Endovascular treatment and neurosurgical clipping in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review of economic evaluations
Journal of neurosurgical sciences. 2022
INTRODUCTION There are two treatment modalities for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: endovascular treatment and neurosurgical clipping. Results of economic evaluations are needed to gain insight into the relationship between clinical effectiveness and costs of these treatment modalities. This important information can inform both clinical decision-making processes and policymakers in facilitating Value-Based Healthcare. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION Databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, EBSCO, and Web of Science) were searched for studies published until October 2020 that had performed economic evaluations in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients by comparing endovascular treatment with neurosurgical clipping. The quality of reporting and methodology of these evaluations was assessed using the associated instruments (i.e. CHEERS statement and CHEC-list, respectively). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS A total of six studies met the inclusion criteria. All included studies reported both effects and costs, however five did not relate effects to costs. Only one study related effects directly to costs, thus conducted a full economic evaluation. The reporting quality scored 81% and the methodological quality scored 30%. CONCLUSIONS The quality of published cost-effectiveness studies on the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is poor. Six studies reported both outcomes and costs, however only one study performed a full economic evaluation comparing endovascular treatment to neurosurgical clipping. Although the reporting quality was sufficient, the methodological quality was poor. Further research that relates health-related quality of life measures to costs of endovascular treatment and neurosurgical clipping is required-specifically focusing on both reporting and methodological quality. Different subgroup analyses and modeling could also enhance the findings.
A cost-utility analysis comparing endovascular coiling to neurosurgical clipping in the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage
Neurosurgical review. 2022
Endovascular coiling (EC) has been identified in systematic reviews and meta-analyses to produce more favourable clinical outcomes in comparison to neurosurgical clipping (NC) when surgically treating a subarachnoid haemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm. Cost-effectiveness analyses between both interventions have been done, but no cost-utility analysis has yet been published. This systematic review aims to perform an economic analysis of the relative utility outcomes and costs from both treatments in the UK. A cost-utility analysis was performed from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS), over a 1-year analytic horizon. Outcomes were obtained from the randomised International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) and measured in terms of the patient's modified Rankin scale (mRS) grade, a 6-point disability scale that aims to quantify a patient's functional outcome following a stroke. The mRS score was weighted against the Euro-QoL 5-dimension (EQ-5D), with each state assigned a weighted utility value which was then converted into quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). A sensitivity analysis using different utility dimensions was performed to identify any variation in incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) if different input variables were used. Costs were measured in pounds sterling (£) and discounted by 3.5% to 2020/2021 prices. The cost-utility analysis showed an ICER of - £144,004 incurred for every QALY gained when EC was utilised over NC. At NICE's upper willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of £30,000, EC offered a monetary net benefit (MNB) of £7934.63 and health net benefit (HNB) of 0.264 higher than NC. At NICE's lower WTP threshold of £20,000, EC offered an MNB of £7478.63 and HNB of 0.374 higher than NC. EC was found to be more 'cost-effective' than NC, with an ICER in the bottom right quadrant of the cost-effectiveness plane-indicating that it offers greater benefits at lower costs. This is supported by the ICER being below the NICE's threshold of £20,000-£30,000 per QALY, and both MNB and HNB having positive values (> 0).
Economic and Humanistic Burden of Cerebral Vasospasm and Its Related Complications after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Literature Review
Neurology and therapy. 2022
INTRODUCTION Cerebral vasospasm (VSP) is the leading risk factor of neurological deterioration (i.e., delayed cerebral ischemia [DCI] and cerebral infarction) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and a cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this systematic literature review is to summarize the economic and humanistic burden of VSP and its related complications after aSAH. METHODS A predefined protocol was designed, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Systematic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane (in January 2021) to identify studies reporting economic and/or humanistic (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL]) outcomes for patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic VSP after aSAH. Related conferences and additional sources were searched manually. Dual screening, data extraction, and qualitative analysis were conducted. RESULTS Of 3818 abstracts identified for review, 43 full-text articles representing 42 single studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Most studies (33) were observational; nine were randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Economic outcomes were reported in 31 studies, and alongside HRQoL outcomes in 4 studies; 7 studies reported HRQoL outcomes only. Forty studies were conducted in single countries, while only 2 RCTs were conducted in multiple countries. Patients diagnosed with VSP or DCI spent between 2.1 and 7.4 days longer in intensive care and between 4.7 and 17 days longer in hospital (total) compared with patients without VSP or DCI. A significantly higher cost burden of US$33,945 (2021 £26,712) was identified for patients with VSP and £9370 (2021 £13,733) for patients with DCI compared with patients without. Patients with DCI were also disadvantaged by being employed for 62 fewer days (during 24-month follow-up), with an estimated mean cost of £3821 (2021 £5600) for days off work. Poor HRQoL was associated with ≥ 1 days with VSP symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-5.3), symptomatic VSP (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.6), and DCI (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2), although this was not consistent across all studies. Symptomatic VSP and DCI were identified as significant risk factors for depressed mood (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.9) and global cognitive impairment (OR: 2.3) at 12 months, respectively. The severity of VSP was a critical predictor of post-aSAH economic and humanistic burden. Similar trends in economic and humanistic burden were identified in the general aSAH patient population. Study design and patient heterogeneity precluded direct metaanalysis of the results. CONCLUSION A substantial direct and indirect economic burden is linked to VSP and its related complications after aSAH. Although limited evidence was identified for humanistic burden, these patients seem to suffer from poor HRQoL with long-lasting burden. Overall, there is an urgent need to understand better the concept of "burden of illness" of VSP and its related complications after aSAH. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a sudden, life-threatening emergency caused by bleeding in the subarachnoid space between the brain and skull. Vasospasm of the arteries surrounding the hemorrhage occurs in most patients and may lead to permanent brain damage. This study summarizes the published literature to describe the burden that patients may experience due to vasospasm and its related complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, focusing on financial and life quality aspects. We show that the burden of vasospasm, and its related complications, is huge. Patients often experience reduced quality of life due to their poor health and are more likely to suffer from depression and intellectual impairment. There is also a substantial financial burden linked to vasospasm and its related complications, driven by the need for more intensive care, hospitalization, and higher investigative costs associated with the treatment and management of these patients. In addition, days off work and unemployment can cause a substantial indirect financial burden. Our study highlights the need for additional research to understand further the “burden of illness” of vasospasm and its related complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. eng
Systematic Review of Resource Utilization and Costs in the Hospital Management of Intracerebral Hemorrhage
World neurosurgery. 2022
BACKGROUND While clinical guidelines provide a framework for hospital management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), variation in the resource utilization and costs of these services exist. OBJECTIVES Perform a systematic literature review to assess the evidence on hospital resource utilization and costs associated with management of adult ICH patients, as well as identify factors that impact variation in such hospital resource utilization and costs, regarding clinical characteristics and delivery of services. METHODS A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Ovid MEDLINE(R) 1946 to Present. Articles were assessed against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study design, ICH sample size, population, setting, objective, hospital characteristics, hospital resource utilization and cost data, and main study findings were abstracted. RESULTS 43 studies met the inclusion criteria. Pertinent clinical characteristics that increased hospital resource use included presence of comorbidities and baseline ICH severity. Aspects of service delivery that greatly impacted hospital resource consumption included ICU length of stay and performance of surgical procedures and intensive care procedures. CONCLUSION Hospital resource utilization and costs for ICH patients were high and differed widely across studies. Making concrete conclusions on hospital resources and costs for ICH care was constrained given methodological and patient variation in the studies. Future research should evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of ICH treatment interventions and use specific economic evaluation guidelines and common data elements to mitigate study variation.
Medical and Non-medical Costs of Sickle Cell Disease and Treatments from a US Perspective: A Systematic Review and Landscape Analysis
PharmacoEconomics - open. 2022
BACKGROUND Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a complex genetic disorder that manifests in infancy and progresses throughout life in the form of acute and chronic complications. As the upfront costs of potentially curative, genetic therapies will likely be high, an assessment and comprehensive characterization of the medical and non-medical cost burden will inform future decision making. OBJECTIVE We sought to systematically summarize the existing literature surrounding SCD medical and non-medical costs. METHODS We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (2008-2020) and identified US-based studies that detailed medical or non-medical costs. Eligible studies provided empirical estimates about any aspect of cost or SCD individuals of all ages and their caregivers. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and costs were adjusted to 2019 US$. RESULTS Search queries returned 479 studies, with 342 from medical burden searches and 137 from non-medical burden searches, respectively. Herein, we report the results of the 40 studies that contained relevant cost information: 39 detailed medical costs and 1 detailed non-medical costs. Costs were higher for SCD patients when compared with non-SCD individuals (cost difference range: $6636-$63,436 annually). The highest medical cost component for SCD patients was inpatient ($11,978-$59,851 annually), followed by outpatient and then pharmacy. No studies characterized the cost burden throughout the lifetime disease trajectory of an SCD individual, and no studies captured caregiver or productivity costs. CONCLUSION Our results reveal an incomplete characterization of medical and non-medical costs within SCD. A deeper understanding of the medical and non-medical cost burden requires completion of additional studies that capture the burden across the patient's lifetime, in addition to expression of the impact of existing and emergent health technologies on disease trajectory.
Economic Analyses of Pathogen-Reduction Technologies in Blood Transfusion: A Systematic Literature Review
Applied health economics and health policy. 2021
BACKGROUND Technologies used in the processing of whole blood and blood component products, including pathogen reduction, are continuously being adopted into blood transfusion workflows to improve process efficiencies. However, the economic implications of these technologies are not well understood. With the advent of these new technologies and regulatory guidance on bacterial risk-control strategies, an updated systematic literature review on this topic was warranted. OBJECTIVE The objective of this systematic literature review was to summarize the current literature on the economic analyses of pathogen-reduction technologies (PRTs). METHODS A systematic literature review was conducted using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines to identify newly published articles in PubMed, MEDLINE Complete, and EconLit from 1 January 2000 to 17 July 2019 related to economic evaluations of PRTs. Only full-text studies in humans published in English were included in the review. Both budget-impact and cost-effectiveness studies were included; common outcomes included cost, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). RESULTS The initial searches identified 433 original abstracts, of which 16 articles were included in the final data extraction and reporting. Seven articles presented cost-effectiveness analyses and nine assessed budget impact. The introduction of PRT increased overall costs, and ICER values ranged widely across cost-effectiveness studies, from below $US150,000/QALY to upwards of $US20,000,000/QALY. This wide range of results was due to a multitude of factors, including comparator selection, target patient population, and scenario analyses included. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the results of economic evaluations of bacterial risk-control strategies, regardless of mechanism, were highly dependent on the current screening protocols in place. The optimization of blood transfusion safety may not result in decisions made at the willingness-to-pay thresholds commonly seen in pharmaceutical evaluations. Given the critical public health role of blood products, and the potential safety benefits introduced by advancements, it is important to continue building this body of evidence with more transparency and data source heterogeneity. This updated literature review provides global context when making local decisions for the coverage of new and emerging bacterial risk-control strategies.
Whole blood and blood component products (16 studies).
Systematic review to summarize the current literature on the economic implications of pathogen-reduction technologies (PRTs).
The introduction of PRT increased overall costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios values ranged widely across cost-effectiveness studies, from below $US150,000/quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), to upwards of $US20,000,000/QALY. This wide range of results was due to a multitude of factors, including comparator selection, target patient population, and scenario analyses.
The Use of Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Sickle Cell Disease: A Critical Review of the Literature
Novel interventions for sickle cell disease (SCD) bring hope to patients, yet concern about the associated economic costs exists. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) uses standardized methods, with robust underpinnings in health economics, to estimate the value of these interventions compared with usual care. However, because of the complexity and lifetime trajectory of SCD, CEAs are challenging to conduct. The objectives of this rapid review were to summarize the main characteristics, components, and results of published CEAs of existing interventions for SCD, identify research gaps, and provide directions for future analyses. We identified records through searches of bibliographic databases, from reference lists of relevant review articles, and through consultation with experts. A total of 13 CEAs met our inclusion criteria and were qualitatively synthesized. These evaluated blood transfusions (n = 2), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n = 1), pharmaceuticals (n = 2), hypothetical cell or genetic therapy (n = 1), screening programs (n = 4), and interventions for SCD treatment complications (n = 3). A limited number of potential SCD and treatment complications were evaluated. No study adopted a societal perspective in the base case, six studies examined lifetime cost-effectiveness, seven studies employed a Markov or discrete-event simulation model, and eight studies used an outcome metric that captured both quality and length of life. To better compare the value of emerging and current therapies, future CEAs should adopt a societal perspective incorporating both medical and nonmedical costs, comprehensively model SCD complexity using robust health economic simulation models over the patient's entire lifespan, and capture the intervention's effect on both survival and quality of life.
The cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid for treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2021
BACKGROUND Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is responsible for nearly one quarter of maternal deaths. A 2017 multicountry trial found that incorporating tranexamic acid (TXA) into the PPH management package was effective in reducing maternal death due to bleeding. OBJECTIVE To systematically review studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid for PPH treatment. SEARCH STRATEGY Nine databases were searched using variations of keywords 'tranexamic acid', 'postpartum hemorrhage' and 'cost effectiveness'. SELECTION CRITERIA Eligible studies were any type of economic or effectiveness evaluation studies on tranexamic acid for treating women with PPH. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two reviewers independently screened citations and extracted data on cost effectiveness measures. Quality was assessed using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list. MAIN RESULTS Four studies were included, of which two were abstracts. Three studies concluded that early administration of TXA was cost-saving or cost-effective. One abstract reported TXA was not cost-effective in the USA unless the probability of death due to hemorrhage is higher. CONCLUSION Available evidence (four studies in three countries) suggests that this life-saving intervention may be below willingness to pay thresholds (cost-effective) or cost saving. Further studies conducted in different populations and settings are needed to inform health policy decision-making to reduce PPH-associated morbidity and mortality.
Women with post-partum haemorrhage (PPH), (4 studies).
Systematic review assessing the cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) for PPH treatment.
Three studies concluded that early administration of TXA was cost-saving or cost-effective. One abstract reported TXA was not cost-effective in the USA unless the probability of death due to haemorrhage was higher.
Review of Health Economics of Point-of-Care Testing Worldwide and Its Efficacy of Implementation in the Primary Health Care Setting in Remote Australia
Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2020;13:379-386
There are important differences concerning health outcomes between the Australian population living in rural/remote regions and the urban population. Health care provision in remote areas, particularly in regions with a low number of inhabitants, is not without challenges. Aboriginal, rural and remote communities are therefore affected, as they face various obstacles in accessing health services, owing to geographical settings, difficulties in transportation to nearby hospitals, limited or inexistent local qualified personnel. The implementation of point-of-care testing could be a plausible solution to these challenges, as various point-of-care services that have been successfully put into action worldwide indicate towards positive clinical outcomes. Point-of-care units have a real potential in reducing morbidity and mortality in all population groups. This article aims to review the published literature on point-of-care testing around the world, with a focus on health economics and the feasibility of its implementation in Australian rural and remote regions.
Cost-utility of new film-coated tablet formulation of deferasirox vs deferoxamine among major beta-thalassemia patients in Iran
Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(28):e20949
OBJECTIVES Thalassemia is a hereditary disease, which caused economic burden in developing countries. This study evaluated the cost utility of new formulation of deferasirox (Jadenu) vs deferoxamine (Desferal) among B-Thalassemia-major patients from payer perspective in Iran. METHODS An economic-evaluation through Markov model was performed. A systematic review was conducted in order to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of comparators. Because of chelating therapy is weight-dependent, patients were assumed to be 2 years-old at initiation in first and 18 years-old in second scenario, and model was estimated lifetime costs and utilities. Costs were calculated to the Iran healthcare system through payer perspective and measured effectiveness using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). One-way sensitivity analysis and budget impact analysis was also employed. RESULTS The 381 studies were retrieved from systematic searching through databases. After eliminating duplicate and irrelevant studies, 2 studies selected for evaluating the effectiveness. Jadenu was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 1470.6 and 2544.7 US$ vs Desferal in first and second scenario respectively. The estimated ICER for Jadenu compared to generic deferoxamine was 2837.0 and 6924.1 US$ for first and second scenario respectively. For all scenarios Jadenu is presumed as cost-effective option based on calculated ICER which was lower than 1 gross domestic product per capita in Iran. Sensitivity analysis showed that different parameters except discount rate and indirect cost did not have impact on results. Based on budget impact analysis the estimated cost for patients using Desferal (based on the market share of brand) was 44,021,478 US$ in 3 years vs 42,452,606 US$ in replacing 33% of brand market share with Jadenu. This replacement corresponded to the cost saving of almost 1,568,872 US$ for the payers in 3 years. The calculated cost of using generic deferoxamine in all patients was 68,948,392 US$. The increase in the cost of using Jadenu for 10% of all patients in this scenario would be 934,427 US$ (1.36%) US$ at the first year. CONCLUSIONS Based on this analysis, film-coated deferasirox appeared to be cost-effective treatment in comparison with Desferal for managing child and adult chronic iron overload in B-thalassemia major patients of Iran.