Clinical nursing care protocol for convalescent plasma transfusion in patients with COVID-19
International journal of Africa nursing sciences. 2023;18:100518
INTRODUCTION The treatment of COVID-19 is still challenge. So convalescent plasma can be an important alternative of treatment. Protocols with nursing care during infusion is very important to guide an effective and safety care. OBJECTIVE to analyze the evidence in the literature on the action of convalescent plasma, of the use of protocols with nursing care to use convalescent plasma and build a nursing care protocol for transfusion in patients with COVID-19. METHODS Methodological study carried out in two stages: scoping review. The search was done using the descriptors: convalescent plasma transfusion, convalescent plasma, and acute respiratory syndromes or COVID-19, to found protocols and effectiveness of convalescent plasm. Beside was done a specialist panel to build the protocol. RESULTS Low-evidence studies have shown improvement in the clinical signs of COVID-19 using Convalescent Plasma, reduction or elimination of viral load, benefits in the production of lymphocytes, decreases C-reactive protein, increases titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, positive evolution in lung involvement identified by X-rays, decrease in hospitalization. No studies were found in the databases on the protocol for clinical nursing care in plasma transfusion. Therefore, a protocol was developed with the description of clinical nursing care to be performed before, during and after the transfusion by plasma: checking of vital signs and indicative signs of transfusion reaction, measurement of oxygen saturation, assessment of venous access and checking of the level of consciousness. CONCLUSION There are no evidence studies to support the use of plasma, nor anything related to bundles.
Does the use of platelet-rich plasma in sinus augmentation improve the survival of dental implants? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research. 2023;13(1):57-66
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma is considered an effective modality to promote bone regeneration, improve hard and soft tissue healing in surgical procedures including sinus augmentation. However, the survival of dental implants in sinus augmented sites with platelet-rich plasma has shown equivocal results in recent studies. PURPOSE In this systematic review, data on dental implants' survival in sinus augmentation sites with platelet-rich plasma were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS Randomized controlled trials on the topic with a minimum mean follow-up of 6 months with no language restriction were considered. Other study designs on the topic were excluded. Accordingly, relevant articles were searched in Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane databases, PubMed/Medline, and Scopus up to April 2021. Using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool, the listed studies' risk of bias was evaluated. From the included studies, the pertinent information was taken and pooled for qualitative and quantitative analysis using R software 4.1.1. RESULTS Six randomized controlled trials involving 188 patients who underwent sinus augmentation with and without platelet-rich plasma, and 781 implants were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Four hundred and eleven implants were placed in the intervention group (with platelet-rich plasma) and 370 implants were placed in the control group (without platelet-rich plasma). The pooled estimate (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.91; I(2) = 0%) indicated that there was no statistically significant difference observed between the groups. The test for subgroup differences showed no statistically significant differences between the subgroups (p = 0.45) with no heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). CONCLUSION The bias associated with selective reporting of outcome data was considered as some concern for bias. This systematic review revealed that the effect of platelet-rich plasma is uncertain on the survival of dental implants.
Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid versus platelet-rich plasma following single puncture arthrocentesis for the management of internal derangement of TMJ: A double-blinded randomised controlled trial
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2022
The present study aimed to compare the efficacies of intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) following single needle arthrocentesis in patients with TMJ internal derangement. This double-blinded randomised controlled trial involved the enrolment of patients diagnosed with unilateral TMD, falling into either Wilkes' stages II or III. In Group A, single needle arthrocentesis was performed using Ringer's lactate serving as a control group; in Group B, intra-articular injection of 1 ml hyaluronic acid injection was given following arthrocentesis; and in Group C, autologous intraarticular injections of 1 ml of PRP was given after arthrocentesis, twice in two weeks' interval. The primary outcome variables were maximum mouth opening and pain, while TMJ clicking sounds formed the secondary outcome variable. All the outcome variables were assessed preoperatively (T0) and postoperatively after the second dose of injection at one month (T1), three months (T2), and six months (T3). The alpha level was set to p < 0.05. Ninety patients (N = 90) comprised the final sample size of the study with thirty patients(n = 30) in each treatment group. A statistically significant decrease in the management in mean pain scores was noted between T0 [mean scores were 7.30 ± 1.05 (Group A), 7.63 ± 1.12 (Group B), and 7.56 ± 1.04(Group C)] and T3 [mean scores were 2.66 ± 0.88 (Group A), 2.4 ± 0.72 (Group B), and 1.66 ± 0.66 (Group C)] time intervals between Group A and C(p < 0.001). Significant improvement was noted in preoperative maximum mouth opening (MMO) of Group A, B, and C which was 22.83 ± 3.58, 22.17 ± 4.07, and 21.37 ± 3.69, respectively to 28.90 ± 2.72, 32.17 ± 3.97, and 34.10 ± 3.80 mm, respectively at six months postoperatively (p < 0.001). A significant decrease in joint sounds was evident for all three groups(p = 0.003 for Group A, p < 0.001 for Group B, and p < 0.001 for Group C) across the time intervals. Moreover, Group C showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of joint sound compared to the other two groups at all-time intervals postoperatively when equated to baseline (p = 0.02 at T1, p = 0.009 at T2, and p = 0.002 at T3). Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that intra-articular PRP may be preferable over HA whenever appropriate, following single needle arthrocentesis in the treatment of TMJ internal derangement.
Improving Preparedness of Emergency Medicine Residents in the Management Postpartum Hemorrhage: a randomized controlled study of two pedagogical approaches
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a novel curriculum to enhance knowledge and preparedness of Emergency Medicine (EM) residents in the management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) METHODS A randomized controlled trial examined two pedagogical approaches. Following baseline testing of knowledge and confidence in PPH management, participants were randomized to receive a didactic lecture on PPH management (group A, n=14) or to the didactic lecture followed by simulation-based training on PPH management and debriefing (group B, n=16). Post-intervention, proficiency in PPH management was evaluated by clinical skills simulation and post-intervention assessment for participants. The change in the mean test and clinical skills scores were compared using student's t test. Linear regression examined the effects of covariates. RESULTS Both forms of intervention increased participants' knowledge (group A: mean=2.50 CI (1.63, 3.37), p<0.001; group B: mean=1.56 CI (0.89, 2.24), p<0.001) of and confidence (group A: mean=1.00 (0.46, 1.54),p=0.003; group B: mean=1.00 CI (0.52, 1.48),p=0.001) in PPH management, relative to baseline. However, addition of simulation and debriefing to didactic session did not offer any advantage (knowledge: mean=-0.94 CI (-1.97, 0.10), p=0.074; confidence: mean=0.00 CI (-0.66,0.66), p=1.000). CONCLUSION Delivery of a structured curriculum led to improvement of knowledge and confidence in the management of PPH by EM residents.
Risk of infection in roxadustat treatment for anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:967532
Background: Many studies demonstrated that roxadustat (FG-4592) could increase hemoglobin (Hb) levels effectively in anemia patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, its safety remains controversial. This study aims to explore the risk of infection for CKD patients treated with roxadustat, especially focused on sepsis. Methods: We thoroughly searched for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatment with roxadustat versus erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) or placebo in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, European Union Clinical Trials Register. Both on and not on dialysis anemia patients with CKD were included. Primary outcomes contained the incidence rates of sepsis. Secondary outcomes included infection-related consequences (septic shock and other infection events), general safety outcomes [all-cause mortality, treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and treatment-emergent serious adverse events (TESAEs)] and iron parameters. Moreover, a trial sequential analysis (TSA) was conducted to assess if the results were supposed to be a robust conclusion. Results: Eighteen RCTs (n = 11,305) were included. Overall, the incidence of sepsis (RR: 2.42, 95% CI [1.50, 3.89], p = 0.0003) and cellulitis (RR: 2.07, 95% CI [1.24, 3.44], p = 0.005) were increased in the roxadustat group compared with placebo group. In non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) CKD patients, the incidence of cellulitis (RR 2.01, 95% CI [1.23, 3.28], p = 0.005) was significantly higher in roxadustat group than that in the ESAs or placebo group. Both groups showed similar results in the incidence of septic shock (RR 1.29, 95% CI [0.86, 1.94], p = 0.22). A significant increased risk of all-cause mortality [risk ratios (RR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.05, 1.26], p = 0.002] was found in roxadustat treatment, and TSA confirmed the result. Compared with ESAs or placebo, both the incident rates of TEAEs (RR:1.03, 95% CI [1.01, 1.04], p = 0.008) and TESAEs (RR: 1.06, 95% CI [1.02, 1.11], p = 0.002) were significantly increased in roxadustat group. As for iron parameters, changes from baseline (Δ) of hepcidin (MD: -26.46, 95% CI [-39.83, -13.09], p = 0.0001), Δ ferritin and Δ TSAT were remarkably lower in the roxadustat group, while Δ Hb, Δ iron and Δ TIBC increased significantly versus those in ESAs or placebo group. Conclusion: We found evidence that incidence rates of sepsis and cellulitis are higher in roxadustat group compared with placebo. This may be the result of improved iron homeostasis. The risk of all-cause mortality, TEAEs and TESAEs in CKD patients also increased in patients treated with roxadustat. We need more clinical and mechanistic studies to confirm whether roxadustat really causes infection.
LNG-IUS vs. medical treatments for women with heavy menstrual bleeding: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9:948709
INTRODUCTION To compare efficacy and safety of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with medical treatments for women with heavy menstrual bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in November 2021. All meta-analyses were performed using the random-effects model. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021295379. RESULTS A total of trials (with 14 references) reporting on 1,677 women were included in this systematic review. The majority of the included RCTs were rated with low-to-unclear risk of bias in selection, detection, attrition, reporting, and other bias. All RCTs were rated as high risk in performance bias because blinding was difficult to ensure in the compared groups. Results of meta-analyses revealed that the number of clinical responders was greater in the LNG-IUS group than that in the medical treatments group at both 6-month (steroidal: five RCTs; n = 490; risk ratio [RR]: 1.72 [1.13, 2.62]; I (2) = 92%; nonsteroidal: one RCT; n = 42; RR: 2.34 [1.31, 4.19]) and 12-month (steroidal: three RCTs; n = 261; RR: 1.31 [1.01, 1.71]; I (2) = 74%) endpoints, with no clear differences on number of dropouts, and the incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSION Evidence indicates that LNG-IUS is superior to the medical treatments in short-term and medium-term clinical responses, blood loss control, compliance, and satisfaction. Meanwhile, frequency of adverse events related to LNG-IUS is acceptable. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION PROSPERO, identifier CRD42021259335, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021295379.
Effect of platelet-rich plasma on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement
American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics. 2022
INTRODUCTION This study aimed to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) during en-masse anterior retraction. METHODS Twenty adult patients with Angles Class I bimaxillary protrusion or crowding requiring first premolar extraction for routine orthodontic treatment were divided into control and experimental groups. The control group did not receive PRP, whereas the experimental group received PRP in the alveolar mucosa of the maxillary 6 anterior teeth just before starting en-masse retraction. Measurements were recorded on digital models made from scanned plaster casts at the beginning of space closure and the end of 3 months. The overall rate of OTM between both groups was compared. The amount of anchorage loss and type of anterior retraction on lateral cephalogram was also compared between the groups. RESULTS The overall rate of OTM was minimally increased but not statistically significant in the experimental vs control group (P = 0.838). Anterior retraction parameters in both groups showed incisors moving primarily by controlled tipping and partly by translation. An intergroup comparison of all cephalometric parameters for anchorage loss and anterior retraction showed statistically insignificant differences between both groups. CONCLUSIONS PRP is ineffective in accelerating the rate of OTM during en-masse anterior retraction.
A Randomised Controlled Trial to Compare Injection Ferric Carboxymaltose and Oral Iron in Treating Iron Deficiency Anemia During Pregnancy
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India. 2022;72(6):492-496
INTRODUCTION Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnancy has a prevalence as high as 40-60% in different countries of the world. Oral iron is used to treat his commonest medical disorder in pregnancy. Ferrous sulphate is associated with considerable side effects. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) is a newer iron preparation which allows for single and higher dose (up to 1000 mg) of IV iron infusion. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of FCM and FS in treating IDA during pregnancy. METHODS A randomised control trial was done at a tertiary care centres involving 362 women (181 women each in FS and FCM group). The pregnant anemic women with IDA were enrolled between 18 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. They were given 1000 mg of FCM iv as single dose or were given FS tablets twice daily (120 mg iron daily). The data were collected for rise in the Hb and serum ferritin over a period of 6 weeks. RESULTS Nine and 18 patients were lost to follow-up in the FCM and FS group, respectively. The data were analysed as per protocol analysis. FCM group women showed 2.6 gm% rise in Hb compared to 1.7 gm% of FS group. One hundred and sixty-six out of 172 women in FS group achieved anemia correction at 6 weeks. No difference was observed in the neonatal outcome. No major side effects were observed in the either group. CONCLUSION In our study, FCM was more effective than oral FS in increasing Hb in women with IDA during pregnancy. This clinical benefit with FCM was achieved without the concerns for safety and tolerability of the drug.
Intravenous iron therapy improves the hypercapnic ventilatory response and sleep disordered breathing in chronic heart failure
European journal of heart failure. 2022
BACKGROUND Intravenous iron therapy can improve symptoms in patients with heart failure, anemia and iron deficiency. The mechanisms underlying such an improvement might involve chemoreflex sensing and nocturnal breathing patterns. METHODS Patients with heart failure, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, anemia (hemoglobin <13 g/dL in men; <12 g/dL in women) and iron deficiency (ferritin <100 or 100-299 mcg/L with transferrin saturation <20%) were 2:1 randomized to patients-tailored intravenous ferric carboxymaltose dose or placebo. Chemoreflex sensitivity cardiorespiratory sleep study, symptom assessment and cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed before and two weeks after the last treatment dose. RESULTS Fifty-eight patients (38 active arm / 20 placebo arm) completed the study. Intravenous iron was associated with less severe symptoms, higher hemoglobin (12.5±1.4 vs. 11.7±1.0mg/dl p<0.05) and improved hematinic parameters. Ferric carboxymaltose improved the central hypercapnic ventilatory response (-25.8%, p<0.05 vs. placebo), without changes in peripheral chemosensitivity. In particular, the central hypercapnic ventilatory responses passed from 4.6±6.5 to 2.9±2.9 L/min/mmHg after ferric carboxymaltose and from 4.4±4.6 to 4.6±3.9 L/min/mmHg after placebo (p(treatment*condition) =0.046). In patients presenting with sleep-related breathing disorder, apnea-hypopnea index was reduced with active treatment as compared to placebo (12±11 vs. 19±13 events/h, p<0.05). After ferric carboxymaltose, but not after placebo, both peak oxygen uptake (VO2) increased (Δ1.1±2.0 mL/Kg/min, p<0.05) and VO2/workload slope was steeper (Δ0.67±1.7 L/min/W, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose improves the hypercapnic ventilatory response and sleep-related breathing disorders in patients with heart failure, anemia and iron deficiency. These newly described findings, along with improved oxygen delivery to exercising muscles, likely contribute to the favorable effects of ferric carboxymaltose in anemic patients with heart failure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Racial Disparities in Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Events in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients
Journal of vascular surgery. Venous and lymphatic disorders. 2022
OBJECTIVE COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Recent studies have characterized racial disparities in the incidence of VTE. The aim of our study was to present a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between race and VTE in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS We performed a systematic literature review to evaluate the number of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) events reported by racial groups in COVID-19 hospitalized patients. For qualitative analysis, independent reviewers extracted data from eligible studies, and we utilized the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of design and content for accurate interpretation. For the quantitative analysis, we pooled the ORs with Der Simonian and Laird random effects models. RESULTS The qualitative analysis included 11 studies, and the meta-analysis had six of them. All studies were observational, retrospective cohort studies, except for one retrospective case-control study. Six studies were eligible for the meta-analysis due to high interstudy heterogeneity; thus, variable reports of racial groups reduced the cohort to Black/African American and White patients (n = 9723) in the analysis. The estimated proportion for DVT/PE for Black/African American and Whites was 0.07 (95% CI [0.00, 0.10]) and 0.04 (95% CI [0.00, 0.07]), respectively. The p value of 0.13 suggest non-significant difference in VTE rates between Black/African American and White patients. CONCLUSION In our study, the proportion of DVT/PE events between Black/African American and White COVID-19 patients were comparable. Future COVID-19 studies should include systematic racial group reporting to identify disparities in the setting of thromboembolic events.