Association of ABO blood group with indices of disease severity and multiorgan dysfunction in COVID-19
Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine. 2021;:100812
Association of the ABO blood group with SARS-CoV-2 infection in a community with low infection rate
Vox Sanguinis. 2021
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Reports on the association of the ABO phenotypes with infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus have mostly come from countries with high infection rates. This study examined the possible association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ABO phenotype in Black Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS This report is from a single centre where both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients were quarantined. At the time of this report, Oyo State, Nigeria had carried out 15 733 tests of which 3119 were positive for the virus with 1952 recoveries and 37 deaths. The ABO distribution of patients was compared with that of a blood donor population. RESULTS Of the 302 participants, 297 (98%) had their blood group determined, asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals were 123 (40·7%) and 179 (59·3%) respectively. Blood group O was significantly less represented among the patients (P < 0·01) while blood groups B and AB were significantly more represented (P < 0·01, P = 0·03 respectively). Patients with anti-B (groups A and O) were significantly less represented than those without anti-B (B and/or AB): B and AB (P < 0·001), B (P = 0·002), AB (P = 0·01). There was no difference in the blood group distribution of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients (χ(2) (3, N = 302) = 2·29; P = 0·51), but symptomatic patients with anti-A (groups B and O) were more represented than asymptomatic patients with anti-A (χ(2) 4·89; P = 0·03). CONCLUSION The higher prevalence of blood group O and more potent beta haemolysins (anti-B antibodies) are likely reasons for the lower infectivity by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and severity of COVID-19 disease in the community.
[COVID-19 and ABO blood types - Where do we stand?]
Medecine Sciences : M/S. 2021
ABO blood groups, COVID-19 infection and mortality
Blood cells, molecules & diseases. 2021;89:102571
BACKGROUND A recent study showed that the ABO gene, chr 9q34.2, which determines blood type, may affect COVID-19 disease severity, although this result has not been reproducible. A UK study of 2200 COVID-19 patients found no relationship of ABO blood type to disease severity. A Danish study identified ABO blood group as a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection but not for hospitalization or death from COVID-19. AIM: In the current study, we wished to analyze the relationship of ABO blood group and the ABO genetic locus to COVID-19 test positivity and mortality in subjects from the UK Biobank (UKB). METHODS ABO blood type is from UKB data field 23165. Blood type was imputed for genotyped UK Biobank participants using three SNPs (rs505922, rs8176719, and rs8176746) in the ABO gene on chromosome 9q34.2. We analyzed the chromosome 9 snp rs657152 to assess the relationship of the ABO locus to COVID-19 test positivity and mortality. RESULTS COVID-19 test results (negative or positive) were not related to blood group in males (p = 0.977, two tailed Fisher exact test) or females (p = 0.548). COVID-19 outcomes (alive or died) were not related to blood group in males (p = 0.102, two tailed Fisher exact test) or females (p = 0.226). We found no significant relationship of rs657152 to COVID-19 test positivity or mortality. CONCLUSION We were not able to confirm that ABO blood group influences risk of COVID-19 infection or outcome.
Blood Group Distribution among COVID-19 Patients in a Nigerian Treatment Centre
West African Journal of Medicine. 2021;38(5):494-497
BACKGROUND Biomarkers of susceptibility to COVID-19 are being investigated by many scientists all over the world. The ABO blood group antigens are the most frequently studied genetic markers. Reports from China and USA have shown that people with blood group A are more susceptible to COVID- 19 while those with blood group O are least susceptible. METHODS The ABO blood group of 51 patients with COVID-19 admitted at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria was determined and compared with the ABO blood group distribution in the general population. RESULTS Out of the 51 patients, 39 (76.5%) were males and 12 (23.5%) were females, giving a male: female ratio of 3.25:1. Out of the 51 patients, 29 (56.9%) had blood group O, 12 (23.5%) had blood group A, 10 (19.6%) had blood group B and none (0%) had blood group AB. This blood group distribution was comparable to the blood group distribution in the general population. CONCLUSION Preliminary analysis of the blood group distribution of COVID-19 patients being managed at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital in Nigeria found no relationship between COVID-19 and ABO blood group. More studies are needed particularly in Africa to determine if ABO blood group can be a biomarker of susceptibility to COVID-19 among Africans.
Relationship of ABO Blood Groups to SARS-COV-2 Infection Causing COVID-19 Disease
Konuralp Tip Dergisi. 2021;13(1):18-23
Objective: We aimed to investigate whether there is a predisposition to COVID-19 with ABO and Rh blood group systems Methods: The clinical data of 455 patients with COVID-19 seen between April 17, 2020 and June 30, 2020 at the Necip Fazil City Hospital were retrospectively analyzed studied The differences in the ABO blood group distribution between COVID-19 patients and the control group (7844 cases) were analyzed Results: The percentage of patients with type O blood in the COVID-19 group was significantly lower than that in the control group (29 7% vs 35 6%, p = 0 009) The percentage of patients with type A and B blood in the COVID-19 set was higher than in the control group however, there were no significant difference, respectively (44 4% vs 40 8%, 19 3% vs 16 6%, p = 0 134, p=0 123) Patients with blood group O had a lower risk of COVID- 19 than A, B blood group patients (respectively;OR = 0 732, OR=0 594, p = 0 023, p=0 001) The risk of COVID-19 was higher for patients with blood groups A and B than with a blood group O (OR = 1 365, OR= 1 684, p = 0 023, p=0 001) The Rh blood group phenotype was not statistically significant in determining a patient's vulnerability Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that while the blood group O had a low risk an decreased risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, whereas blood group A and B was associated related with a increased risk, indicating that certain specific ABO blood groups were connected correlated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility
Lack of association between ABO blood groups and susceptibility to SARS‐CoV‐2 infection: Bulletin of the Centraal Laboratorium van de Bloedtransfusiedienst of the Nederlandse Rode Kruis
Vox Sanguinis. 2021;116(2):251-252
A blood supply chain network with backup facilities considering blood groups and expiration date: A real-world application
International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications. 2021;34(2):470-479
The purpose of this paper is to design a green Blood Supply Chain (BSC) network regarding expiration date and backup facilities The proposed model is a bi-objective Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) one The two objective functions are to minimize the total cost and the detrimental environmental impacts of shipping between facilities and generated wastes in the network A Goal Programming (GP) approach is used to convert the multi-objective model into a single one Moreover, to meet the demand, blood groups and plasma expiration date are also investigated Since it has been proven that plasma of the people who have fully recovered from COVID-19, can help other patients to recover from this insidious disease;therefore, the proposed BSC network can supply the needs of this particular category of patients as well To examine the feasibility of the proposed model, some random examples with different dimensions are generated and solved using the CPLEX solver of GAMS software Furthermore, a real-case problem in Esfahan (Iran) was investigated to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model, and the sensitivity analysis was performed as well Results approved the applicability of the proposed model in a real situation © 2021 Materials and Energy Research Center All rights reserved
Why blood group A individuals are at risk whereas blood group O individuals are protected from SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection: A hypothesis regarding how the virus invades the human body via ABO(H) blood group-determining carbohydrates
While the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein is defined as the primary severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor, the viral serine molecule might be mobilized by the host's transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 (TMPRSS2) enzyme from the viral spike (S) protein and hijack the host's N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) metabolism. The resulting hybrid, serologically A-like/Tn (T nouvelle) structure potentially acts as a host-pathogen functional molecular bridge. In humans, this intermediate structure will hypothetically be replaced by ABO(H) blood group-specific, mucin-type structures, in the case of infection hybrid epitopes, implicating the phenotypically glycosidic accommodation of plasma proteins. The virus may, by mimicking the synthetic pathways of the ABO(H) blood groups, bind to the cell surfaces of the blood group O(H) by formation of a hybrid H-type antigen as the potential precursor of hybrid non-O blood groups, which does not affect the highly anti-glycan aggressive anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinin activities, exerted by the germline-encoded nonimmune immunoglobulin M (IgM). In the non-O blood groups, which have developed from the H-type antigen, these IgM activities are downregulated by phenotypic glycosylation, while adaptive immunoglobulins might arise in response to the hybrid A and B blood group structures, bonds between autologous carbohydrates and foreign peptides, suggesting the exertion of autoreactivity. The non-O blood groups thus become a preferred target for the virus, whereas blood group O(H) individuals, lacking the A/B phenotype-determining enzymes and binding the virus alone by hybrid H-type antigen formation, have the least molecular contact with the virus and maintain the critical anti-A and anti-B isoagglutinin activities, exerted by the ancestral IgM, which is considered the humoral spearhead of innate immunity.
Association of Blood Groups with the Severity and Outcome of COVID-19 Infection in Children
Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : Jcpsp. 2021;30(1):S57-s59
The objective of this study was to find out the association of ABO blood groups with the severity and outcome of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. It included all laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 and post-COVID multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)/ Kawasaki disease (KD) like illness, admitted from March to September, 2020 to The Children's Hospital, Lahore. Out of 66 children, 45 (68.2%) were COVID-19 and 21 (31.8%) MIS-C/KD temporally associated with SARS-C0V-2. The mean age was 7.9 ± 4.2 years. Majority of children had mild to moderate illness 38 (57.6%), while 23 (34.8%) had severe or critical disease. Among all patients, 24 (36.4%) had some underlying comorbidity. Blood group A was significantly associated with severe and critical disease (p=0.030). COVID-19 in children had generally a good outcome, but children with blood group A were more susceptible to severe/critical disease. Key Words: Coronavirus disease 2019, ABO blood groups, Children, Severity, Outcome.