Impact of disasters on blood donation rates and blood safety: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Vox sanguinis. 2022
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Timely and adequate access to safe blood forms an integral part of universal health coverage, but it may be compromised by natural or man-made disasters. This systematic review provides MATERIALS AND METHODS Five databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and CINAHL) were searched until 27 March 2020 for (un)controlled studies investigating the impact of disasters on blood donation rates and/or safety. Risk of bias and overall certainty of the evidence were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS Eighteen observational studies were identified, providing very low certainty of evidence (due to high risk of bias, inconsistency and/or imprecision) on the impact of natural (12 studies) and man-made/technological (6 studies) disasters. The available evidence did not enable us to form any generalizable conclusions on the impact on blood donation rates. Meta-analyses could not detect any statistically significant changes in transfusion-transmissible infection (TTI) rates [hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1/2, human T-lymphotropic virus I and II (HTLV-I/II) and syphilis] in donated blood after a disaster, either in first-time or repeat donors, although the evidence is very uncertain. CONCLUSION The very low certainty of evidence synthetized in this systematic review indicates that it is very uncertain whether there is an association between disaster occurrence and changes in TTI rates in donated blood. The currently available evidence did not allow us to draw generalizable conclusions on the impact of disasters on blood donation rates.
Increased prevalence of transfusion-transmitted diseases among people with tattoos: A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2022;17(1):e0262990
Whether having a tattoo increases the risk of transfusion-transmitted diseases (TTDs) is controversial. Although a few studies have suggested a strong association between having tattoos and TTDs, other studies have not shown the significance of the association. In addition, previous studies mainly focused only on hepatitis C viral infections. The objective of our study was to identify the prevalence and risk of TTDs in people with tattoos as compared with the non-tattooed population. A systematic review of the studies published before January 22, 2021, was performed using the Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Observational studies on hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis infections in people with and without tattoos were included. Studies that reported disease status without serological confirmation were excluded. A total of 121 studies were quantitatively analyzed. HCV (odds ratio [OR], 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.76), HBV (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.31-1.83), and HIV infections (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 2.34-5.39) were more prevalent in the tattooed population. In subgroup analyses, the prevalence of HCV infection was significantly elevated in the general population, hospital patient, blood donor, intravenous (IV) drug user, and prisoner groups. IV drug users and prisoners showed high prevalence rates of HBV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection was significantly increased in the general population and prisoner groups. Having a tattoo is associated with an increased prevalence of TTDs. Our approach clarifies in-depth and supports a guideline for TTD screening in the tattooed population.
Molecular and serological markers of human parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Asian journal of transfusion science. 2021;15(2):212-222
BACKGROUND Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is one of the blood-borne viruses. The virus can be transmitted to susceptible individuals by blood or blood products. The virus is not associated with significant disease in general population, while people with underlying problems such as immunodeficiency can cause anemia and arthritis. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the overall prevalence of B19V DNA, anti-B19V IgG, and anti-B19V IgM antibodies in blood donors worldwide. METHODS A systematic search was carried out in online databases for relevant studies from inception until March 30, 2019. Study selection was performed based on predesigned eligibility criteria. The proportion of B19V DNA, anti-B19V IgG, and anti-B19V IgM antibodies were pooled using the inverse variance method. All statistical analyses were performed using the R version 3.5.3, package "meta." RESULTS According to the random-effects model, the pool prevalence of B19V DNA, anti-B19V IgM, and anti-B19V IgG among blood donors was calculated to be 0.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.3%-0.6%), 2.2% (95% CI = 1.3%-3.7%), and 50.1% (95% CI = 43.1%-57.1%), respectively. CONCLUSION For the transmission of B19V through blood, the presence of the virus genome is required, and the present study showed that the prevalence of the virus genome in blood donors is <1%. Therefore, there is no need to screen donated blood for B19V infection.
Seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC infectious diseases. 2021;21(1):131
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. Hepatitis C viral infection is one of the most common causes of transfusion-related hepatitis. Subsequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS PubMed, Google Scholar, Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and Cochrane library, the web of science, African journal of online (AJOL), and Google Scholar was searched. The data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and analyzed by using STATA version 14. Publication bias was checked by funnel plot, contour-enhanced funnel plots, trim and fill analysis and more objectively through Egger's regression test, with P < 0.05 considered to indicate potential publication bias. The heterogeneity of studies was checked using I2 statistics. Pooled analysis was conducted using a weighted inverse variance random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was done by region and study period. A sensitivity analysis was employed. RESULT A total of 25 studies with 197,172 study participants were used to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus among blood donors. The overall seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus was 0.819% (95% CI: 0.67-0.969; I2 = 92.3%). Regional sub-group analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors found to be 0.563% in Somali, 1.08% in Oromia, 0.847% in Amhara, and 0.908% in south nations nationalities and peoples region. CONCLUSION The pooled seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia found to be low. Moreover, there should be systematic strategies that enhance donor screening and retention of safe regular donors.
Back to base pairs: What is the genetic risk for red bloodcell alloimmunization?
Blood reviews. 2021;:100794
Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a serious complication of blood transfusions, challenging selection of compatible units for future transfusions. Genetic characteristics may be associated with the risk of RBC alloimmunization and may therefore serve to identify high-risk patients. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available evidence on genetic risk factors for RBC alloimmunization. Electronic databases were searched up to April 2020 for studies (Search terms included transfusion, alloimmunization and genetic). A total of 2581 alloimmunized cases and 26,558 controls were derived from 24 studies. The alleles that were most frequently studied and that demonstrated significant associations in a meta-analysis with alloimmunization to the Duffy(a) antigen were HLA-DRB1*04 (Odds Ratio 7.80 (95%CI 4.57-13.33)), HLA-DRB1*15 (OR 3.76 (95%CI 2.14-6.59)), and HLA-DRB1*03 (OR 0.12 (95%CI 0.05-0.29)). Furthermore, significant associations with anti-K formation was found for the alleles HLA-DRB1*10 (OR 2.64 (95%CI 1.41-4.95)), HLA*DRB1*11 (OR 2.11, (95%CI 1.34-3.32)), and HLA-DRB1*13 (OR 1.71 (95%CI 1.26-2.33)). Overall, the available evidence was of moderate to low quality, hampering interpretation of reported results. There is an urgent need for high quality evidence on genetic risk factors for RBC alloimmunization.
Sero-epidemiology and associated factors of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis among blood donors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC infectious diseases. 2021;21(1):778
BACKGROUND Transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) remain a major public health problem in developing countries including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, comprehensive information about sero-epidemiology of major TTIs is lacking at the national level. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed at providing the pooled estimate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS Relevant studies published until May 31, 2019 were searched through PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS, HINARI, Cochrane database library, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Google. The methodological quality of articles was assessed using Joanna Brigg's Institute critical appraisal checklist for prevalence and analytical studies. The pooled sero-epidemiology of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis were determined using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using the I(2) statistics. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger's statistics. RESULTS A total of 7921 articles were retrieved, and 7798 were screened for eligibility after duplicates removed. Forty-nine full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; of which 45 were eligible for qualitative and quantitative synthesis: categorized as 36, 34, 31 and 23 studies for estimations of HBV, HIV, HCV and syphilis, respectively. In the random-effects model, the pooled sero-epidemiology of HBV, HIV, HCV and syphilis was 5.20, 2.83, 0.93 and 1.50%, respectively. Moreover, being a male blood donor was significantly associated with HBV and syphilis infection, whereas being a replacement blood donor was significantly associated with a high burden of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. CONCLUSION The pooled sero-epidemiology of major TTIs among blood donors was high. Therefore, there is a need to design prevention and control strategies in a comprehensive approach to reduce the burden.
ABO blood groups and risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Reviews in medical virology. 2021;:e2298
The last few decades have seen a pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. ABO blood groups are anthropological and genetic characteristics of a population whose associations with HIV infection are still controversial. This systematic review with meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate whether certain blood groups may have associations with HIV infection. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were systematically searched as of 6 September 2021. Grey literature was identified through screening Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant studies. All observational studies providing data on ABO blood group distribution among HIV-infected and uninfected participants were included. Using a random effect model, risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to quantify this relationship. Fifty eligible studies with a total of 3,068,244 participants and 6508 HIV-infected cases were included. The overall analysis found that blood group AB increased the risk of HIV infection by 19% as compared with non-AB blood groups (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03-1.39, p = 0.02). Pooled estimates for other blood groups failed to reach statistical significance. Subgroup analyses identified a positive relationship between AB blood group and HIV infection within Asia, patient populations (as opposed to blood donors and general populations), studies with lower sample sizes, high-income countries and studies with a moderate quality score. The sequential omission and re-analysis of studies within sensitivity analyses produced no change in the overall pooled effect. In conclusion, this study identified that blood group AB carriers were more susceptible to HIV infection. Future investigations should be directed toward clarification of the exact role of ABO blood groups in HIV infection and the possible underlying mechanisms.
The Order of Draw during Blood Collection: A Systematic Literature Review
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18(4)
Blood collection is one of the most common nursing procedures and is not devoid of complications. The order of draw during blood collection is a controversial theme. We aimed to define the efficacy of the order of draw during blood collection to guarantee an exact biochemical result. We carried out a systematic literature review on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Embase, Joanna Briggs Institute, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Articles written in English and published from 2000 to 2020 were considered suitable. The analysis of the 11 articles included highlighted different opinions; however, the most recent evidence declares that the cross-contamination caused by the incorrect order of draw is a trait only in the open system of drawing. The most recent evidence affirms the negligible effect of the order of draw during blood collection when using the closed blood collection system, while it is recommended when using the open collection system.
Knowledge of blood donation and associated factors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMJ open. 2021;11(7):e044343
OBJECTIVE To assess the level of knowledge about blood donation and associated factors in Ethiopia. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS Both published and unpublished cross-sectional studies on the level of knowledge about blood donation in Ethiopia were included. Articles from different databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE, HINARI, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and African Journals Online were searched. Cochrane I(2) statistics were used to check for heterogeneity. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses of evidence of heterogeneity were carried out. Egger's test with funnel plot was conducted to investigate publication bias. RESULT Twenty cross-sectional studies with a total of 8338 study participants (4712 men and 3626 women) were included. The overall nationwide level of knowledge about blood donation was 56.57% (95% CI 50.30 to 62.84). Being in secondary school and above (adjusted OR=3.12; 95% CI 2.34 to 4.16) and being male (adjusted OR=1.81; 95% CI 1.44 to 2.28) were the factors associated with level of knowledge about blood donation. CONCLUSION More than half of the study participants were knowledgeable about blood donation. Sex and educational status were the factors significantly associated with level of knowledge about blood donation in Ethiopia. Therefore, there is a need for education and dissemination of information about blood donation among the general population to build adequate knowledge and maintain regular blood supply.
Men and women living in Ethiopia (20 studies, n= 8,338).
Systematic review to assess the level of knowledge about blood donation and associated factors in Ethiopia.
The overall nationwide level of knowledge about blood donation was 56.57%. Being in secondary school and above and being male were the factors associated with level of knowledge about blood donation.
Prevalence of Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses in blood donors: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis
Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue. 2021
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion centres should understand the epidemiology of emerging diseases that are transmissible through the transfusion of blood components. The risk of transmission of arboviruses through this route has become apparent in recent years. The aim of our study is to summarise the reported prevalence (viraemic rate, seroprevalence and/or antigen detection) of Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in blood donors according to screening test used and world region. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis having searched for information in the main bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus). The prevalence for each of the viruses was calculated according to the screening test used and geographic location. RESULTS We included 18 records on CHIKV, 71 on DENV, and 27 on ZIKV. The highest prevalences of RNA for CHIKV were 1.9% in Puerto Rico (2014), 1.0% in Thailand (2009), and 1.0% in French Polynesia (2014-15). The highest prevalences of RNA for DENV were 5.5% in Saudi Arabia (2015-16), 2.3% in Madeira, Portugal (2012-13), and 0.6% in Brazil (2012). The highest prevalences of RNA for ZIKV were 2.8% in French Polynesia (2013-14), 2.7% in Brazil (2015-16), and 1.8% in Martinique (2016). Overall seroprevalence, as assessed by IgG antibodies, was 21.6% for CHIKV, 24.0% for DENV, and 5.1% for ZIKV. DISCUSSION Our study shows a high proportion of donors who are viraemic and asymptomatic, especially during outbreaks, with prevalences surpassing 5% for DENV, 1% for CHIKV, and 2% for ZIKV. These data confirm a clear threat to blood transfusion safety. The elevated seroprevalence for these three arboviruses is also indicative of their wide circulation in populations, correlating with an increased risk of infected but asymptomatic donors. Health centres and institutions must address this threat, especially in tropical regions where the biggest outbreaks occur.