The safty profile of blood salvage applied for collected blood with amniotic fluid during cesarean section
BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2022;22(1):160
BACKGROUND The guidelines of National Health Service(NHS, the United Kingdom) recommended for use in obstetrics at increased risk of bleeding, requiring two suction devices to reduce amniotic fluid contamination, however, when comes to massive hemorrhage, it is may difficult to operate because the complex operation may delay time. The aim of the study was to detect the effect of amniotic fluid recovery on intraoperative cell salvage in obstetrics and provide evidence for clinical applications. METHOD Thirty-four patients undergoing elective cesarean section were randomly divided into two groups. In group 1, the cumulative blood from the operation field, including the amniotic fluid, was collected using a single suction device for processing. In group 2, after suctioning away the amniotic fluid using another suction device for the cumulative blood from the operation field. From each group, four samples were taken, including maternal venous blood (sample I), blood before washing (sample II), blood after washing (sample III) and blood after filtration with a leukocyte filter (sample IV), to detect serum potassium (K +), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and squamous cell (SC) levels. RESULTS The AFP, K + and WBC levels of sample III and sample IV were significantly lower than sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P < 0.05). Significantly more SCs were found in sample III than in sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P < 0.05), but SCs of sample IV had no statistical difference compared to sample I in group 1 and group 2 (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the K + , Hb, WBC, AFP and SC levels of sample IV between group 1 and group 2 (P > 0.05). The HbF levels of sample III and sample IV were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION There is little or no possibility for AF contamination to enter the re-infusion system when used in conjunction with a leucodepletion filter. For maternal with Rh-negative blood, we recommend two suction devices to reduce HbF pollution. TRIAL REGISTRATION ChiCTR1800015684 , 2018.4.15.
Effect of intraoperative cell rescue on bleeding related indexes after cesarean section
World journal of clinical cases. 2022;10(8):2439-2446
BACKGROUND Obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality globally, especially in China. The key to a successful rescue is immediate and rapid blood transfusion. Autotransfusion has become an integral part of clinical blood transfusion, with intraoperative cell salvage (IOCS) being the most widely used. AIM: To investigate the application of IOCS in cesarean section. METHODS A total of 87 patients who underwent cesarean section and blood transfusion in our hospital from March 2015 to June 2020 were included in this prospective controlled study. They were divided into the observation (43 cases) and control (44 cases) groups using the random number table method. The patients in both groups underwent lower-segment cesarean section. The patients in the control group were treated with traditional allogeneic blood transfusion, whereas those in the observation group were treated with IOCS. Hemorheology [Red blood cell count, platelet volume, and fibrinogen (FIB)] and coagulation function (partial prothrombin time, prothrombin time (PT), platelet count, and activated coagula-tion time) were measured before and 24 h after transfusion. In the two groups, adverse reactions, such as choking and dyspnea, within 2 h after cesarean section were observed. RESULTS Before and after transfusion, no significant differences in hemorheology and coagulation function indices between the two groups were observed (P > 0.05). About 24 h after transfusion, the erythrocyte count, platelet ratio, and FIB value significantly decreased in the two groups (P < 0.05); the PLT value significantly decreased in the two groups; the activated partial thromboplastin time, PT, and activated clotting time significantly increased in the two groups (P < 0.05); and no statistical differences were observed in hemorheology and coagulation function indices between the two groups (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION In patients undergoing cesarean section, intraoperative cell salvage has a minimum effect on hemorheology and coagulation function and does not increase the risk of amniotic fluid embolism.
Intraoperative Cell Salvage for Women at High Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage During Cesarean Section: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2022
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) can lead to substantial blood loss that compromises maternal hemodynamic stability and consequently cause severe maternal complications such as organ dysfunction or death. Intraoperative cell salvage (IOCS), an effective method of blood conservation used in other surgical specialties, can be an alternative intervention for managing PPH. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IOCS for women at high risk of PPH undergoing cesarean sections. We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases from inception to February 25, 2021 for randomized controlled studies and observational studies published in English or Mandarin about IOCS use in cesarean sections. Primary outcomes of interest were changes in postoperative hematologic parameters and any adverse events reported among patients that had IOCS and controls that had an allogeneic blood transfusion. The certainty of the evidence of the outcomes was evaluated using the GRADE approach. A total of 24 studies with 5872 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Eleven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and 13 observational studies were analyzed. Postoperative hemoglobin levels were higher among patients with IOCS SMD 0.39 (95% CI; 0.20, 0.60; P < 0.001, high certainty). Allogeneic blood transfusion increased adverse events RR = 1.81(95% CI; 1.24, 2.62; P = 0.002, low certainty). IOCS shortened hospital stay SMD - 0.59 (95% CI: - 0.98, - 0.19; P = 0.004, low certainty) and shortened prothrombin time SMD - 0.67 (95% CI; - 1.31, - 0.04), P = 0.037, low certainty). The lower incidence of transfusion-related adverse events and shorter hospital stay among other findings demonstrate that IOCS use in obstetrics is an effective and safe alternative for the management of PPH; however, high-quality randomized control studies are required to confirm this evidence.
The neurocognitive outcomes of hemodilution in adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2022;25(2):133-140
OBJECTIVE The study aimed to evaluate the effect of mild and moderate hemodilution during CPB on the neurocognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. DESIGN A randomized clinical study. SETTING Cardiac center. PATIENTS 186 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTION The patients were classified into 2 groups (each = 93), Mild hemodilution group: The hematocrit value was maintained >25% by transfusion of packed-red blood cells plus hemofiltration during CPB. Moderate hemodilution group: the hematocrit value was maintained within the range of 21-25%. MEASUREMENTS The monitors included the hemofiltrated volume, number of transfused packed red blood cells, and the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. MAIN RESULTS The hemofiltrated volume during CPB was too much higher with mild hemodilution compared to the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001). The number of the transfused packed red blood cells during CPB was higher with mild hemodilution compared to the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001), but after CPB, the number of the transfused packed red blood cells was lower with the mild hemodilution group than the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001). The incidence of total postoperative neurological complications was significantly lower with the mild hemodilution group than moderate hemodilution (p = 0.033). The incidence of neurocognitive dysfunction was significantly lower with mild hemodilution group than moderate hemodilution (p = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS The mild hemodilution was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of neurocognitive dysfunction compared to moderate hemodilution in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Also, the transfused packed red blood cells increased during CPB and decreased after CPB with the mild hemodilution than moderate hemodilution.
The effects of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(7):7866-7873
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in prostate cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. METHODS A total of 87 patients with prostate cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomies in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into a control group (the CNG, n=43, conventional infusion) and an observation group (the OG, n=44, acute hypervolemic hemodilution). Blood gas analyses were performed at different time points, and the patients' cognitive dysfunction was evaluated. RESULTS The intraoperative blood transfusion rates of the OG and the CNG were 11.36% and 30.23%. The average intraoperative blood transfusions in the OG and the CNG were (315.46±24.49) ml and (486.95±42.17) ml (P < 0.05). The CVP and JVP levels in the OG and the CNG at T2 and T3 were significantly higher than the levels at T0 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels of the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T0 (P < 0.05), and the Hb level in the OG at T4 was lower than it was at T1 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels in the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T1 (P < 0.05), and the Hb levels in the OG at T1 and T2 were lower than they were in the CNG (P < 0.05). The MMSE cognitive function scores were lower than the scores recorded on the day before the operations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Acute hypervolemic hemodilution in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients can maintain their hemodynamics in a stable state, help reduce blood transfusion, improve the oxygen supply to the brain tissue to maintain the supply and demand balance, and reduce the impact on the patients' cognitive function.
Effect of Retrograde Autologous Blood Priming of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Hemodynamic Parameters and Pulmonary Mechanics in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Study
Seminars in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2020
The present study aimed to assess the impact of retrograde autologous priming (RAP) on hemodynamics and pulmonary mechanics in children subjected to cardiothoracic surgery. This prospective randomized study analyzed the clinical records of 124 children with Rachs-1 left to right lesions subjected to cardiac surgery. They comprised 64 patients in RAP group and 60 patients in the conventional priming group. The preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data of the studied patients were reported. The outcome measures included hematocrit value, blood gases, lung mechanics parameters, transfusion needs, ICU stay, postoperative complications and mortality. Preoperatively, there were no significant differences between the studied groups regarding the demographic data, underlying lesions, laboratory data, blood gases and pulmonary mechanics parameters. Intraoperatively, RAP group patients had significantly lower amount of blood loss, less frequent need to packed RBCs transfusion and better hematocrit values when compared with the control group. Postoperatively, RAP group patients had significantly higher Hct % at ICU arrival, significantly better pulmonary mechanics parameters and significantly shorter duration on mechanical ventilation. Retrograde autologous priming in children older than 12 months subjected to cardiac surgery for Rachs-1 left to right lesions is associated with less transfusion needs and better pulmonary mechanics.
Efficacy of intraoperative cell salvage in spine surgery: a meta-analysis
J Neurosurg Spine. 2020;:1-9
OBJECTIVE Intraoperative cell salvage systems, or cell savers, are widely used for the management of blood loss in patients undergoing spine surgery. However, recent studies report conflicting evidence of their efficacy. The purpose of the meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of cell savers in reducing blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS Both retrospective and prospective studies that investigated the efficacy of cell savers in reducing transfusion requirements in spine surgery patients when compared with control patients were identified from MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration Library, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. Outcome data extracted included number of patients receiving allogenic transfusions (transfusion rate); units of allogenic transfusions; postoperative hemoglobin; costs; operative time; and complications. RevMan 5 software was used to perform statistical analyses. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios (with 95% CIs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs [95% CI]) for dichotomous and continuous variables, respectively. RESULTS Eighteen studies with 2815 patients in total were included in the meta-analysis. During spine surgery, the use of intraoperative cell salvage did not reduce the intraoperative (OR 0.66 [95% CI 0.30, 1.41]), postoperative (OR -0.57 [95% CI 0.20, 1.59]), or total transfusion (OR 0.92 [95% CI 0.43, 1.98]) rate. There was a reduction in the number of allogenic units transfused intraoperatively by a mean of 0.81 (95% CI -1.15, -0.48). However, there were no differences in the number of units transfused postoperatively (WMD -0.02 [95% CI -0.41, 0.38]) or the total units transfused (WMD 0.08 [95% CI -1.06, 1.22]). There were also no differences in operative time (WMD 19.36 [95% CI -2.43, 42.15]) or complications reported (OR 0.79 [95% CI 0.46, 1.37]) between groups. A difference in postoperative hemoglobin (WMD 0.54 [95% CI 0.11, 0.98]) between both groups was observed. CONCLUSIONS Cell saver is efficacious at reducing intraoperative allogenic units transfused. There is no difference in transfusion rates, postoperative units transfused, and the total number of units transfused. Further cost analysis studies are necessary to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this method of blood conservation. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE Type of question: therapeutic; study design: meta-analysis; strength of recommendation: low.
Patients undergoing spine surgery (18 studies, n=2815).
Use of intraoperative cell salvage.
The use of intraoperative cell salvage did not reduce the intraoperative, or total transfusion rate. There was a reduction in the number of allogenic units transfused intraoperatively by a mean of 0.81. However, there were no differences in the number of units transfused postoperatively or the total units transfused. There were also no differences in operative time or complications reported between groups. A difference in postoperative hemoglobin between both groups was observed.
[Safety of cell salvage in tumor surgery : Systematic review with meta-analysis]
BACKGROUND Allogeneic blood transfusion is avoidable in many oncological interventions by the use of cell salvage or mechanical autotransfusion (MAT). As irradiation is elaborate and expensive, the safety of leucocyte depletion filters (LDF) for autologous blood from the surgical field might be a more acceptable alternative for the prevention of cancer recurrences. A previous meta-analysis could not identify an increased risk of cancer recurrence. The aim of this review article is to provide an update of a previous meta-analysis from 2012 as well as a safety analysis of cell salvage with LDF due to the improved data situation. MATERIAL AND METHODS This systematic review included all studies in PubMed, Cochrane, Cochrane Reviews and Web of Science on cell salvage or autotransfusion combined with outcomes, e.g. cancer recurrence, mortality, survival, blood transfusion, length of hospital stay (LOS) after the use of MAT without irradiation and with or without LDF. The grades of recommendations (GRADE) assessment of underlying evidence was applied. RESULTS A total of seven new observational studies and seven meta-analyses were found that compared unfiltered or filtered cell salvage with autologous predeposition, allogeneic transfusion or without any transfusion. No randomized controlled trials have been completed. A total of 27 observational and cohort studies were included in a meta-analysis. The evidence level was low. The risk of cancer recurrence in recipients of autologous salvaged blood with or without LDF was reduced (odds ratio, OR 0.71, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.58-0.86) as compared to non-transfused subjects, allogeneic or predeposited autologous transfusion. The transfusion rate could not be assessed due to the substantial selection bias and large heterogeneity. Cell salvage does not change mortality and LOS. Leucocyte depletion studies reported a removal rate of cancer cells in the range of 99.6-99.9%. CONCLUSION Randomized controlled trials on a comparison of MAT and allogeneic blood transfusion as well as LDF and irradiation would be desirable but are not available. From observational trials and more than 6300 subjects and various tumors, cell salvage in cancer surgery with or without LDF appears to be sufficiently safe. The efficacy of leucocyte depletion of autologous salvaged blood is equivalent to irradiation. Unavailability of radiation is not a contraindication for cell salvage use in cancer surgery. By usage of leucocyte depleted salvaged autologous blood, the risks of allogeneic transfusion can be avoided.
Does Intraoperative Cell Salvage Reduce Postoperative Infection Rates in Cardiac Surgery?
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2020
OBJECTIVE Primary outcome was the risk for infections after cell salvage in cardiac surgery. DESIGN Data of a randomized controlled trial on cell salvage and filter use (ISRCTN58333401). SETTING Six cardiac surgery centers in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS All 716 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting, valve surgery, or combined procedures over a 4-year period who completed the trial. INTERVENTIONS Postoperative infection data were assessed according to Centre of Disease Control and Prevention/National Healthcare Safety Network surveillance definitions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Fifty-eight (15.9%) patients with cell salvage had infections, compared with 46 (13.1%) control patients. Mediation analysis was performed to estimate the direct effect of cell salvage on infections (OR 2.291 [1.177;4.460], p=0.015) and the indirect effects of allogeneic transfusion and processed cell salvage blood on infections. Correction for confounders, including age, seks and body mass index was performed. Allogeneic transfusion had a direct effect on infections (OR=2.082 [1.133;3.828], p=0.018), but processed cell salvage blood did not (OR=0.999 [0.999; 1.001], p=0.089). There was a positive direct effect of cell salvage on allogeneic transfusion (OR=0.275 [0.176;0.432], p < 0.001), but a negative direct effect of processed cell salvage blood (1.001 [1.001;1.002], p < 0.001) on allogeneic transfusion. Finally, there was a positive direct effect of cell salvage on the amount of processed blood. CONCLUSIONS Cell salvage was directly associated with higher infection rates, but this direct effect was almost completely eliminated by its indirect protective effect through reduced allogeneic blood transfusion.
Additional filtering of blood from a cell salvage device is not likely to show important additional benefits in outcome in cardiac surgery
BACKGROUND Several authors and manufacturers of cell salvage devices recommend additional filtering of processed blood before transfusion. There is no evidence to support this practice. Therefore, we compared the clinical outcome and biochemical effects of cell salvage with or without additional filtering. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS The patients, scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement, or combined procedures were part of our randomized multicenter factorial study of cell salvage and filter use on transfusion requirements (ISRCTN 58333401). They were randomized to intraoperative cell salvage or cell salvage plus additional WBC depletion filter. We compared the occurrence of major adverse events (combined death/stroke/myocardial infarction) as primary outcome and minor adverse events (renal function disturbances, infections, delirium), ventilation time, and length of stay in the intensive care unit and hospital. We also measured biochemical markers of organ injury and inflammation. RESULTS One hundred eighty-nine patients had cell salvage, and 175 patients had cell salvage plus filter and completed the study. Demographic data, surgical procedures, and amount of salvaged blood were not different between the groups. There was no difference in the primary outcome with a risk of 6.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.34-11.25) in the cell salvage plus filter group versus 5.8% (95% CI, 3.09-10.45) in the cell salvage group, a relative risk of 1.08 (95% CI, 0.48- 2.43]. There were no differences in minor adverse events and biochemical markers between the groups. CONCLUSION The routine use of an additional filter for transfusion of salvaged blood is unlikely to show important additional benefits.