary canal, respectively. The primary outcome was postoperative hemoglobin reduction. RESULTS Five studies with a total of 717 patients (361 in the plugged group, 356 in the unplugged group) met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The mean difference in hemoglobin level between the two groups was 0.92 g/dL, with significantly less hemoglobin reduction in the plugged group (95% confidence interval [CI] - 1.64 to - 0.21, p = 0.01). The patients in the plugged group also had a significantly lower risk of receiving a blood transfusion (risk ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.47-0.73, p < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis demonstrates that using a femoral canal bone plug can significantly reduce blood loss and lower the risk ratio of blood transfusion in patients undergoing TKA.
Time to surgery and complications in hip fracture patients on novel oral anticoagulants: a systematic review
Cheung, Z. B., Xiao, R., Forsh, D. A.
Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. 2022;142(4):633-640
BACKGROUND Early surgery has been consistently demonstrated to reduce complications and mortality in hip fracture patients. There remains no general consensus, however, regarding the optimal time to surgery for hip fracture patients who are on novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) on admission and its effect on clinical outcomes after surgery. The objective of this review was to assess the effect of preoperative NOAC therapy on time to surgery and postoperative complications in hip fracture patients. METHODS We performed a systematic review of the literature using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library electronic databases. Relevant articles were identified and included if they: (i) included patients on NOAC therapy on admission who did not undergo reversal; (ii) included a control group of patients not on any anticoagulation; (iii) included time from admission to surgery; and (iv) included one of the following outcomes: blood transfusion, venous thromboembolism (VTE), stroke, readmission, and mortality. RESULTS Nine studies were included with a total of 4,419 patients. There were 414 NOAC patients and 4,005 non-anticoagulated patients. Six of the nine studies found a significant increase in time to surgery for patients on NOAC therapy. Three of the seven studies that reported rates of blood transfusion found a significantly higher incidence of transfusion in patients on NOACs. None of the studies found a significant difference in VTE and stroke. One of the two studies that reported readmissions showed a higher risk of readmission for patients on NOACs. Eight of the nine included studies found no significant difference in postoperative mortality rates between the NOAC and control groups, with the remaining study finding a higher mortality rate only in patients on NOAC therapy who underwent fixation and not those who underwent arthroplasty. CONCLUSIONS These mixed findings suggest that delay to surgery may not be warranted in the urgent surgical setting of patients on NOAC therapy who sustain hip fractures.
Methods of Quantifying Intraoperative Blood Loss in Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery: A Systematic Review
McKibben NS, Lindsay SE, Friess DM, Zusman NL, Working ZM
Journal of orthopaedic trauma. 2021
OBJECTIVES To collect and present recently published methods of quantifying blood loss in orthopaedic trauma. DATA SOURCES A systematic review of English-language literature in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines on articles describing methods of determining blood loss in orthopaedic trauma published since 2010. STUDY SELECTION English, full-text, peer-reviewed articles documenting intraoperative blood loss in an adult patient population undergoing orthopaedic trauma surgery were eligible for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION Two authors independently extracted data from included studies. Articles were assessed for quality and risk of bias using Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias and ROBINS-I. DATA SYNTHESIS The included studies proved to be heterogeneous in nature with insufficient data to make data pooling and analysis feasible. CONCLUSIONS Eleven methods were identified: 6 unique formulas with multiple variations, changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, measured suction volume and weighed surgical gauze, transfusion quantification, cell salvage volumes, and hematoma evacuation frequency. Formulas included those of Gross, Mercuriali, Lisander, Sehat, Foss, and Stahl, with Gross being the most common (25%). All formulas used blood volume estimation, determined by equations from Nadler (94%) or Moore (6%), and measure change in pre- and post-operative blood counts. This systematic review highlights the variability in blood loss estimation methods published in current orthopaedic trauma literature. Methods of quantifying blood loss should be taken into consideration when designing and evaluating research. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Diagnostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Spine Surgery and Preoperative Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, and Hemoglobin A1c: A Systematic Review
Suresh KV, Wang K, Sethi I, Zhang B, Margalit A, Puvanesarajah V, Jain A
Global spine journal. 2021;:2192568220979821
STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. OBJECTIVES Synthesize previous studies evaluating clinical utility of preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c in patients undergoing common spinal procedures: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), posterior cervical fusion (PCF), posterior lumbar fusion (PLF), and lumbar decompression (LD). METHODS We queried PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for literature on preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c and post-operative outcomes in adult patients undergoing ACDF, PCF, PLF, or LD surgeries. RESULTS Total of 4,307 publications were assessed. Twenty-one articles met inclusion criteria. PCF AND ACDF Decreased preoperative Hb/Hct were significant predictors of increased postoperative morbidity, including return to operating room, pulmonary complications, transfusions, and increased length of stay (LOS). For increased HbA1c, there was significant increase in risk of postoperative infection and cost of hospital stay. PLF: Decreased Hb/Hct was reported to be associated with increased risk of postoperative cardiac events, blood transfusion, and increased LOS. Elevated HbA1c was associated with increased risk of infection as well as higher visual analogue scores (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. LD: LOS and total episode of care cost were increased in patients with preoperative HbA1c elevation. CONCLUSION In adult patients undergoing spine surgery, preoperative Hb/Hct are clinically useful predictors for postoperative complications, transfusion rates, and LOS, and HbA1c is predictive for postoperative infection and functional outcomes. Using Hct values <35-38% and HbA1c >6.5%-6.9% for identifying patients at higher risk of postoperative complications is most supported by the literature. We recommend obtaining these labs as part of routine pre-operative risk stratification. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III.