Fibrin sealant versus sutures in periodontal surgery: A systematic review
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2022;76:103539
BACKGROUND The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of fibrin sealant compared to sutures in periodontal surgery. METHODS Five electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, Cochrane and Web of Science) were screened from initiation to January 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing fibrin sealant to sutures in periodontal surgery using this search equation: (Periodont* OR Periodontitis) AND ("fibrin tissue adhesive" OR "fibrin glue" OR "fibrin sealant" OR "fibrin sealant system" OR "fibrin adhesive system" OR "fibrin fibronectin sealant system"). Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using the revised tool to assess risk of bias in randomized trials (RoB 2). The level of evidence was evaluated using the GRADE tool. RESULTS A total of 240 publications were found as search results in the screened databases. Four RCTs were included in this systematic review based on predetermined inclusion criteria. The trials were published between 1987 and 2014. All the RCTs compared fibrin sealant to sutures in periodontal surgery. The sample size included 101 patients. The overall risk of bias in this systematic review was at high risk in 75% of the studies, while 25% of the studies raised some concerns. The level of evidence evaluated using GRADE tool was very low. DISCUSSION The current systematic review indicates a low level of evidence of the use of fibrin sealant as an alternative to sutures in periodontal practice. More interventional and multicentric studies should be conducted to support and confirm the results of the included studies.
Efficacy of hemostatic agents in endodontic surgery: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
The journal of evidence-based dental practice. 2021;21(3):101540
OBJECTIVE Adequate hemostasis is a critical step in endodontic surgery. It facilitates the procedure and affects the success and prognosis of the operation. This systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) aimed to systematically assess the efficacy of hemostatic agents in endodontic surgery and to identify the most effective ones. METHODS PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost databases were searched up to December 2020. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of different hemostatic measures in endodontic surgery, and their risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane's randomized trial tool (RoB 2.0). Frequentist network meta-analysis was conducted, with Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) as effect estimates using the "netmeta" package in R. The quality of evidence was assessed using the CINeMA approach. RESULTS Six RCTs involving 353 patients (mean age 48.12 y) were included. NMA revealed that aluminum chloride achieved higher hemostatic efficacy than epinephrine (OR = 2.55, 95% CI [1.41, 4.64]), while there was non-significant difference when compared with PTFE strips + epinephrine (OR = 1.00, 95% CI [0.35, 2.90]), electrocauterization (OR = 2.67, 95% CI [0.84, 8.46]), or ferric sulfate (OR = 8.65, 95% CI [0.31, 240.92]). Of all hemostatic agents, aluminum chloride ranked first in control bleeding during endodontic surgery (P-score = 0.84), followed by PTFE strips + epinephrine (P-score = 0.80), electrocauterization (P-score = 0.34), epinephrine (P-score = 0.34), ferric sulfate (P-score = 0.18). The quality of evidence was very low. CONCLUSIONS Based on the limited data, aluminum chloride provides better hemostasis than epinephrine, while there was no significant difference between the remaining hemostatic agents used in endodontic surgery, which could help clinicians choose the hemostatic agent that achieves adequate hemostasis. achieve adequate hemostasis. Given insufficient evidence, future RCTs addressing this evidence gap are required.
"Signs and Symptoms Tell All"-Pseudoaneurysm as a Cause of Postoperative Bleeding after Orthognathic Surgery-Report of a Case and a Systematic Review of Literature
Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery. 2021;20(3):345-355
PURPOSE Pseudoaneurysms are one of the rare complications that can be encountered after the orthognathic surgery. We are presenting a new case of pseudoaneurysm of bilateral sphenopalatine artery after Bijaw Surgery in a young male and a systematic review of all the cases in the literature emphasizing on signs and symptoms, epistaxis or bleeding episodes and treatment outcomes. METHODS A systematic research strategy was planned according to the PRISMA guidelines, and articles were taken from 1986 to September, 2019. A total of 899 articles were selected for screening, out of which only 26 articles met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. These were included in the study for qualitative analysis. RESULTS Most PAs were associated with Lefort I osteotomy (69.7%), followed by sagittal split osteotomy (24.24%). Average intraoperative blood was 635 ml. Maximum number of episodes of epistaxis/swelling or bleeding occurred in second week. Mean bleeding episodes were 2.58 ± 0.996. The arteries commonly affected were internal maxillary artery (42%), sphenopalatine artery (27.27%), facial artery (15.15%), descending palatine artery (12.12%), internal carotid artery (9.09%) and infraorbital artery (3.03%). Embolization was treatment of choice in 81.81% cases. CONCLUSION If a patient has recurrent epistaxis or swelling after orthognathic surgery, it is advisable to go for diagnostic imaging like angiography without any delay. In recent times, advanced techniques and expertise are readily available for early diagnosis and management of pseudoaneurysm.
Complications and Management of Patients with Inherited Bleeding Disorders During Dental Extractions: a Systematic Literature Review
Journal of oral & maxillofacial research. 2021;12(2):e1
OBJECTIVES The systematic literature review aims to assess patients' dental extraction with inherited bleeding disorders, to understand the type, dosage, and modality of administration of the haemostatic agents for safe intra- and postoperational results. MATERIAL AND METHODS The search was undertaken in MEDLINE (PubMed) databases and Cochrane library for articles published in English from 1 January, 2010 till 31 October, 2020. Before the full-text articles were considered, titles and abstracts were screened. RESULTS A total of 78 articles were screened, from which 3 met the necessary criteria and were used for the review. Minor complications, such as postoperative bleedings from the socket and epistaxis, were observed, but they were resolved with proper medical care. No major fatal complications were reported. Generally, all the articles provided evidence of successful extractions with correct treatment plans made by haematologists and surgeons. CONCLUSIONS Available clinical trials demonstrate that local and systemic haemostatic therapies in combination are effective in preventing bleeding during dental extractions in patients with coagulopathies.
Tranexamic Acid in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
Facial plastic surgery & aesthetic medicine. 2021
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss and decreasing surgery duration in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Methods: The literature was searched systematically for all comparative studies of the effect of TXA on craniomaxillofacial surgery with placebo to evaluate the efficacy of TXA in craniomaxillofacial surgery. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss, and secondary outcomes were postoperative hematocrit, postoperative hemoglobin, and operation duration. Results: This systematic review included 16 studies consisting of 958 patients. Meta-analysis revealed that compared with the placebo group, the TXA group showed a significant reduction in intraoperative blood loss of 139.81 mL (95% confidence interval, CI: -179.66 to -99.96 mL; p < 0.01), a shortening of the maxillary surgery duration of 15.48 min (95% CI: -21.03 to -9.92 min; p < 0.01), an elevation of the postoperative hemoglobin level of 0.74 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.42 to 1.07 mg/dL; p < 0.01), and a limited effect on increasing the postoperative hematocrit level of 1.77% (95% CI: 0.17 to 3.36; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The use of TXA in craniomaxillofacial surgery can effectively reduce intraoperative blood loss, maintain elevate postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and reduce the operation duration.
Intraoperative Blood Loss and Postoperative Pain in the Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy and Intraoral Vertical Ramus Osteotomy: A Literature Review
BioMed research international. 2021;2021:4439867
PURPOSE The purpose of the present study was to review the literature regarding the blood loss and postoperative pain in the isolated sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS Investigating the intraoperative blood loss and postoperative pain, articles were selected from 1970 to 2021 in the English published databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library). Article retrieval and selection were performed by two authors, and they independently evaluated them based on the eligibility criteria. The articles meeting the search criteria had especially at least 30 patients. RESULTS In the review of intraoperative blood loss, a total of 139 articles were retrieved and restricted to 6 articles (SSRO: 4; IVRO 2). In the review of postoperative pain, a total of 174 articles were retrieved and restricted to 4 articles (SSRO: 3; IVRO 1). The mean blood loss of SSRO and IVRO was ranged from 55 to 167 mL and 82 to 104 mL, respectively. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores of the first postoperative day were 2 to 5.3 in SSRO and 2.93 to 3.13 in IVRO. The mean VAS scores of the second postoperative day were 1 to 3 in SSRO and 1.1 to 1.8 in IVRO. CONCLUSION Compared to traditional SSRO, IVRO had a significantly lower amount of blood loss. However, the blood transfusion is not necessary in a single-jaw operation (SSRO or IVRO). Postoperative pain was similar between SSRO and IVRO.
Effectiveness of local hemostatic to prevent bleeding in dental patients on anticoagulation: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2021
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of hemostatic protocols to prevent bleeding in dental procedures among individuals undergoing oral anticoagulation therapy. A systematic review and network meta-analysis were accomplished. Searches of literature and grey literature were performed in different electronic databases. Clinical trials were considered as part of the inclusion criteria. Data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias of the included articles were performed. Assessment of the certainty of evidence was also performed. As results we find that the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate [RR -35.00 (95% CI - 107.12, -5.78)], calcium sulfate (CaSO(4)) [RR -5.62 (95% CI -11.41, -1.03)], and tranexamic acid (TXA) [RR -3.46 (95% CI -7.63, -0.77)] showed beneficial effects compared to placebo. However, only TXA presented beneficial effects with moderate certainty evidence. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and CaSO(4) presented very low certainty evidence. In the comparisons between the hemostatic agents, no differences were observed. For the mean bleeding time, no significant difference in the comparisons was observed as well. Concluding, bleeding events in individuals on oral anticoagulation decreased with the use of TXA compared to placebo. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and CaSO(4) were also superior to placebo, but the certainty of evidence was low. For the mean bleeding time, no significant difference in hemostatic agents was observed.
Tranexamic Acid in Aesthetic Facial Plastic Surgery: A Systematic Review of Evidence, Applications, and Outcomes
Aesthetic surgery journal. Open forum. 2020;2(3):ojaa029
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic that has become widely used in aesthetic facial plastic surgery, although its efficacy has not been well investigated. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the existing evidence for use of TXA in aesthetic facial plastic surgery, highlighting routes of administration, dosing, surgical applications, and clinical outcomes. METHODS Systematic review of primary literature evaluating TXA in aesthetic facial plastic surgery. RESULTS Eleven studies met inclusion criteria: 8 prospective randomized controlled trials, 2 retrospective case series/cohort studies, and 1 clinical opinion. Six studies evaluated TXA in rhinoplasty, 4 in rhytidectomy, and 1 in blepharoplasty. Significant reductions in intraoperative blood loss were found in 5 rhinoplasty studies. Three rhinoplasty and 2 rhytidectomy studies found significantly reduced postoperative edema and ecchymosis. One rhinoplasty and 1 rhytidectomy study reported reduced operative time and time to achieve hemostasis. One rhytidectomy study reported reduced postoperative drain output and faster time to drain removal. No studies reported an adverse outcome directly related to TXA. CONCLUSIONS Existing literature investigating TXA in aesthetic facial plastic surgery is sparse with varying levels of evidence and heterogeneous data. Literature suggests systemic TXA reduces intraoperative blood loss during rhinoplasty, although the clinical significance of this blood loss reduction is unclear. TXA may also reduce postoperative edema and/or ecchymosis in rhytidectomy and rhinoplasty, although the lack of validated grading scales yields insufficient evidence to support this claim. Topical and subcutaneously injected TXA are emerging administration routes in rhytidectomy, with evidence suggesting TXA mixed with tumescent may reduce postoperative drain output, thereby expediting drain removal.
Efficacy and Safety of Tranexamic Acid in Bimaxillary Orthognathic Surgery
Plast Surg (Oakv). 2020;28(2):94-104
Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been widely used during craniofacial and orthognathic surgery (OS). However, results of the literature are inconsistent due to specific type of surgery and a small sample of studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of TXA in bimaxillary OS. Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared effect of TXA on bimaxillary OS with placebo. Outcomes of interests included intraoperative blood loss, allogenic transfusion, operation time, and volume of irrigation fluid. Random effects models were chosen considering that heterogeneity between studies was anticipated, and I (2) statistics were used to test for the presence of heterogeneity. Results: Totally 6 RCTs were identified. Tranexamic acid resulted in significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -264.82 mL; 95% CI: -380.60 to -149.04 mL) and decreased amounts of irrigation fluid (WMD = -229.23 mL; 95% CI: -399.63 to -58.83 mL). However, TXA had no remarkable impact on risk of allogenic blood transfusion (pooled risk ratio = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.20-1.23), operation time (WMD = -8.71 min; 95% CI: -20.98 to 3.57 min), and length of hospital stay (WMD = -0.24 day; 95% CI: -0.62 to 0.14 day). No TXA-associated severe adverse reactions or complications were observed. Conclusions: Currently available meta-analysis reveals that TXA is effective in decreasing intraoperative blood loss; however, it does not reduce the risk of allogenic blood transfusion in bimaxillary OS.
Inherited bleeding disorders in oral procedures. Assessment of prophylactic and therapeutic protocols: a scoping review
Australian dental journal. 2020
BACKGROUND This scoping review aimed to map available evidence regarding minor/major oral procedures in patients with inherited bleeding disorders (IBDs). METHODS Studies in medicine or dentistry that reported minor and major oral procedures in individuals presenting IBDs (e.g. hemophilia A or B, von Willebrand disease) were selected. Search and screening were performed in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library by two independent researchers. RESULTS Initial search yielded 4152 citations, of which 257 were included in the final analysis. Most of the evidence for prophylaxis use was derived from observational studies and the most-commonly reported prophylactic protocols were fresh frozen plasma and factor VIII concentrate. A considerable number of studies reported postoperative complications and hospitalizations. CONCLUSION The present study identified that (1) there is room for new studies to assess the use of antifibrinolytic agents with no factor replacement; (2) to date the use of factor replacement therapy is the most indicated approach when treating patients with IBDs with adjunct systemic or local antifibrinolytic agents to reduce post-operative complications; and (3) there is a critical need for high-quality evidence studies since much of the conclusions of the included studies are not supported by statistical analysis.