Use of recombinant factor VIIa for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in patients without hemophilia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2011;183((1):):E9-19.
BACKGROUND The benefits and risks of off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa in patients without hemophilia are contested. We performed a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of such use. METHODS We searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL for randomized controlled trials comparing recombinant factor VIIa with placebo in any patient population except those with hemophilia up to January 2010. Eligible articles were assessed for inclusion, data were extracted, and study quality was evaluated. Outcomes included mortality, blood loss, requirements for red blood cell transfusion, number of patients transfused and thromboembolic events. RESULTS We identified 26 trials: 14 on off-label prophylactic use of recombinant factor VIIa (n = 1137) and 12 on off-label therapeutic use (n = 2538). In the studies on prophylactic use, we found no significant difference in mortality or thromboembolic events between the treatment and placebo groups. We found modest benefits favouring recombinant factor VIIa in blood loss (weighted mean difference -276 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -411 to -141 mL), red blood cell transfusion (weighted mean difference -281 mL, 95% CI -433 to -129 mL) and number of patients transfused (relative risk 0.71, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.99). In the therapeutic trials, we found a nonsignificant decrease in mortality and a nonsignificant increase in thromboembolic events but no difference in control of bleeding or red blood cell transfusion. INTERPRETATION Clinically significant benefits of recombinant factor VIIa as a general hemostatic agent in patients without hemophilia remain unproven. Given its potential risks, such use cannot be recommended, and in most cases, it should be restricted to clinical trials.
Recombinant activated factor VIIa for the treatment of bleeding in major abdominal surgery including vascular and urological surgery: a review and meta-analysis of published data
Critical Care. 2008;12((1):):R14.
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the role of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in abdominal, vascular, and urological surgery. METHODS We conducted meta-analyses of case series and placebo-controlled studies reporting on the treatment or prophylaxis of bleeding with rFVIIa regarding 'reduction or cessation of bleeding', 'mortality', and 'thromboembolism'. RESULTS All case reports (n = 15 case reports and 17 patients) documented an effect of rFVIIa in the treatment of bleeding. A meta-analysis of 10 case series revealed a reduction or cessation of bleeding in 39 out of 50 patients after administration of rFVIIa (estimated mean effect 73.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 51.0% to 95.4%) and a mean probability of survival of 53.0% (95% CI 26.4% to 79.7%). Among the rFVIIa responders, 19 out of 29 patients (66%) survived versus 1 out of 10 rFVIIa nonresponders (P = 0.003). Six out of 36 patients from the case series had a thromboembolic complication (estimated mean probability 16.5%, 95% CI 1.2% to 31.8%). Compared with a meta-analysis of eight placebo-controlled studies, no increased risk of thromboembolism was seen after administration of rFVIIa. CONCLUSION The meta-analysis of case series showed that, in a mean of 73% patients, rFVIIa achieved at least a reduction of bleeding and that the probability of survival is increased in patients responding to rFVIIa. rFVIIa was not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism compared with placebo.
Activated recombinant factor VII in orthotopic liver transplantation
Transplantation Proceedings. 2007;39((6):):1883-5.
UNLABELLED Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is affected by important alterations of hemostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant factor VII activated (rFVIIa) to reduce intraoperative bleeding during OLT. METHODS Twenty OLT patients were assigned in double-blind way to a rFVIIa group or a control group. Inclusion criteria were hemoglobin > 8 g/dL: INR > 1,5 and fibrinogen > 100 mg/dL. We administered a single bouls of rFVIIa (40 microg/kg) or placebo. We determined INR, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, ATIII, and blood cell counts. Blood products were administered as follows: 4 units of fresh frozen plasma when INR > 1. 5, and 1 unit of RBC for Hb < 10 g/dL. The study ended 6 hours after the bolus. RESULTS No thromboembolic events occurred. The INR was different between rFVIIa group and the controls at T0 (1. 9 vs 1. 6 P < . 021) and during T1 (1. 2 vs 1. 6 P < . 004). The total transfused red blood cells was 300 mL +/- 133 in rFVIIa group and 570 mL +/- 111 in control group (P < . 017). The total fresh frozen plasma was 600 mL +/- 154 in rFVIIa group and 1400 mL +/- 187 in control group (P < . 001). Total blood loss was greater in the control group than the rFVIIa group: 1140 mL +/- 112 vs 740 mL +/- 131 (P < . 049). DISCUSSION The use of rFVIIa during OLT can reduce the risk of bleeding during surgery. The literature has described cases who did not benefit from the treatment. An adequate cut-off of INR, allowed us to treat only patients at greater bleeding risk.
Efficacy and safety of repeated perioperative doses of recombinant factor VIIa in liver transplantation
Liver Transplantation. 2005;11((8):):973-9.
Patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have excessive blood loss during surgery that requires blood transfusions, leading to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. We studied the efficacy and safety of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) in reducing transfusion requirements in OLT. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial enrolled patients undergoing OLT because of cirrhosis (Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B or C). Patients received a repeated intravenous bolus regimen of rFVIIa 60 or 120 microg/kg or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the total number of red blood cell (RBC) units transfused during the perioperative period. A total of 182 patients were analyzed for efficacy and 183 for safety. No significant effect of rFVIIa was observed on the number of RBC units transfused or intraoperative blood loss compared with the placebo group. A significantly higher number of patients in the rFVIIa study groups avoided RBC transfusion. Administration of rFVIIa but not placebo restored the preoperative prolonged prothrombin time to normal value during surgery. Patients receiving rFVIIa and placebo did not experience a significant difference in rate of thromboembolic events. Additionally, there was no statistically significant effect of rFVIIa treatment on hospitalization rate, total surgery time, and the proportion of patients undergoing retransplantation. In conclusion, use of rFVIIa during OLT significantly reduced the number of patients requiring RBC transfusion. There was no increase in thromboembolic events with rFVIIa administration compared with placebo.
Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa in major liver resection: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial
BACKGROUND Prevention of bleeding episodes in noncirrhotic patients undergoing partial hepatectomy remains unsatisfactory in spite of improved surgical techniques. The authors conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to evaluate the hemostatic effect and safety of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in major partial hepatectomy. METHODS Two hundred four noncirrhotic patients were equally randomized to receive either 20 or 80 microg/kg rFVIIa or placebo. Partial hepatectomy was performed according to local practice at the participating centers. Patients were monitored for 7 days after surgery. Key efficacy parameters were perioperative erythrocyte requirements (using hematocrit as the transfusion trigger) and blood loss. Safety assessments included monitoring of coagulation-related parameters and Doppler examination of hepatic vessels and lower extremities. RESULTS The proportion of patients who required perioperative red blood cell transfusion (the primary endpoint) was 37% (23 of 63) in the placebo group, 41% (26 of 63) in the 20-microg/kg group, and 25% (15 of 59) in the 80-microg/kg dose group (logistic regression model; P = 0. 09). Mean erythrocyte requirements for patients receiving erythrocytes were 1,024 ml with placebo, 1,354 ml with 20 microg/kg rFVIIa, and 1,036 ml with 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (P = 0. 78). Mean intraoperative blood loss was 1,422 ml with placebo, 1,372 ml with 20 microg/kg rFVIIa, and 1,073 ml with 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (P = 0. 07). The reduction in hematocrit during surgery was smallest in the 80-microg/kg group, with a significant overall effect of treatment (P = 0. 04). CONCLUSIONS Recombinant factor VIIa dosing did not result in a statistically significant reduction in either the number of patients transfused or the volume of blood products administered. No safety issues were identified.
Safety and efficacy of a single bolus administration of recombinant factor VIIa in liver transplantation due to chronic liver disease
Liver Transplantation. 2005;11((8):):895-900.
Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) can be associated with excessive blood loss. As a result, there may be increased risk of adverse outcomes. Activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) has demonstrated the ability to improve hemostasis in a variety of disorders; however, there has been a limited amount of research into its use in OLT. The purpose of this dose-finding study was to examine the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in the reduction of bleeding in patients undergoing OLT. In this double-blind trial, patients with end-stage liver disease scheduled for OLT were randomized to 1 of 4 parallel study groups. They received a single intravenous bolus of rFVIIa (20, 40, or 80 microg/kg) or placebo prior to surgery. The primary assessment endpoint was the total number of red blood cell (RBC) units transfused perioperatively. Safety was evaluated by adverse events reported. Eighty-three comparable patients were randomized to receive study product, with 82 ultimately undergoing OLT. There were no significant differences in required RBC units between the placebo and rFVIIa study groups. The number of adverse events was comparable between study groups. In conclusion, rFVIIa has a good safety profile in patients undergoing OLT. However, the doses studied did not have any effect on the number of RBC transfusions required.