ABO blood group influence COVID-19 infection: a meta-analysis
Journal of infection in developing countries. 2021;15(12):1801-1807
INTRODUCTION Previous studies have linked the relationship between ABO blood group and COVID-19 infection. However, existing evidence is preliminary and controversial. This meta-analysis sought to identify studies that describe COVID-19 and ABO blood group. METHODOLOGY A literature search was conducted from PubMed, Web of Science, MedRxiv, BioRxiv and Google Scholar databases. Members of cases and controls were extracted from collected studies. Pooled Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated and interpreted from extracted data. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also applied to confirm our discovery. RESULTS Total 13,600 patients and 3,445,047 controls were included in the study. Compared to other ABO blood group, blood group O was associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection (OR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.66-0.84), while blood group A and AB was associated with a higher risk (OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.10-1.41; OR = 1.13, 95%CI 1.04-1.23, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, the relationship between blood group A, O and COVID-19 infection remained stable among Chinese, European and Eastern Mediterranean populations. In American population, blood groups B was linked with increased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.09-1.35). CONCLUSIONS Our data suggested that individuals with blood types A and AB are more susceptible to COVID-19, while people with blood type O are less susceptible to infection. More research is needed to clarify the precise role of the ABO blood group in COVID-19 infection to address the global question.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the susceptibility of ABO blood group to COVID-19 infection
Transfusion and Apheresis Science : Official Journal of the World Apheresis Association : Official Journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. 2021;60(4):103169
BACKGROUND Numerous studies investigate the association between the ABO blood groups and the occurrence of COVID-19 infection; discordant findings were reported. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the existing evidence on the susceptibility of the ABO blood group to COVID-19 infection. METHODS Systematically searched published articles in PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and EMBASE between 1 st January 2020 and 21 st March 2021. After quality control and the exclusion of irrelevant studies, 16 studies were included in the final analysis. RESULTS Although the random-effect meta-analysis revealed a large heterogeneity among studies, I 2 = 99.197 %. The pooled event rates and (95 % CIs) for A, O, B, and AB blood group were 0.459 (95 %CI: 0.358-0.441), 0.342 (95 %CI: 0.298-0.374), 0.180 (95 %CI: 0.150-0.214), and 0.076 (95 %CI: 0.055-0.127), respectively. These results indicated that the COVID-19 infection rate was higher in persons with blood group A > O > B > AB. Overall, the ABO blood group's vulnerability to COVID-19 infection was statistically significant (pooled p -value<0.001). CONCLUSION This meta-analysis offers a further indication of blood group A individuals' vulnerability to COVID-19 infection, and blood type AB are linked to a lower risk of COVID-19 infection.
ABO blood group and COVID-19: an updated systematic literature review and meta-analysis
Blood Transfusion = Trasfusione Del Sangue. 2021
BACKGROUND Following the first reports in the literature, the association between the ABO blood group and SARS-CoV-2 infection has been investigated by a number of studies, although with varying results. The main object of this systematic review was to assess the relationship between the ABO blood group and the occurrence and severity of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic literature search using appropriate MeSH terms was performed through Medline and PubMed. The outcomes considered were the prevalence of the blood group O vs non-O types in SARS-CoV-2 infected and non-infected subjects, and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection according to ABO group. The methodological quality of the studies included in the analysis was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and the overall quality of the available evidence using the GRADE system. Benchmarks used to evaluate the effect size were odd ratios (ORs) for case control studies and risk ratios (RRs) for cohort studies. RESULTS Twenty-one studies were included in the analysis. Overall, individuals with group O had a lower infection rate compared to individuals of non-O group (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.86). However, the difference in the effect size was significantly lower in cohort studies compared to case control studies. No evidence was found indicating an effect of the O type on the disease severity in the infected patients. DISCUSSION We have found low/very low evidence that group O individuals are less susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection compared to those in the non-O group. No evidence was found indicating an effect of the O type on disease severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Covid-19 Clinical Course and Blood Groups: Turkish Population-Based Study
Turkish journal of medical sciences. 2021
BACKGROUND/AIM: SARS-CoV-2 enters the cell through the binding of the S glycoprotein on the surface of the virus to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) in the host cells and also SARS-CoV S protein binding to ACE-2 was inhibited by anti-A antibodies. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between blood groups and the course of COVID-19 in Turkey. MATERIALS AND METHODS Laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients aged 18 and over (n=39.850) were randomized in age and gender-matched groups according to blood groups Results: Advanced age, male gender and blood group A were found to be related with increased rate of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR =1.089, 95% CI: 1.085-1.093 for age; OR=1.963, 95% CI: 1.737-2.218 for male gender; OR=1.216, 95% CI: 1.023-1.446 for blood group A). When blood group O individuals were compared to non-O individuals, no significant difference was observed regarding the rate of hospital and ICU admission, mechanical ventilation (MV) support, length of hospital and ICU stay, and case fatality rate (CFR). The CFR in patients with blood group A, B, O, and AB were 2.6%, 2.2%, 3.1%, and 2.3%, respectively. There were no significant differences between Rh-negative and positive patients regarding the rate of hospital and ICU admission (p=0.280 and p=0.741, respectively), also the rate of MV support and CFR was similar (p=0.933 and p= 0.417). CONCLUSION Our study revealed that ABO and Rh blood groups do not have any impact on the rate of hospital admission, hospital and ICU stay, MV support, and CFR.
The association between ABO blood group and SARS-CoV-2 infection: A meta-analysis
Plos One. 2020;15(9):e0239508
At present, existing evidence about the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection and ABO blood group polymorphism is preliminary and controversial. In this meta-analysis we investigate this association and determine SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals' odds of having a specific blood group compared to controls. We performed a systematic search on MEDLINE and LitCovid databases for studies published through July 15, 2020. Seven studies met inclusion criteria for meta-analysis, including a total of 13 subgroups of populations (7503 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases and 2962160 controls). We analysed the odds of having each blood group among SARS-CoV-2 positive patients compared with controls. Random-effects models were used to obtain the overall pooled odds ratio (OR). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed in order to explore the source of heterogeneity and results consistency. The results of our meta-analysis indicate that SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals are more likely to have blood group A (pooled OR 1.23, 95%CI: 1.09-1.40) and less likely to have blood group O (pooled OR = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.67-0.88). Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanisms at the basis of this association, which may affect the kinetics of the pandemic according to the blood group distribution within the population.
Association between ABO blood groups and COVID-19 infection, severity and demise: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases. 2020;:104485
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The COVID-19 spreads rapidly around the world which has brought a global health crisis. The pathogen of COVID-19 is SARS-COV-2, and previous studies have proposed the relationship between ABO blood group and coronavirus. Here, we aim to delve into the association between ABO blood group and COVID-19 infection, severity and demise. METHODS The relevant studies were retrieved from five databases: PubMed, MedRxiv, BioRxiv,Web of Science and CNKI. Members of cases(symptomatic cases, severe cases, died cases) and controls(asymptomatic controls, non-severe controls, alive controls) were extracted from collected studies. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and interpreted from extracted data. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also applied to confirm our discovery. RESULTS Overall 31,100 samples were included in the analysis. Compared to other ABO blood type, an increased odds of infecting COVID-19 among individuals with A blood group (OR: 1.249, 95%CI: 1.114-1.440, P < 0.001) and a decreased odds of infecting COVID-19 among individuals with blood group O (OR: 0.699, 95%CI: 0.635-0.770, P < 0.001) were found. Besides, individuals with blood group AB seems to link a higher risk to COVID-19 severity (OR: 2.424, 95%CI: 0.934-6.294) and demise (OR: 1.348, 95%CI: 0.507-3.583). Meantime, individuals with O blood group might had lower risk to COVID-19 severity (OR: 0.748, 95%CI: 0.556-1.007), and individuals with B blood group were likely to relate a lower risk to COVID-19 demise. CONCLUSIONS The current meta-analysis suggest that blood type A might be more susceptible to infect COVID-19 while blood type O might be less susceptible to infect COVID-19; there were no correlation between ABO blood group and severity or demise of COVID-19. However, more investigation and research are warranted to clarify the relationship between COVID-19 and ABO blood type.
The impact of ABO blood group on COVID-19 infection risk and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Blood Reviews. 2020;:100785
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Several studies report that ABO blood group polymorphism may be related to COVID-19 susceptibility and clinical outcomes; however, the results are controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether ABO blood groups are associated with increased COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. A total of 715 articles were retrieved from seven databases. Ten articles were selected for meta-analysis after removal of duplicates and two levels of screenings. Overall, individuals with blood group A [odds ratio (OR) = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 to 1.56] and B (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13) had a substantially higher risk of COVID-19, whereas this was not the case for blood group AB (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.30). Individuals with blood group O was not prone to develop the disease (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.84). Moreover, the risk of COVID-19 was significantly associated with the Rh-positive blood group (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). A meta-analysis of 5 studies suggested that blood group A was associated with a significantly increased risk of COVID-19 mortality (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.52). Mild publication bias was found in the included studies. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that blood groups A and B may be risk factors for COVID-19, whereas the blood group O appears to be protective. Blood group A may be related to unfavourable outcomes. Further rigorous and high-quality research evidence is needed to confirm this association.