Efficacy of Bovine Hydroxyapatite and Collagen Along With Platelet-Rich Fibrin as a Scaffold and Human Chorion as a Membrane for Ridge Preservation: A Case-Control Study
AIM: The present study aims to determine the efficacy of bovine hydroxyapatite and collagen (G-graft) mixed with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) used as a scaffold and chorion membrane as a barrier in post-extraction sockets with extraction sites alone. METHODS AND MATERIAL Thirty individuals were randomly assigned into two groups. In the control group, after debridement of the extracted tooth socket, no additional treatment was done. In the test group, after debridement of the extracted tooth socket, the sockets were filled with bovine hydroxyapatite and collagen (G-graft) mixed with PRF. They were covered by a chorion membrane, and a non-absorbable suture material was used to secure the membrane in place. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index, gingival index, buccolingual width, buccal bone plate height, and lingual bone plate height at baseline and at six months. RESULTS Clinically, there was a more significant reduction in the buccolingual width of the control group than the test group after six months. A statistically significant difference between the two groups for vertical ridge height at the mesial and distal socket sites was observed. No statistically significant difference in buccal and lingual bone plate height was observed between the two groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Both groups showed a significant reduction in the Buccolingual width, but it was less in the ridge preservation group. Thus, the use of G-graft with PRF and chorion membrane was highly effective in ridge preservation. Key messages: Natural bovine bone mineral, along with PRF and chorion as a membrane, can be utilized effectively for ridge preservation in extracted tooth sockets due to periodontal disease.
Increased local concentrations of growth factors from leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin do not translate into improved alveolar ridge preservation: an intraindividual mechanistic randomized controlled trial
Journal of clinical periodontology. 2022
AIMS: Leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) has been tested for enhancing alveolar ridge preservation (ARP), but little is known about the local release profile of growth factors (GF) and the clinical equipoise related to its efficacy remains. This study compared the patterns of GF release, early soft tissue healing and alveolar ridge resorption following unassisted healing and L-PRF application in non-molar extraction sockets. MATERIALS AND METHODS Atraumatic tooth extraction of two hopeless teeth per patient was followed by unassisted healing or L-PRF placement to fill the socket in 18 systemically healthy, nonsmoking subjects. This intraindividual trial was powered to assess changes in horizontal alveolar ridge dimensions 1 mm below the crest of alveolar bone. GF concentrations in wound fluid were assessed with a multiplex assay at 6, 24, 72 and 168 hours. Early healing was evaluated with the wound-healing index and changes in soft tissue volumes on serial digital scans. Hard tissue changes were measured on superimposed CBCT images after 5 months of healing. RESULTS L-PRF resulted in higher GF concentrations in WF as compared to the control, but no differences in release patterns or time of peak were observed. No intergroup differences in early healing parameters were observed. Alveolar bone resorption was observed in both groups. No significant intergroup differences were observed in hard tissue healing 1, 3 or 5 mm apical to the original bone crest, or in ability to digitally plan a prosthetically guided implant with or without bone augmentation. CONCLUSIONS L-PRF increased the GF concentrations in wound fluid of extraction sockets without shifting the pattern observed in unassisted healing, while the increased delivery did not translate into clinical benefits in early wound healing or ARP. The current findings question the assumption that increased local concentrations of GF by L-PRF translate into improved clinical outcomes. Additional definitive studies are needed to establish the benefits of L-PRF in ARP. (clinicaltrials.gov NCT03985033).
Comparative Evaluation of Autogenous Bone Graft and Autologous Platelet-Rich Fibrin with and Without 1.2 mg in situ Rosuvastatin Gel in the Surgical Treatment of Intrabony Defect in Chronic Periodontitis Patients
Contemporary clinical dentistry. 2022;13(1):69-77
CONTEXT Rosuvastatin (RSV) is a new synthetic, hydrophilic statin with potent anti-inflammatory and osseodifferentiation actions. Autogenous bone graft (ABG) is still considered the gold standard in reconstructive bone surgery. Addition of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) to ABG provides sustained release of various growth factors and facilitates survival of the graft. AIMS The study aims to clinically and radiographically compare the effectiveness of ABG and PRF with and without 1.2 mg RSV gel in the surgical treatment of intrabony defect in chronic Periodontitis patient. SETTINGS AND DESIGN This was a randomized controlled clinical trial. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Thirty-nine patients (one site per participant) with chronic periodontitis were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 (open flap debridement [OFD] + placebo), Group 2 (OFD + ABG + PRF), and Group 3 (OFD + ABG + PRF + 1.2 mg RSV). Relative attachment level (RAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD) were recorded at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Radiographic measurements such as defect height (A and B) and defect width (C) were calculated at baseline and 9 months. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED Intergroup comparison was done using Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. An intragroup comparison was done using Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS The mean PPD reduction and mean RAL gain were highly significant in Group 3 and Group 2 than Group 1. For Group 3, a significant reduction of defect height and width and a significant amount of bone fill were achieved than Group 2 and Group 1. CONCLUSIONS Addition of 1.2 mg RSV gel, PRF, and ABG has synergistic effects, explaining their role as a regenerative material in the treatment of intrabony defects.
A Comparative Analysis of Intra-articular Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Arthrocentesis in Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery. 2022;21(1):168-175
OBJECTIVES Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) are progressive disorders which lead to development of arthralgia and functional disabilities of temporomandibular joint. The treatment of the TMDs is controversial; noninvasive and minimally invasive therapies have shown a success rate of 70 to 85% for its management. The objective of present study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and arthrocentesis in management of TMDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty-four patients with complaint of reduced mouth opening, joint noise, pain, jaw deviation, not responding to medicinal treatment and coming under group II/III of RDC/TMD were included. Patients were randomly and equally divided in two groups. In group A, arthrocentesis was performed, whereas group B patients underwent intra-articular injections of PRP. Patients were clinically evaluated preoperatively to 12 months postoperatively. RESULT Both the groups showed significant improvement in painless mouth opening (P < 0.01), lateral movements towards unaffected side (P < 0.05) and reduction in pain complaint (P < 0.01). Arthrocentesis group also showed significant improvement in maximum mouth opening (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION On comparison, both groups were found to have effective treatment modality. However, arthrocentesis has higher success rate for pain elimination, and PRP is more effective in correction of joint noise and jaw deviation.
The use of advanced platelet-rich fibrin after surgical removal of mandibular third molars: a systematic review and meta-analysis
International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2022
The objective of this systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no difference in recovery following surgical removal of mandibular third molars with the application of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) in the extraction socket compared with alternative biomaterials or natural wound healing. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus was conducted. Human randomized controlled trials published in English up until December 31, 2020 were included. Outcome measures were pain, facial swelling, trismus, soft tissue healing, alveolar osteitis, and quality of life; these were evaluated by descriptive statistics and meta-analysis including 95% confidence intervals (CI). Four studies with a low or moderate risk of bias fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A-PRF resulted in significantly lower pain scores when compared with leucocyte platelet-rich fibrin or natural wound healing after 2 days (-16.8, 95% CI -18.9 to -14.7), 3 days (-12.1, 95% CI -13.4 to -10.7), and 7 days (-1.9, 95% CI -2.9 to -0.9). A-PRF seems to have a negligible effect on facial swelling and trismus and some beneficial effect on soft tissue healing. Alveolar osteitis and quality of life were not assessed. The included studies were characterized by considerable heterogeneity and confounding variables. Thus, the level of evidence appears to be inadequate for clinical recommendations according to the focused question.
The effects of lyophilised platelet-rich plasma in third molar extraction sockets and its surrounding tissues
Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 2022;17(2):289-296
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of repeated placement of quantified lyophilised platelet-rich plasma (LPRP) on the soft and hard tissue components. METHODS Lyophilised platelet-rich plasma was topically placed, and later injected, into fresh sockets using the third molar surgical model, randomised according to the split-mouth approach. The control site received placebo. The application of LPRP was done intraoperatively, one month and two months postoperatively. The measured endpoints included post-operative pain, swelling, trismus, pocket depth at mid-distal adjacent second molar, soft tissue healing, and bone formation (which was assessed radiographically). Fifteen healthy young adults, aged between 21 and 35 years, visiting the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic at the University of Malaya were recruited for this study. RESULTS There was no significant difference in post-operative pain, swelling size, trismus, and bone healing within their specific timelines during this study. However, the LPRP group showed significant reduction in pocket depth at the two-month post-operative period, suggesting that LPRP improves soft tissue healing. CONCLUSION Soft tissue healing, measured as the change of periodontal pocket depth, showed significant reduction, suggesting the benefit of LPRP for soft tissue healing. However, bone regeneration and reduction of post-operative sequelae showed no improvement even after quantification and repeated LPRP application.
Regenerative Potential of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) in Socket Preservation in Comparison with Conventional Treatment Modalities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. 2022
BACKGROUND Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) has shown great potential in osteogenesis; however, some studies still question utilizing it as a grafting material. Thus, the aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of PRF when used in socket and ridge preservation procedures. METHODS Electronic searches through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane, Science Citation Index Expanded databases and manual searches of unpublished data, academic theses, and journals were conducted up until July 2021. The outcomes were to assess the ability of PRF as a graft material to preserve bone width, height, and density after tooth extraction. RESULTS Twelve studies were included in the review, using PRF showed significant results in all three outcomes when compared to no grafting at all, however when compared to other commonly used grafting materials it showed a lesser effect. On the other hand, most studies included reported mixing PRF with a graft material showed the best result. The meta-analysis also revealed the significant results in using PRF on the three outcomes. CONCLUSION The meta-analysis of the studies included proved the beneficial effect of PRF in socket preservation surgeries alone or in combination with other graft materials, but further individual multi-centre randomized controlled studies with appropriate sample size are still needed to further confirm our findings.
Efficacy of platelet rich fibrin with and without metformin in the treatment of periodontal osseous defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Acta odontologica Scandinavica. 2022;:1-10
OBJECTIVE The systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Metformin (MF) with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) over PRF alone in the treatment of periodontal osseous defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS An extensive electronic search for articles published up to September 2021 was conducted on 'Embase', 'PubMed' and other library databases accompanied with manual searching. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing MF plus PRF Vs PRF alone in periodontal osseous defects were identified in which periodontal pocket depth (PPD), Clinical attachment level (CAL) and Intrabony defect depth (IBD Depth) were the outcome measures. RESULTS Four studies compared MF plus PRF vs .PRF alone in periodontal osseous defects. Meta-analysis was carried out for PPD reduction, CAL gain and IBD Depth changes. A standardized mean difference (SMD) of 1.86 for PPD reduction, 1.95 for CAL gain and 1.31 for IBD Depth reduction in all the studies was observed and the findings were statistically significant favouring test group. CONCLUSION The systematic review indicates supplemental benefits of combination therapy of MF + PRF over monotherapy in resolving periodontal osseous defects. In our quest to achieve maximum regeneration in periodontal osseous defects, combination therapies such as MF + PRF have reported to be better treatment choices over other modalities.
Evaluation of the Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma versus Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Alleviating Postoperative Inflammatory Morbidities after Lower Third Molar Surgery: A Double-Blind Randomized Study
West African journal of medicine. 2022;39(4):343-349
BACKGROUND Postoperative morbidities following impacted lower third molar (M3) surgery is of concern. The influence of platelets concentrates on postoperative inflammatory sequelae of M3 is promising. However, the comparative efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) to platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in ameliorating postoperative morbidities remains controversial. OBJECTIVE The study aimed to compare the bioactive effects of PRP and PRF on postoperative pain, swelling, and trismus after impacted M3 surgery. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A randomized, parallel-group study of 50 subjects was designed. Preoperative and postoperative swelling, degree of mouth opening and pain were assessed on days 1, 3, and 7. Linear mixed model analysis was used to compare the effects of treatment, time-point assessment within the group, and treatment with time interaction. RESULTS Interaction estimates show statistically significant pain reduction with PRF (p = 0.00, 95% CI [-0.95, -0.25]. Trismus based on a time-point assessment within the PRP and PRF groups was significantly reduced (p =0.01, 95% CI [0.06, 0.38]) and (p = 0.00, 95% CI [0.12, 0.44]) respectively. Facial swelling within the PRP and PRF groups were significantly decreased (p = 0.00, 95% CI [-0.30, -0.06]) and (p = 0.00, 95% CI [-0.37, -0.13) respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for trismus and swelling. Age was a significant predictor of trismus in both groups (p = 0.04, 95% CI [-0.07, -0.01]). CONCLUSION PRF was more effective in reducing postoperative pain compared to PRP. Furthermore, the study shows that platelet concentrates positively modulate post-inflammatory sequelae of impacted M3 surgery.
Effect of an "Autogenous Leukocyte Platelet-Rich Fibrin Tooth Graft" Combination around Immediately Placed Implants in Periodontally Compromised Sites: A Randomized Clinical Trial
International journal of dentistry. 2022;2022:4951455
OBJECTIVE Autogenous tooth bone graft (ATBG) was suggested as a source for bone grafting materials, especially as they have similar chemical composition to bone. This study goal was to assess the clinical and radiographic consequences of ATBG with or without L-PRF on bone deposition around immediate implants placed in periodontally hopeless sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS 26 patients, with periodontally diseased teeth, underwent random assignment to receive the surgical protocol either with L-PRF over ATBG around immediately inserted implants (test group) or without it (control group). Clinical examination was observed. Radiographically, bone changes horizontally and vertically to determine marginal bone loss (MBL) and mesiodistal bone changes were made at the base line and 6 and 9 months after implant insertion. Statistical analysis utilizing paired Student's t-test was used for comparing results within the same group, whereas an independent-sample t-test was used for intergroup variable comparison. RESULTS All implants met the criteria of success without any complications at the follow-up period. Nonsignificant differences were detected between horizontal bone alterations in both groups at 6 and 9 months (P > .001). The test group showed statistically significant lower MBL than the control group (P < .001). The mesiodistal bone gain in the test group was significantly higher than that of the control group at the 6-month period (P < .001). The mesiodistal bone loss in the control group was significantly higher than that of the test group at the 9-month period (P < .001). CONCLUSION The ATBG- L-PRF combination therapy enhances new bone formation and appeared to be a favorable procedure with immediate implant placement, particularly in severe periodontitis cases.