Global epidemiology of occult hepatitis B virus infections in blood donors, a systematic review and meta-analysis
Takuissu, G. R., Kenmoe, S., Amougou Atsama, M., Atenguena Okobalemba, E., Mbaga, D. S., Ebogo-Belobo, J. T., Bowo-Ngandji, A., Oyono, M. G., Magoudjou-Pekam, J. N., Kame-Ngasse, G. I., et al
PloS one. 2022;17(8):e0272920
This study aimed to assess the global prevalence of occult hepatitis B in blood donors. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Global Index Medicus, and Excerpta Medica Database. Study selection and data extraction were performed by at least two independent investigators. Heterogeneity (I2) was assessed using the χ2 test on the Cochran Q statistic and H parameters. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analyses. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42021252787. We included 82 studies in this meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of OBI was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.4-7.1) in HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood donors. Only sporadic cases of OBI were reported in HBsAg negative and anti-HBc negative blood donors. The overall prevalence of OBI was 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.4) in HBsAg negative blood donors. The prevalence of OBI was generally higher in countries with low-income economic status. The results of this study show that despite routine screening of blood donors for hepatitis B, the transmission of HBV by blood remains possible via OBI and/or a seronegative window period; hence there is a need for active surveillance and foremost easier access to molecular tests for the screening of blood donors before transfusion.
Cardiovascular Benefits for Blood Donors? A Systematic Review
Quee FA, Peffer K, Ter Braake AD, Van den Hurk K
Transfusion medicine reviews. 2022
It has been proposed that blood donation could be protective against cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to systematically summarize and evaluate existing observational and experimental studies on effects of blood donation on cardiovascular risk and disease in donor and general populations. The electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE were searched until March 2019 for experimental and observational studies on blood donation and cardiovascular risk or disease. Excluded were studies performed in patient populations or with controls compared to a patient population, and studies performed in individuals aged <18 or >70. All identified studies were independently screened for eligibility and quality using validated scoring systems by 2 reviewers. A total of 44 studies met all criteria. We included 41 observational studies and 3 experimental studies. 14 studies had a quality assessment score of 7 or higher. Of those, a majority of 9 studies reported a protective effect of blood donation, while 5 studies found no effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Results on other various outcomes were inconsistent and study quality was generally poor. Whether or not blood donation protects against cardiovascular disease remains unclear. Studies showing beneficial effects may have inadequately dealt with the healthy donor effect. High quality studies are lacking and therefore definite conclusions cannot be drawn. Large RCTs or cohort studies of high quality with sufficient follow-up should be conducted to provide evidence on the possible association between blood donation and cardiovascular disease.
Blood donors (41 observational studies and 3 experimental studies).
Systematic review to summarize and evaluate existing observational and experimental studies on effects of blood donation on cardiovascular risk and disease in donor and general populations.
From the 44 included studies, 14 had a quality assessment score of 7 or higher. Of those, a majority of 9 studies reported a protective effect of blood donation, while 5 studies found no effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Results on other outcomes were inconsistent and study quality was generally poor. It was unclear whether blood donation protected against cardiovascular disease. High quality studies were lacking.
Hepatitis C virus screening reactive among blood donors in mainland China: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Zhou Q, Liu A, Wang S, Li J, He M, Chen L
Transfusion medicine (Oxford, England). 2022
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be transmitted by blood transfusion. The aim of this meta-analysis is to estimate the anti-HCV reactive rate and to define the demographic characteristics of blood donors who have potential threats to blood safety in mainland China for nearly 30 years, in order to provide a safe reference for blood transfusion and corresponding guidance for policymakers to increase blood safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS Literature reporting the anti-HCV screening reactive rate in Chinese blood donors was identified by systematic searching of four electronic databases from 1991 to 2017. The Preferred Reporting of Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were strictly followed, and data manipulation and statistical analysis were performed by Stata 15.0. RESULTS Our results showed that the post-donation anti-HCV reactive rate was 0.53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51%-0.55%) with a significant variation from 1.58% (95% CI, 1.13%-2.03%) before 1998 to 0.51% (95% CI, 0.48%-0.53%) after 1998 when the Blood Donation Law was implemented in China. In addition, anti-HCV screening reactive rate for family or replacement donors was significantly higher than that in individual voluntary blood donors. CONCLUSION Our results indicated that blood centres in China should convert more eligible first-time donors into repeat donors and turn the 'real family or replacement donors' into individual voluntary blood donors to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV. In the meantime, large surveys should be carried out among volunteer donors from high-risk populations.
Prevalence of positivity to antibodies to hepatitis C virus among volunteer blood donors in China: a meta-analysis
Zhang B, Wang R, Jiang K, Fang X, Li H, Dang N, Zhang T, Zeng B
Public health. 2021;199:87-95
OBJECTIVES Safe blood transfusion plays an important role in the prevention of transfusion-transmissible infections, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major problems associated with this procedure. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in Chinese blood donors. STUDY DESIGN The study design of this study is a meta-analysis. METHODS Eligible studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database and Wanfang literature databases from 2010 to 2020. The effect measure was presented as HCV prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Q test was used to assess the heterogeneity, and the I(2) statistics was determined to decide whether a random effects model or a fixed effects model should be used as the pooling method. Subgroup analyses were also conducted. RESULTS A total of 62 eligible studies, including 9,007,220 HCV blood donors, were analysed. Of the total blood donors, 35,017 were infected with HCV. The pooled HCV prevalence was 0.415% (95% CI: 0.371-0.458). The subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence of positivity to anti-HCV antibodies was significantly different in each year (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in HCV prevalence in terms of sex. Moreover, the prevalence of positivity to anti-HCV was remarkably higher in first-time blood donors than in repeat blood donors (P < 0.05), and the rate of HCV infection among university students was significantly lower than that among soldiers (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The rate of HCV infection showed a downward trend from 2010 to 2014, increased in 2015-2016, and finally decreased in 2017-2018. Thus, the prevalence of HCV infection has decreased in Chinese blood donors after comprehensive prevention and treatment.
Prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections in Iranian Blood Donors; An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Kasraian, L., Imanieh, M. H., Tabrizi, R., Shahriarirad, R., Erfani, A., Hosseini, S.
Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases. 2021;13(3):237-252
BACKGROUND Awareness of the prevalence of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, as blood transmitted infections, among blood donors can help policymakers improve the guidelines, share experiences, and estimate the blood safety over the country and in the region. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Iranian blood donors based on the present published literature. METHODS A meta-analysis was carried out based on the results of an electronic literature search in the international and national databases for all articles published until October 2020. We selected studies that had appropriate sampling and valid statistical analysis as well as proper measurement methods. The heterogenic indices of the studies were determined using Cochran's (Q) and I-square (I2) tests. According to the heterogeneity results, a fixed or random-effects model was implemented to estimate the pooled prevalence of HBV and HCV. Meta-regression was conducted to explore the suspected sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS We included 61 and 58 eligible studies related to HBV and HCV, respectively. The pooled prevalence of HBV was 0.57% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47 - 0.67, I2: 99.9%) among the blood donors. The range of prevalence rates of HBV was between 0.10% and 2.34% in different areas of Iran. The pooled prevalence of HCV was 0.22% (95% CI: 0.20 - 0.24, I2: 98.64%) in blood donors, which varied between 0.02% and 1.09% in separate locations. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that the year of publication, geographical location, and quality of the studies probably generated the heterogeneity. CONCLUSION The prevalence of HBV and HCV decreased steadily in Iranian blood donors during the past two decades. It should be asserted that most of the health policies and safety measures taken in recent years in Iran have been effective and promising.
Seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Lake EA, Fite RO, Gebrekirstos LG, Gebremedhin MH, Obsa MS, Gelaw KA
BMC infectious diseases. 2021;21(1):131
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion is one of the routine therapeutic interventions in hospitals that can be lifesaving. However, this intervention is related to several transfusion-related infections. Hepatitis C viral infection is one of the most common causes of transfusion-related hepatitis. Subsequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS PubMed, Google Scholar, Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI), Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and Cochrane library, the web of science, African journal of online (AJOL), and Google Scholar was searched. The data were extracted using Microsoft Excel and analyzed by using STATA version 14. Publication bias was checked by funnel plot, contour-enhanced funnel plots, trim and fill analysis and more objectively through Egger's regression test, with P < 0.05 considered to indicate potential publication bias. The heterogeneity of studies was checked using I2 statistics. Pooled analysis was conducted using a weighted inverse variance random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was done by region and study period. A sensitivity analysis was employed. RESULT A total of 25 studies with 197,172 study participants were used to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis c virus among blood donors. The overall seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus was 0.819% (95% CI: 0.67-0.969; I2 = 92.3%). Regional sub-group analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of hepatitis c virus infection among blood donors found to be 0.563% in Somali, 1.08% in Oromia, 0.847% in Amhara, and 0.908% in south nations nationalities and peoples region. CONCLUSION The pooled seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among blood donors in Ethiopia found to be low. Moreover, there should be systematic strategies that enhance donor screening and retention of safe regular donors.
The Order of Draw during Blood Collection: A Systematic Literature Review
Bazzano G, Galazzi A, Giusti GD, Panigada M, Laquintana D
International journal of environmental research and public health. 2021;18(4)
Blood collection is one of the most common nursing procedures and is not devoid of complications. The order of draw during blood collection is a controversial theme. We aimed to define the efficacy of the order of draw during blood collection to guarantee an exact biochemical result. We carried out a systematic literature review on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, Embase, Joanna Briggs Institute, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Articles written in English and published from 2000 to 2020 were considered suitable. The analysis of the 11 articles included highlighted different opinions; however, the most recent evidence declares that the cross-contamination caused by the incorrect order of draw is a trait only in the open system of drawing. The most recent evidence affirms the negligible effect of the order of draw during blood collection when using the closed blood collection system, while it is recommended when using the open collection system.
Examining knowledge translation in blood donor research: A review of vasovagal reaction literature
Thijsen, A., Masser, B., Davison, T. E., Kruse, S. P., Williamson, A.
BACKGROUND Knowledge translation focuses on the transfer of research findings into policy and practice. To provide insight into the state of knowledge translation in blood donor research, we undertook a rapid review of a key research area in the field with high potential for translation, vasovagal reactions (VVRs). We examined the number and nature of VVR-related studies to determine the availability of research evidence, and mapped the included articles along the research-to-practice trajectory using the Knowledge to Action framework. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched for peer-reviewed journal articles from inception to October 2019 using the terms blood don* AND vasovagal OR faint* OR syncope. RESULTS A total of 176 articles met our inclusion criteria. Studies relating to VVRs increased substantially from 1942 to 2019, with 84% published in the last 20 years. Articles were predominately observation (non-intervention) studies (117; 66%), followed by intervention (knowledge inquiry) studies (31; 18%) and review (knowledge synthesis) studies (20; 11%). The evidence from intervention research was limited, with 14 strategies tested in 31 studies and often by the same research groups. Only 5 (3%) implementation and evaluation studies were found; all focused on evaluating the effects of a newly introduced intervention on VVR rates through uncontrolled or cross-sectional study designs. DISCUSSION VVR research is in the early stages of knowledge translation. More intervention research is needed to provide a robust evidence base as well as more published implementation research to share knowledge of translating research into policy and practice.
Prevalence of Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses in blood donors: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis
Giménez-Richarte Á, de Salazar MO, Arbona C, Giménez-Richarte MP, Collado M, Fernández PL, Quiles F, Clavijo C, Marco P, Ramos-Rincon JM
Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue. 2021
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion centres should understand the epidemiology of emerging diseases that are transmissible through the transfusion of blood components. The risk of transmission of arboviruses through this route has become apparent in recent years. The aim of our study is to summarise the reported prevalence (viraemic rate, seroprevalence and/or antigen detection) of Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in blood donors according to screening test used and world region. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis having searched for information in the main bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus). The prevalence for each of the viruses was calculated according to the screening test used and geographic location. RESULTS We included 18 records on CHIKV, 71 on DENV, and 27 on ZIKV. The highest prevalences of RNA for CHIKV were 1.9% in Puerto Rico (2014), 1.0% in Thailand (2009), and 1.0% in French Polynesia (2014-15). The highest prevalences of RNA for DENV were 5.5% in Saudi Arabia (2015-16), 2.3% in Madeira, Portugal (2012-13), and 0.6% in Brazil (2012). The highest prevalences of RNA for ZIKV were 2.8% in French Polynesia (2013-14), 2.7% in Brazil (2015-16), and 1.8% in Martinique (2016). Overall seroprevalence, as assessed by IgG antibodies, was 21.6% for CHIKV, 24.0% for DENV, and 5.1% for ZIKV. DISCUSSION Our study shows a high proportion of donors who are viraemic and asymptomatic, especially during outbreaks, with prevalences surpassing 5% for DENV, 1% for CHIKV, and 2% for ZIKV. These data confirm a clear threat to blood transfusion safety. The elevated seroprevalence for these three arboviruses is also indicative of their wide circulation in populations, correlating with an increased risk of infected but asymptomatic donors. Health centres and institutions must address this threat, especially in tropical regions where the biggest outbreaks occur.
Sero-epidemiology and associated factors of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis among blood donors in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Melku M, Ambachew S, Enawgaw B, Abebe M, Abebe Z, Deressa T, Damtie D, Biadgo B, Tessema B, Geremew D, et al
BMC infectious diseases. 2021;21(1):778
BACKGROUND Transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) remain a major public health problem in developing countries including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, comprehensive information about sero-epidemiology of major TTIs is lacking at the national level. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed at providing the pooled estimate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis among blood donors in Ethiopia. METHODS Relevant studies published until May 31, 2019 were searched through PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, SCOPUS, HINARI, Cochrane database library, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Google. The methodological quality of articles was assessed using Joanna Brigg's Institute critical appraisal checklist for prevalence and analytical studies. The pooled sero-epidemiology of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis were determined using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity between the studies was assessed using the I(2) statistics. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger's statistics. RESULTS A total of 7921 articles were retrieved, and 7798 were screened for eligibility after duplicates removed. Forty-nine full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; of which 45 were eligible for qualitative and quantitative synthesis: categorized as 36, 34, 31 and 23 studies for estimations of HBV, HIV, HCV and syphilis, respectively. In the random-effects model, the pooled sero-epidemiology of HBV, HIV, HCV and syphilis was 5.20, 2.83, 0.93 and 1.50%, respectively. Moreover, being a male blood donor was significantly associated with HBV and syphilis infection, whereas being a replacement blood donor was significantly associated with a high burden of HIV, HBV and HCV infections. CONCLUSION The pooled sero-epidemiology of major TTIs among blood donors was high. Therefore, there is a need to design prevention and control strategies in a comprehensive approach to reduce the burden.