Traumatic injury clinical trial evaluating tranexamic acid in children (TIC-TOC): a pilot randomized trial
Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. 2022
BACKGROUND The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) improves survival in adults with traumatic hemorrhage; however, the drug has not been evaluated in a trial in injured children. We evaluated the feasibility of a large-scale trial evaluating the effects of TXA in children with severe hemorrhagic injuries. METHODS Severely injured children (0 up to 18(th) birthday) were randomized into a double-blind randomized trial of 1) TXA 15 mg/kg bolus dose, followed by 2 mg/kg/hr infusion over 8 hours, 2) TXA 30 mg/kg bolus dose, followed by 4 mg/kg/hr infusion over 8 hours, or 3) normal saline placebo bolus and infusion. The trial was conducted at 4 pediatric Level I trauma centers in the United States between June 2018 and March 2020. We enrolled patients under federal exception from informed consent (EFIC) procedures when parents were unable to provide informed consent. Feasibility outcomes included the rate of enrollment, adherence to intervention arms, and ability to measure the primary clinical outcome. Clinical outcomes included global functioning (primary), working memory, total amount of blood products transfused, intracranial hemorrhage progression, and adverse events. The target enrollment rate was at least 1.25 patients per site per month. RESULTS A total of 31 patients were randomized with a mean age of 10.7 years (standard deviation [SD] 5.0 years) and 22 (71%) patients were male. The mean time from injury to randomization was 2.4 hours (SD 0.6 hours). Sixteen (52%) patients had isolated brain injuries and 15 (48%) patients had isolated torso injuries. The enrollment rate using EFIC was 1.34 patients per site per month. All eligible enrolled patients received study intervention (9 patients TXA 15 mg/kg bolus dose, 10 patients TXA 30 mg/kg bolus dose, and 12 patients placebo) and had the primary outcome measured. No statistically significant differences in any of the clinical outcomes were identified. CONCLUSION Based on enrollment rate, protocol adherence, and measurement of the primary outcome in this pilot trial, we confirmed the feasibility of conducting a large-scale, randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of TXA in severely injured children with hemorrhagic brain and/or torso injuries using EFIC.
Severely injured children enrolled in the TIC-TOC trial across four centers in US (n= 31).
15 mg/kg of tranexamic acid (TXA) dose, followed by 2 mg/kg/hr infusion (n= 9).
30 mg/kg of TXA dose, followed by 4 mg/kg/hr infusion (n= 10). Saline placebo and infusion (n= 12).
All patients had their primary outcome measured. Feasibility outcomes included the rate of enrollment, adherence to intervention arms, and ability to measure the primary clinical outcome. Clinical outcomes included global functioning (primary), working memory, total amount of blood products transfused, intracranial hemorrhage progression, and adverse events. The mean time from injury to randomization was 2.4 hours (SD 0.6 hours). Sixteen (52%) patients had isolated brain injuries and 15 (48%) patients had isolated torso injuries. No statistically significant differences in any of the clinical outcomes were identified.
Tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss in Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid has been increasingly used for blood conservation in cardiac surgery. However, the evidence supporting the routine use of tranexamic acid in Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains weak. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically review the efficacy of tranexamic acid when applying to Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PARTICIPANTS Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS Tranexamic acid or control drugs (saline/blank). METHODS PUBMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP Data till May 4, 2021, database search was updated on August 1. Primary outcomes of interest included postoperative bleeding, allogeneic transfusion, and reoperation for bleeding. Secondary outcomes of interest included postoperative recovery. For continuous/dichotomous variables, treatment effects were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD)/odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS A database search yielded 15 randomized controlled trials including 1641 patients, where 8 studies were allocated into non-cyanotic congenital group, 5 were allocated into cyanotic congenital group, and the other 2 were allocated into combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic group. This meta-analysis demonstrate that tranexamic acid administration can reduce the postoperative 24 hours blood loss in non-cyanotic, cyanotic, and combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic patients, the red blood cell transfusion in non-cyanotic and cyanotic patients, and the fresh frozen plasma transfusion in non-cyanotic and combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic patients. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis demonstrates that tranexamic acid is highly effective in reducing the blood loss in Chinese pediatric cardiac surgery, but it behaves poorly when it comes to the transfusion requirement. To further confirm this, more well-designed and adequately-powered randomized trials are needed.
Safety and efficacy of aprotinin versus tranexamic acid for reducing absolute blood loss and transfusion in pediatric patients undergoing craniosynostosis surgery: a randomized, double-blind, three-arm controlled trial
Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics. 2022;:1-9
OBJECTIVE Craniosynostosis surgery is associated with considerable blood loss and need for transfusion. Considering the lower estimated blood volume (EBV) of children compared to adults, excessive blood loss may quickly lead to hypovolemic shock. Therefore, reducing blood loss is important in craniosynostosis surgery. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of aprotinin or tranexamic acid (TXA) in blood loss reduction in these patients. METHODS In the current randomized controlled trial, 90 eligible pediatric patients with craniosynostosis were randomly divided into three groups to receive either aprotinin, TXA, or no intervention. The absolute blood loss and transfusion amount were assessed for all patients both intraoperatively and 2 and 8 hours postoperatively. RESULTS Although crude values of estimated blood loss were not significantly different between groups (p = 0.162), when adjusted to the patient's weight or EBV, the values reached the significance level (p = 0.018), particularly when the aprotinin group was compared to the control group (p = 0.0154). The EBV losses 2 hours and 8 hours postoperatively significantly dropped in the TXA and aprotinin groups compared to the control group (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Rates of postoperative blood transfusion were significantly higher in the control group (p = 0.024). Hemoglobin and hematocrit 8 hours postoperatively were lower in the control group than in the TXA or aprotinin treatment groups (p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). There were no serious adverse events associated with the interventions in this study. CONCLUSIONS Aprotinin and TXA can reduce blood loss and blood transfusion without serious complications and adverse events in pediatric patients undergoing craniosynostosis surgery.
Paediatric patients undergoing craniosynostosis surgery (n= 90).
Aprotinin (n= 30).
Tranexamic acid (TXA, n= 30). No intervention (n= 30).
The estimated blood volume losses 2 hours and 8 hours postoperatively significantly dropped in the TXA and aprotinin groups compared to no intervention. Rates of postoperative blood transfusion were significantly higher in the no intervention group. Haemoglobin and haematocrit 8 hours postoperatively were lower in the no intervention group than in the TXA or aprotinin treatment groups.
Integrative treatment of herbal medicine with western medicine on coronary artery lesions in children with Kawasaki disease
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is a major cause of coronary artery lesions (CALs) in children. Approximately 10% to 20% of children treated with intravenous immunoglobulin are intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of adding herbal medicine to conventional western medicines versus conventional western medicines alone for CALs in children with KD. METHODS This study searched 9 electronic databases until August 31, 2021. The inclusion criteria were the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the CALs in children with KD and compared integrative treatment with conventional western treatments. Two authors searched independently for RCTs, including eligible articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was conducted using Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.4 software. The effect size was presented as the risk ratio (RR), and the fixed-effect models were used to pool the results. RESULTS The finally selected 12 studies included a total of 1030 KD patients. According to a meta-analysis, the integrative treatment showed better results than the conventional treatment in the CAL prevalence rate (RR = 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-2.71; P < .00001), CAL recovery rate (RR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.05-1.54; P = .02), and total effective rate (RR = 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.23; P < .00001). Only 2 studies referred to the safety of the treatment. The asymmetrical funnel plot of the CAL prevalence rate indicated the possibility of potential publication bias. CONCLUSIONS This review found the integrative treatment to be more effective in reducing the CAL prevalence rate and increasing the CAL recovery rate and total effective rate in KD patients than conventional western treatment. However, additional well-designed RCTs will be needed further to compensate restrictions of insufficient trials on safety, methodological quality, and publication bias.
The synergistic effect of tranexamic acid and ethamsylate combination on blood loss in pediatric cardiac surgery
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2021;24(1):17-23
BACKGROUND Pediatric patients are at risk for bleeding after cardiac surgery. Administration of antifibrinolytic agents reduces postoperative blood loss. OBJECTIVE Evaluation of the efficacy of combined administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) and ethamsylate in the reduction of postoperative blood loss in pediatric cardiac surgery. METHODS This prospective randomized study included 126 children submitted for cardiac surgery, and they were allocated into three groups: control group (n = 42); TXA group (n = 42):- received only TXA; and combined ethamsylate TXA group (n = 42):- received a combination of TXA and ethamsylate. The main collected data included sternal closure time, the needs for intraoperative transfusion of blood and its products, the total amount of blood loss, and the amount of the whole blood and its products transfused to the patients in the first 24 postoperative hours. RESULTS Blood loss volume in the first 24 postoperative hours was significantly smaller in combined group than the TXA and control groups and was significantly smaller in the TXA group than the control group. The sternal closure time was significantly shorter in the combined group than the other 2 groups and significantly shorter in TXA than the control group. The amount of whole blood transfused to patients in the combined group during surgery and in the first postoperative 24 h was significantly smaller than the other 2 groups and smaller in TXA group than the control group during surgery. CONCLUSION Combined administration of ethamsylate and TXA in pediatric cardiac surgery was more effective in reducing postoperative blood loss and whole blood transfusion requirements than the administration of TXA alone.
The Efficacy and Safety of Epsilon-Aminocaproic Acid for Perioperative Blood Management in Spinal Fusion Surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
World neurosurgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Perioperative blood loss is a major concern in spinal fusion surgery, which often requires blood transfusion. A large amount of perioperative blood loss might increase the risks of various perioperative complications. Recently, there has been a series of clinical studies focusing on the perioperative administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) in spinal fusion surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EACA in spinal fusion surgery. METHODS We systematically searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) up to April 2021. The perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion and complication data were extracted and analysed by RevMan Manager 5.3. RESULTS Finally, six randomized controlled studies, involving 398 patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery, were enrolled in this systematic review. Compared with the blank control group, the EACA group had significantly lower total perioperative blood loss, postoperative blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin, postoperative blood transfusion units, total blood transfusion units, and postoperative red blood cell transfusion units. Additionally, no significant differences were observed between the EACA group and control group in intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion units, intraoperative crystalloid administered, hospital stays, operative time, perioperative respiratory complications, and wound bleeding. CONCLUSIONS EACA in patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery is effective in perioperative hemostasis without increasing the incidence of postoperative complications. However, the long-term adverse side of EACA in spinal fusion surgery still need more large-scale trials.
Antifibrinolytic Drugs for the Prevention of Bleeding in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery on Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Anesthesia and analgesia. 2021
BACKGROUND Bleeding is one of the commonest complications affecting children undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass. Antifibrinolytic drugs are part of a multifaceted approach aimed at reducing bleeding, though sufficiently sized pediatric studies are sparse, and dosing algorithms are heterogeneous. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents as well as the effectiveness of different dosing regimens in pediatric cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating randomized controlled trials published between 1980 and 2019, identified by searching the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and CENTRAL. All studies investigating patients <18 years of age without underlying hematological disorders were included. The primary outcome was postoperative bleeding; secondary end points included blood product transfusion, mortality, and safety (thromboses, anaphylaxis, renal or neurological dysfunction, and seizures). Different dosing regimens were compared. Studies were dual appraised, outcomes were reported descriptively and, if appropriate, quantitatively using the Review Manager 5 (REVMAN 5) software (The Cochrane Collaboration). RESULTS Thirty of 209 articles were included, evaluating the following drugs versus control: aprotinin n = 14, tranexamic acid (TXA) n = 12, and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) n = 4. The number of participants per intervention group ranged from 11 to 100 (median, 25; interquartile range [IQR], 20.5) with a wide age span (mean, 13 days to 5.8 years) and weight range (mean, 3.1-26.3 kg). Methodological quality was low to moderate.All agents reduced mean 24-hour blood loss compared to control: aprotinin by 6.0 mL/kg (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.1 to -3.0; P = .0001), TXA by 9.0 mL/kg (95% CI, -11.3 to -6.8; P < .00001), and EACA by 10.5 mL/kg (95% CI, -21.1 to 0.0; P = .05). Heterogeneity was low for TXA (I2 = 29%; P = .19), moderate for aprotinin (I2 = 41%; P = .11), and high for EACA (I2 = 95%; P = <.00001). All agents also reduced 24-hour blood product transfusion. There was no clear dose-response effect for TXA nor aprotinin. Studies were underpowered to detect significant differences in mortality, thromboses, anaphylaxis, and renal or neurological dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS The available data demonstrate efficacy for all 3 antifibrinolytic drugs. Therefore, the agent with the most favorable safety profile should be used. As sufficient data are lacking, large comparative trials are warranted to assess the relative safety and appropriate dosing regimens in pediatrics.
Effectiveness and Adverse Effects of Tranexamic Acid in Bleeding during Adenotonsillectomy: A Randomized, Controlled, Double-blind Clinical Trial
International archives of otorhinolaryngology. 2021;25(4):e557-e562
Introduction Intra and postoperative bleeding are the most frequent and feared complications in adenotonsillectomy (AT). Tranexamic acid (TXA), which is known for its antifibrinolytic effects, has a proven benefit in reducing bleeding in hemorrhagic trauma and cardiac surgery; however, the effectiveness and timing of its application in AT have not yet been established. Objectives We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TXA in controlling bleeding during and after AT and assess its possible adverse effects in children. Methods The present randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial included 63 children aged 2 to 12 years. They were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous TXA (10 mg/kg) or placebo 10 minutes before surgery. The volume of intraoperative bleeding, presence of postoperative bleeding, and adverse effects during and 8 hours after the surgery were assessed. Results No difference in bleeding volume was noted between the 2 groups (mean, 122.7 ml in the TXA group versus 115.5 ml in the placebo group, p = 0.36). No intraoperative or postoperative adverse effects were noted because of TXA use. Furthermore, no primary or secondary postoperative bleeding was observed in any of the participants. Conclusion In our pediatric sample, TXA (10 mg/kg) administration before AT was safely used, without any adverse effects. It did not reduce the bleeding volume in children during this type of surgery. Future studies should assess the use of higher doses of TXA and its administration at other time points before or during surgery.
Enrollment with and without Exception from Informed Consent in a Pilot Trial of Tranexamic Acid in Children with Hemorrhagic Injuries
Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. 2021
BACKGROUND Federal exception from informed consent (EFIC) procedures allow studies to enroll patients with time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions when written consent is not feasible. Our objective was to compare enrollment rates with and without EFIC in a trial of tranexamic acid (TXA) for children with hemorrhagic injuries. METHODS We conducted a four-center randomized controlled pilot and feasibility trial evaluating TXA in children with severe hemorrhagic brain and/or torso injuries. We initiated the trial enrolling patients without EFIC. After 3 months of enrollment, we met our a priori futility threshold and paused the trial to incorporate EFIC procedures and obtain regulatory approval. We then restarted the trial allowing EFIC if the guardian was unable to provide timely written consent. We used descriptive statistics to compare characteristics of eligible patients approached with and without EFIC procedures. We also calculated the time delay to restart the trial using EFIC. RESULTS We enrolled 1 of 15 (6.7%) eligible patients (0.17 per site per month) prior to using EFIC procedures. Of the 14 missed eligible patients, 7 (50%) were not enrolled because guardians were not present or were injured and unable to provide written consent. After obtaining approval for EFIC, we enrolled 30 of 48 (62.5%) eligible patients (1.34 per site per month). Of these 30 patients, 22 (73.3%) were enrolled with EFIC. Of the 22, no guardians refused written consent after randomization. There were no significant differences in the eligibility rate and patient characteristics enrolled with and without EFIC procedures. Across all sites, the mean delay to restart the trial using EFIC procedures was 12 months. CONCLUSIONS In a multicenter trial of severely injured children, the use of EFIC procedures greatly increased the enrollment rate and was well accepted by guardians. Initiating the trial without EFIC procedures led to a significant delay in enrollment.
Efficacy and Safety of Antifibrinolytic Drugs in Pediatric Surgery: A Systematic Review
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2021;47(5):538-568
Antifibrinolytic drugs are used to reduce blood loss and subsequent transfusions during surgery and following trauma, but the optimal dosing regimen in the pediatric population is still unresolved. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic drugs in pediatric surgery and trauma to determine the optimal dosing regimen. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science on May 3, 2020. We included randomized controlled studies investigating the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA), aprotinin, and epsilon-aminocaproic acid, in terms of reducing blood loss, blood transfusions, reoperations, and rebleeds in pediatric patients aged 0 to 18 years undergoing cardiac surgery, noncardiac surgery, or trauma. Fifty randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included; 28 RCTs investigated cardiac surgery and 22 investigated noncardiac surgery. No RCTs regarding trauma met the inclusion criteria. All antifibrinolytic drugs reduced postoperative blood loss and transfusions when used in pediatric surgery. The dosing regimen varied between studies, but similar effect sizes were found in terms of reduced blood loss regardless of the cumulative dose used. Few studies found adverse events, and no difference in incidence or type of adverse events was seen between the antifibrinolytic and the placebo group. In conclusion, use of antifibrinolytics is efficient and safe in children undergoing surgery. We propose TXA as the drug of choice based on its level of evidence and safety profile; we recommend a dosing regimen composed of a loading dose of 10 to 15 mg/kg prior to surgery followed by 1 to 5 mg/kg/h as continuous infusion throughout surgery.