The Order of Draw during Blood Collection: A Systematic Literature Review
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18(4)
Blood collection is one of the most common nursing procedures and is not devoid of complications. The order of draw during blood collection is a controversial theme. We aimed to define the efficacy of the order of draw during blood collection to guarantee an exact biochemical result. We carried out a systematic literature review on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Embase, Joanna Briggs Institute, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Articles written in English and published from 2000 to 2020 were considered suitable. The analysis of the 11 articles included highlighted different opinions; however, the most recent evidence declares that the cross-contamination caused by the incorrect order of draw is a trait only in the open system of drawing. The most recent evidence affirms the negligible effect of the order of draw during blood collection when using the closed blood collection system, while it is recommended when using the open collection system.
Molecular and serological markers of human parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Asian journal of transfusion science. 2021;15(2):212-222
BACKGROUND Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is one of the blood-borne viruses. The virus can be transmitted to susceptible individuals by blood or blood products. The virus is not associated with significant disease in general population, while people with underlying problems such as immunodeficiency can cause anemia and arthritis. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the overall prevalence of B19V DNA, anti-B19V IgG, and anti-B19V IgM antibodies in blood donors worldwide. METHODS A systematic search was carried out in online databases for relevant studies from inception until March 30, 2019. Study selection was performed based on predesigned eligibility criteria. The proportion of B19V DNA, anti-B19V IgG, and anti-B19V IgM antibodies were pooled using the inverse variance method. All statistical analyses were performed using the R version 3.5.3, package "meta." RESULTS According to the random-effects model, the pool prevalence of B19V DNA, anti-B19V IgM, and anti-B19V IgG among blood donors was calculated to be 0.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.3%-0.6%), 2.2% (95% CI = 1.3%-3.7%), and 50.1% (95% CI = 43.1%-57.1%), respectively. CONCLUSION For the transmission of B19V through blood, the presence of the virus genome is required, and the present study showed that the prevalence of the virus genome in blood donors is <1%. Therefore, there is no need to screen donated blood for B19V infection.
Sero-epidemiology and associated factors of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis among blood donors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC infectious diseases. 2021;21(1):778
BACKGROUND Transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) remain a major public health problem in developing countries including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, comprehensive information about sero-epidemiology of major TTIs is lacking at the national level. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed at providing the pooled estimate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS Relevant studies published until May 31, 2019 were searched through PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS, HINARI, Cochrane database library, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Google. The methodological quality of articles was assessed using Joanna Brigg's Institute critical appraisal checklist for prevalence and analytical studies. The pooled sero-epidemiology of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis were determined using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using the I(2) statistics. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger's statistics. RESULTS A total of 7921 articles were retrieved, and 7798 were screened for eligibility after duplicates removed. Forty-nine full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; of which 45 were eligible for qualitative and quantitative synthesis: categorized as 36, 34, 31 and 23 studies for estimations of HBV, HIV, HCV and syphilis, respectively. In the random-effects model, the pooled sero-epidemiology of HBV, HIV, HCV and syphilis was 5.20, 2.83, 0.93 and 1.50%, respectively. Moreover, being a male blood donor was significantly associated with HBV and syphilis infection, whereas being a replacement blood donor was significantly associated with a high burden of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. CONCLUSION The pooled sero-epidemiology of major TTIs among blood donors was high. Therefore, there is a need to design prevention and control strategies in a comprehensive approach to reduce the burden.
ABO blood groups and risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Reviews in medical virology. 2021;:e2298
The last few decades have seen a pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which continues to cause substantial morbidity and mortality. ABO blood groups are anthropological and genetic characteristics of a population whose associations with HIV infection are still controversial. This systematic review with meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate whether certain blood groups may have associations with HIV infection. PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases were systematically searched as of 6 September 2021. Grey literature was identified through screening Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant studies. All observational studies providing data on ABO blood group distribution among HIV-infected and uninfected participants were included. Using a random effect model, risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to quantify this relationship. Fifty eligible studies with a total of 3,068,244 participants and 6508 HIV-infected cases were included. The overall analysis found that blood group AB increased the risk of HIV infection by 19% as compared with non-AB blood groups (RR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03-1.39, p = 0.02). Pooled estimates for other blood groups failed to reach statistical significance. Subgroup analyses identified a positive relationship between AB blood group and HIV infection within Asia, patient populations (as opposed to blood donors and general populations), studies with lower sample sizes, high-income countries and studies with a moderate quality score. The sequential omission and re-analysis of studies within sensitivity analyses produced no change in the overall pooled effect. In conclusion, this study identified that blood group AB carriers were more susceptible to HIV infection. Future investigations should be directed toward clarification of the exact role of ABO blood groups in HIV infection and the possible underlying mechanisms.
Seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC infectious diseases. 2021;21(1):131
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. Hepatitis C viral infection is one of the most common causes of transfusion-related hepatitis. Subsequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS PubMed, Google Scholar, Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and Cochrane library, the web of science, African journal of online (AJOL), and Google Scholar was searched. The data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and analyzed by using STATA version 14. Publication bias was checked by funnel plot, contour-enhanced funnel plots, trim and fill analysis and more objectively through Egger's regression test, with P < 0.05 considered to indicate potential publication bias. The heterogeneity of studies was checked using I2 statistics. Pooled analysis was conducted using a weighted inverse variance random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was done by region and study period. A sensitivity analysis was employed. RESULT A total of 25 studies with 197,172 study participants were used to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus among blood donors. The overall seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus was 0.819% (95% CI: 0.67-0.969; I2 = 92.3%). Regional sub-group analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors found to be 0.563% in Somali, 1.08% in Oromia, 0.847% in Amhara, and 0.908% in south nations nationalities and peoples region. CONCLUSION The pooled seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia found to be low. Moreover, there should be systematic strategies that enhance donor screening and retention of safe regular donors.
Knowledge of blood donation and associated factors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMJ open. 2021;11(7):e044343
OBJECTIVE To assess the level of knowledge about blood donation and associated factors in Ethiopia. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS Both published and unpublished cross-sectional studies on the level of knowledge about blood donation in Ethiopia were included. Articles from different databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE, HINARI, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and African Journals Online were searched. Cochrane I(2) statistics were used to check for heterogeneity. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses of evidence of heterogeneity were carried out. Egger's test with funnel plot was conducted to investigate publication bias. RESULT Twenty cross-sectional studies with a total of 8338 study participants (4712 men and 3626 women) were included. The overall nationwide level of knowledge about blood donation was 56.57% (95% CI 50.30 to 62.84). Being in secondary school and above (adjusted OR=3.12; 95% CI 2.34 to 4.16) and being male (adjusted OR=1.81; 95% CI 1.44 to 2.28) were the factors associated with level of knowledge about blood donation. CONCLUSION More than half of the study participants were knowledgeable about blood donation. Sex and educational status were the factors significantly associated with level of knowledge about blood donation in Ethiopia. Therefore, there is a need for education and dissemination of information about blood donation among the general population to build adequate knowledge and maintain regular blood supply.
Men and women living in Ethiopia (20 studies, n= 8,338).
Systematic review to assess the level of knowledge about blood donation and associated factors in Ethiopia.
The overall nationwide level of knowledge about blood donation was 56.57%. Being in secondary school and above and being male were the factors associated with level of knowledge about blood donation.
Prevalence of Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses in blood donors: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis
Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue. 2021
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion centres should understand the epidemiology of emerging diseases that are transmissible through the transfusion of blood components. The risk of transmission of arboviruses through this route has become apparent in recent years. The aim of our study is to summarise the reported prevalence (viraemic rate, seroprevalence and/or antigen detection) of Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in blood donors according to screening test used and world region. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis having searched for information in the main bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus). The prevalence for each of the viruses was calculated according to the screening test used and geographic location. RESULTS We included 18 records on CHIKV, 71 on DENV, and 27 on ZIKV. The highest prevalences of RNA for CHIKV were 1.9% in Puerto Rico (2014), 1.0% in Thailand (2009), and 1.0% in French Polynesia (2014-15). The highest prevalences of RNA for DENV were 5.5% in Saudi Arabia (2015-16), 2.3% in Madeira, Portugal (2012-13), and 0.6% in Brazil (2012). The highest prevalences of RNA for ZIKV were 2.8% in French Polynesia (2013-14), 2.7% in Brazil (2015-16), and 1.8% in Martinique (2016). Overall seroprevalence, as assessed by IgG antibodies, was 21.6% for CHIKV, 24.0% for DENV, and 5.1% for ZIKV. DISCUSSION Our study shows a high proportion of donors who are viraemic and asymptomatic, especially during outbreaks, with prevalences surpassing 5% for DENV, 1% for CHIKV, and 2% for ZIKV. These data confirm a clear threat to blood transfusion safety. The elevated seroprevalence for these three arboviruses is also indicative of their wide circulation in populations, correlating with an increased risk of infected but asymptomatic donors. Health centres and institutions must address this threat, especially in tropical regions where the biggest outbreaks occur.
Back to base pairs: What is the genetic risk for red bloodcell alloimmunization?
Blood reviews. 2021;:100794
Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a serious complication of blood transfusions, challenging selection of compatible units for future transfusions. Genetic characteristics may be associated with the risk of RBC alloimmunization and may therefore serve to identify high-risk patients. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available evidence on genetic risk factors for RBC alloimmunization. Electronic databases were searched up to April 2020 for studies (Search terms included transfusion, alloimmunization and genetic). A total of 2581 alloimmunized cases and 26,558 controls were derived from 24 studies. The alleles that were most frequently studied and that demonstrated significant associations in a meta-analysis with alloimmunization to the Duffy(a) antigen were HLA-DRB1*04 (Odds Ratio 7.80 (95%CI 4.57-13.33)), HLA-DRB1*15 (OR 3.76 (95%CI 2.14-6.59)), and HLA-DRB1*03 (OR 0.12 (95%CI 0.05-0.29)). Furthermore, significant associations with anti-K formation was found for the alleles HLA-DRB1*10 (OR 2.64 (95%CI 1.41-4.95)), HLA*DRB1*11 (OR 2.11, (95%CI 1.34-3.32)), and HLA-DRB1*13 (OR 1.71 (95%CI 1.26-2.33)). Overall, the available evidence was of moderate to low quality, hampering interpretation of reported results. There is an urgent need for high quality evidence on genetic risk factors for RBC alloimmunization.
A Systematic Review of Interventions Used to Increase Blood Donor Compliance with Deferral Criteria
Transfusion medicine and hemotherapy : offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie. 2021;48(2):118-129
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Pre-donation screening of potential blood donors is critical for ensuring the safety of the donor blood supply, and donor deferral as a result of risk factors is practised worldwide. This systematic review was conducted in the context of an expert review convened by the Australian Red Cross Lifeblood in 2013 to consider Lifeblood's injecting drug use (IDU)-related policies and aimed to identify studies assessing interventions to improve compliance with deferral criteria in blood donation settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS MEDLINE/PubMed, OVID Medline, OVID Embase, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL and DARE) databases were searched for studies conducted within blood donation settings that examined interventions to increase blood donor compliance with deferral criteria. Observational and experimental studies from all geographical areas were considered. RESULTS Ten studies were identified that tested at least one intervention to improve blood donor compliance with deferral criteria, including computerized interviews or questionnaires, direct and indirect oral questioning, educational materials, and a combination of a tickbox questionnaire and a personal donor interview. High-quality evidence from a single study was provided for the effectiveness of a computerized interview in improving detection of HIV risk behaviour. Low-quality evidence for the effectiveness of computerized interviews was provided by 3 additional studies. Two studies reported a moderate effect of direct questioning in increasing donor deferral, but the quality of the evidence was low. CONCLUSION This review identified several interventions to improve donor compliance that have been tested in blood donation settings and provided evidence for the effectiveness of computerized interviews in improving detection of risk factors.
Blood donation settings undertaking pre-donation screening (10 studies).
Systematic review to identify interventions to improve blood donor compliance with deferral criteria.
Ten studies were identified that tested at least one intervention to improve blood donor compliance with deferral criteria, including computerized interviews or questionnaires, direct and indirect oral questioning, educational materials, and a combination of a tick-box questionnaire and a personal donor interview. High-quality evidence from a single study was provided for the effectiveness of a computerized interview in improving detection of HIV risk behaviour. Low-quality evidence for the effectiveness of computerized interviews was provided by 3 additional studies. Two studies reported a moderate effect of direct questioning in increasing donor deferral, but the quality of the evidence was low.
Filariasis and transfusion-associated risk: a literature review
Vox sanguinis. 2021
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Filariae are parasitic worms that include the pathogens Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia spp. and Mansonella spp. which are endemic in parts of Africa, Asia, Asia-Pacific, South and Central America. Filariae have a wide clinical spectrum spanning asymptomatic infection to chronic debilitating disease including blindness and lymphedema. Despite successful eradication programmes, filarial infections remain an important -albeit neglected - source of morbidity. We sought to characterize the risk of transfusion transmission of microfilaria with a view to guide mitigation practices in both endemic and non-endemic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A scoping review of scientific publications as well as grey literature was carried out by a group of domain experts in microbiology, transfusion medicine and infectious diseases, representing the parasite subgroup of the International Society of Blood Transfusion. RESULTS Cases of transfusion-transmitted filariasis are rare and confined to case reports of variable quality. Transfusion-associated adverse events related to microfilariae are confined to isolated reports of transfusion reactions. Serious outcomes have not been reported. No known strategies have been implemented, specifically, to mitigate transfusion-transmitted filariasis yet routine blood donor screening for other transfusion-transmissible infections (e.g. hepatitis B, malaria) may indirectly defer donors with microfilaremia in endemic areas. CONCLUSION Rare examples of transfusion-transmitted filariasis, without serious clinical effect, suggest that filariasis poses low transfusion risk. Dedicated mitigation strategies against filarial transfusion transmission are not recommended. Given endemicity in low-resource regions, priority should be on the control of filariasis with public health measures.