Effect of Plasma and Blood Donations on Levels of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Firefighters in Australia: A Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA network open. 2022;5(4):e226257
IMPORTANCE Elevated levels of blood perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes. Firefighters have been exposed to PFASs in firefighting foams and have previously been shown to have higher PFAS levels in blood samples than the general population. No interventions have been shown to reduce PFAS levels. OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of blood or plasma donations on PFAS levels in firefighters in Australia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This 52-week, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolled participants from May 23 to August 23, 2019. Participants were 285 Fire Rescue Victoria staff or contractors with serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) of 5 ng/mL or more who were eligible to donate blood, had not donated blood in the 3 months prior to randomization, and were able to provide written informed consent. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis from May to July 2021. INTERVENTIONS Firefighters with baseline PFOS levels of 5 ng/mL or more were randomly assigned to donate plasma every 6 weeks for 12 months, donate blood every 12 weeks for 12 months, or be observed only. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end points were changes in the serum PFOS and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) levels after 12 months of plasma or blood donations or after observation only. Secondary end points included changes in serum PFAS levels from week 52 to week 64, changes in other PFASs, and changes in complete blood count, biochemistry, thyroid function, and lipid profile from screening to week 52. RESULTS A total of 285 firefighters (279 men [97.9%]; mean [SD] age, 53.0 [8.4] years) were enrolled; 95 were randomly assigned to donate plasma, 95 were randomly assigned to donate blood, and 95 were randomly assigned to be observed. The mean level of PFOS at 12 months was significantly reduced by plasma donation (-2.9 ng/mL; 95% CI, -3.6 to -2.3 ng/mL; P < .001) and blood donation (-1.1 ng/mL; 95% CI, -1.5 to -0.7 ng/mL; P < .001) but was unchanged in the observation group. The mean level of PFHxS was significantly reduced by plasma donation (-1.1 ng/mL; 95% CI, -1.6 to -0.7 ng/mL; P < .001), but no significant change was observed in the blood donation or observation groups. Analysis between groups indicated that plasma donation had a larger treatment effect than blood donation, but both were significantly more efficacious than observation in reducing PFAS levels. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Plasma and blood donations caused greater reductions in serum PFAS levels than observation alone over a 12-month period. Further research is needed to evaluate the clinical implications of these findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12619000204145.
Increased prevalence of transfusion-transmitted diseases among people with tattoos: A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2022;17(1):e0262990
Whether having a tattoo increases the risk of transfusion-transmitted diseases (TTDs) is controversial. Although a few studies have suggested a strong association between having tattoos and TTDs, other studies have not shown the significance of the association. In addition, previous studies mainly focused only on hepatitis C viral infections. The objective of our study was to identify the prevalence and risk of TTDs in people with tattoos as compared with the non-tattooed population. A systematic review of the studies published before January 22, 2021, was performed using the Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Observational studies on hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis infections in people with and without tattoos were included. Studies that reported disease status without serological confirmation were excluded. A total of 121 studies were quantitatively analyzed. HCV (odds ratio [OR], 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.76), HBV (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.31-1.83), and HIV infections (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 2.34-5.39) were more prevalent in the tattooed population. In subgroup analyses, the prevalence of HCV infection was significantly elevated in the general population, hospital patient, blood donor, intravenous (IV) drug user, and prisoner groups. IV drug users and prisoners showed high prevalence rates of HBV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection was significantly increased in the general population and prisoner groups. Having a tattoo is associated with an increased prevalence of TTDs. Our approach clarifies in-depth and supports a guideline for TTD screening in the tattooed population.
Assessing quality of blood components derived from whole blood treated with riboflavin and ultraviolet light and separated with a fully automated device
Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue. 2022
BACKGROUND Combining pathogen reduction and automated separation of whole blood (WB), together with the use of improved additive solutions, may increase reproducibility and extend shelf-life of blood components. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty WB units were collected from volunteer donors and randomised 1:1 into two groups: 1) pathogen reduction with riboflavin and ultraviolet light (PRT); or 2) no treatment (Control). After two hours (h) at room temperature, all units underwent fully automated separation into red blood cell concentrate (RBCC), plasma and leukopack components. RBCCs were leukoreduced and stored in phosphate-adenine-glucose-guanosine-saline-mannitol (PAGGSM) solution while plasma units were shock frozen within 8 h of collection and stored at ≤ -25°C. RBCCs were sampled on day 1 and weekly thereafter until day 42, while plasma was sampled on days 1 and 30. The main study objective was to assess the in vitro quality of separated RBCCs using biochemical and haematological parameters. Plasma protein content after one cycle of freeze-thaw was also analysed. RESULTS The quality of RBCCs was largely comparable between the PRT and Control groups, except for a significantly higher degree of haemolysis and extracellular potassium levels in the PRT group after 35 days of storage. While potassium concentration was significantly higher in the PRT group at all timepoints, the degree of haemolysis exceeded the accepted European threshold (i.e., <0.8% of red cell mass in ≥90.0% of tested units) after day 35. Most plasma protein levels were significantly lower in the PRT than the Control group at both day 1 and day 30. DISCUSSION Pathogen reduction with riboflavin and ultraviolet light treatment of WB can be combined with fully automated separation to obtain RBCCs that may be stored for up to 35 days in PAGGSM solution with acceptable quality, comparable to that of RBCCs from untreated blood. The relative differences between factor concentrations in plasma from the PRT and the Control groups were similar during the 30-day storage.
Knowledge of blood donation and associated factors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMJ open. 2021;11(7):e044343
OBJECTIVE To assess the level of knowledge about blood donation and associated factors in Ethiopia. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS Both published and unpublished cross-sectional studies on the level of knowledge about blood donation in Ethiopia were included. Articles from different databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE, HINARI, EMBASE, Scopus, Google Scholar and African Journals Online were searched. Cochrane I(2) statistics were used to check for heterogeneity. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses of evidence of heterogeneity were carried out. Egger's test with funnel plot was conducted to investigate publication bias. RESULT Twenty cross-sectional studies with a total of 8338 study participants (4712 men and 3626 women) were included. The overall nationwide level of knowledge about blood donation was 56.57% (95% CI 50.30 to 62.84). Being in secondary school and above (adjusted OR=3.12; 95% CI 2.34 to 4.16) and being male (adjusted OR=1.81; 95% CI 1.44 to 2.28) were the factors associated with level of knowledge about blood donation. CONCLUSION More than half of the study participants were knowledgeable about blood donation. Sex and educational status were the factors significantly associated with level of knowledge about blood donation in Ethiopia. Therefore, there is a need for education and dissemination of information about blood donation among the general population to build adequate knowledge and maintain regular blood supply.
Men and women living in Ethiopia (20 studies, n= 8,338).
Systematic review to assess the level of knowledge about blood donation and associated factors in Ethiopia.
The overall nationwide level of knowledge about blood donation was 56.57%. Being in secondary school and above and being male were the factors associated with level of knowledge about blood donation.
Prevalence of Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses in blood donors: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis
Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue. 2021
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion centres should understand the epidemiology of emerging diseases that are transmissible through the transfusion of blood components. The risk of transmission of arboviruses through this route has become apparent in recent years. The aim of our study is to summarise the reported prevalence (viraemic rate, seroprevalence and/or antigen detection) of Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in blood donors according to screening test used and world region. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis having searched for information in the main bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus). The prevalence for each of the viruses was calculated according to the screening test used and geographic location. RESULTS We included 18 records on CHIKV, 71 on DENV, and 27 on ZIKV. The highest prevalences of RNA for CHIKV were 1.9% in Puerto Rico (2014), 1.0% in Thailand (2009), and 1.0% in French Polynesia (2014-15). The highest prevalences of RNA for DENV were 5.5% in Saudi Arabia (2015-16), 2.3% in Madeira, Portugal (2012-13), and 0.6% in Brazil (2012). The highest prevalences of RNA for ZIKV were 2.8% in French Polynesia (2013-14), 2.7% in Brazil (2015-16), and 1.8% in Martinique (2016). Overall seroprevalence, as assessed by IgG antibodies, was 21.6% for CHIKV, 24.0% for DENV, and 5.1% for ZIKV. DISCUSSION Our study shows a high proportion of donors who are viraemic and asymptomatic, especially during outbreaks, with prevalences surpassing 5% for DENV, 1% for CHIKV, and 2% for ZIKV. These data confirm a clear threat to blood transfusion safety. The elevated seroprevalence for these three arboviruses is also indicative of their wide circulation in populations, correlating with an increased risk of infected but asymptomatic donors. Health centres and institutions must address this threat, especially in tropical regions where the biggest outbreaks occur.
A Systematic Review of Interventions Used to Increase Blood Donor Compliance with Deferral Criteria
Transfusion medicine and hemotherapy : offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie. 2021;48(2):118-129
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Pre-donation screening of potential blood donors is critical for ensuring the safety of the donor blood supply, and donor deferral as a result of risk factors is practised worldwide. This systematic review was conducted in the context of an expert review convened by the Australian Red Cross Lifeblood in 2013 to consider Lifeblood's injecting drug use (IDU)-related policies and aimed to identify studies assessing interventions to improve compliance with deferral criteria in blood donation settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS MEDLINE/PubMed, OVID Medline, OVID Embase, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL and DARE) databases were searched for studies conducted within blood donation settings that examined interventions to increase blood donor compliance with deferral criteria. Observational and experimental studies from all geographical areas were considered. RESULTS Ten studies were identified that tested at least one intervention to improve blood donor compliance with deferral criteria, including computerized interviews or questionnaires, direct and indirect oral questioning, educational materials, and a combination of a tickbox questionnaire and a personal donor interview. High-quality evidence from a single study was provided for the effectiveness of a computerized interview in improving detection of HIV risk behaviour. Low-quality evidence for the effectiveness of computerized interviews was provided by 3 additional studies. Two studies reported a moderate effect of direct questioning in increasing donor deferral, but the quality of the evidence was low. CONCLUSION This review identified several interventions to improve donor compliance that have been tested in blood donation settings and provided evidence for the effectiveness of computerized interviews in improving detection of risk factors.
Blood donation settings undertaking pre-donation screening (10 studies).
Systematic review to identify interventions to improve blood donor compliance with deferral criteria.
Ten studies were identified that tested at least one intervention to improve blood donor compliance with deferral criteria, including computerized interviews or questionnaires, direct and indirect oral questioning, educational materials, and a combination of a tick-box questionnaire and a personal donor interview. High-quality evidence from a single study was provided for the effectiveness of a computerized interview in improving detection of HIV risk behaviour. Low-quality evidence for the effectiveness of computerized interviews was provided by 3 additional studies. Two studies reported a moderate effect of direct questioning in increasing donor deferral, but the quality of the evidence was low.
Back to base pairs: What is the genetic risk for red bloodcell alloimmunization?
Blood reviews. 2021;:100794
Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a serious complication of blood transfusions, challenging selection of compatible units for future transfusions. Genetic characteristics may be associated with the risk of RBC alloimmunization and may therefore serve to identify high-risk patients. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the available evidence on genetic risk factors for RBC alloimmunization. Electronic databases were searched up to April 2020 for studies (Search terms included transfusion, alloimmunization and genetic). A total of 2581 alloimmunized cases and 26,558 controls were derived from 24 studies. The alleles that were most frequently studied and that demonstrated significant associations in a meta-analysis with alloimmunization to the Duffy(a) antigen were HLA-DRB1*04 (Odds Ratio 7.80 (95%CI 4.57-13.33)), HLA-DRB1*15 (OR 3.76 (95%CI 2.14-6.59)), and HLA-DRB1*03 (OR 0.12 (95%CI 0.05-0.29)). Furthermore, significant associations with anti-K formation was found for the alleles HLA-DRB1*10 (OR 2.64 (95%CI 1.41-4.95)), HLA*DRB1*11 (OR 2.11, (95%CI 1.34-3.32)), and HLA-DRB1*13 (OR 1.71 (95%CI 1.26-2.33)). Overall, the available evidence was of moderate to low quality, hampering interpretation of reported results. There is an urgent need for high quality evidence on genetic risk factors for RBC alloimmunization.
Pathologic Blood Samples Tolerate Exposure to Vibration and High Turbulence in Simulated Drone Flights, but Plasma Samples Should be Centrifuged After Flight
IEEE journal of translational engineering in health and medicine. 2021;9:4000110
OBJECTIVE Most of the previous studies of drone transport of blood samples examined normal blood samples transported under tranquil air conditions. We studied the effects of 1- and 2-hour drone flights using random vibration and turbulence simulation (10-30 g-force) on blood samples from 16 healthy volunteers and 74 patients with varying diseased. METHODS Thirty-two of the most common analytes were tested. For biochemical analytes, we used plasma collected in lithium heparin tubes with and without separator gel. Gel samples were analyzed for the effect of separation by centrifugation before or after turbulence. Turbulence was simulated in an LDS V8900 high-force shaker using random vibration (range, 5-200 Hz), with samples randomly allocated to 1- or 2-hour flights with 25 or 50 episodes of turbulence from 10 to 30 G. RESULTS For all hematologic and most biochemical analytes, test results before and after turbulence exposure were similar (bias < 12%, intercepts < 10%). However, aspartate aminotransferase, folate, lactate dehydrogenase and lipid index increased significantly in samples separated by gel and centrifugation prior to vibration and turbulence test. These changes increased form 10 G to 30 G, but were not observed when the samples were separated after vibration and turbulence. CONCLUSIONS Whole blood showed little vulnerability to turbulence, whereas plasma samples separated from blood cells by gel may be significantly influenced by turbulence when separated by spinning before the exposure. Centrifugation of plasma samples collected in tubes with separator gel should be avoided before drone flights that could be subject to turbulence.
Seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC infectious diseases. 2021;21(1):131
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. Hepatitis C viral infection is one of the most common causes of transfusion-related hepatitis. Subsequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS PubMed, Google Scholar, Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and Cochrane library, the web of science, African journal of online (AJOL), and Google Scholar was searched. The data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and analyzed by using STATA version 14. Publication bias was checked by funnel plot, contour-enhanced funnel plots, trim and fill analysis and more objectively through Egger's regression test, with P < 0.05 considered to indicate potential publication bias. The heterogeneity of studies was checked using I2 statistics. Pooled analysis was conducted using a weighted inverse variance random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was done by region and study period. A sensitivity analysis was employed. RESULT A total of 25 studies with 197,172 study participants were used to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus among blood donors. The overall seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus was 0.819% (95% CI: 0.67-0.969; I2 = 92.3%). Regional sub-group analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors found to be 0.563% in Somali, 1.08% in Oromia, 0.847% in Amhara, and 0.908% in south nations nationalities and peoples region. CONCLUSION The pooled seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia found to be low. Moreover, there should be systematic strategies that enhance donor screening and retention of safe regular donors.
The Order of Draw during Blood Collection: A Systematic Literature Review
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18(4)
Blood collection is one of the most common nursing procedures and is not devoid of complications. The order of draw during blood collection is a controversial theme. We aimed to define the efficacy of the order of draw during blood collection to guarantee an exact biochemical result. We carried out a systematic literature review on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Embase, Joanna Briggs Institute, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Articles written in English and published from 2000 to 2020 were considered suitable. The analysis of the 11 articles included highlighted different opinions; however, the most recent evidence declares that the cross-contamination caused by the incorrect order of draw is a trait only in the open system of drawing. The most recent evidence affirms the negligible effect of the order of draw during blood collection when using the closed blood collection system, while it is recommended when using the open collection system.