Clinical effectiveness of convalescent plasma in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease. 2021;15:17534666211028077
AIMS: Given the variability of previously reported results, this systematic review aims to determine the clinical effectiveness of convalescent plasma employed in the treatment of hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of controlled clinical trials assessing treatment with convalescent plasma for hospitalized patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The outcomes were mortality, clinical improvement, and ventilation requirement. RESULTS A total of 51 studies were retrieved from the databases. Five articles were finally included in the data extraction and qualitative and quantitative synthesis of results. The overall risk of bias in the reviewed articles was established at low-risk only in two trials. The meta-analysis suggests that there is no benefit of convalescent plasma compared with standard care or placebo in reducing the overall mortality and the ventilation requirement. However, there could be a benefit for the clinical improvement in patients treated with plasma. CONCLUSION Current results led to assume that the convalescent plasma transfusion cannot reduce the mortality or ventilation requirement in hospitalized patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. More controlled clinical trials conducted with methodologies that ensure a low risk of bias are still needed.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.
Efficacy and Safety of Convalescent Plasma for COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion : An Official Journal of Indian Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. 2021;:1-19
Convalescent plasma is currently being used in the treatment of COVID-19. Recommendations regarding use convalescent plasma in COVID-19 requires systematic summaries of available evidence. We searched the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Epistomonikos, Medrxiv and Biorxiv. Title/abstract screening, full text screening and data abstraction were carried out in duplicate by two reviewers. Pooled effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects meta-analysis. GRADE tool was used to rate the certainty of evidence. Twenty two studies were found eligible for inclusion: nine randomized controlled trials and thirteen cohort studies. Low certainty evidence from eight RCTs showed inconclusive effects of convalescent plasma on mortality at 28 days (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.18). Low certainty evidence from thirteen cohort studies showed a reduction in mortality at 28 days (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.82). The pooled OR for clinical improvement was 1.07 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.34) representing low certainty evidence. Evidence from three RCTs showed inconclusive effect of CP on the need for mechanical ventilation (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.98). Four cohort studies reporting unadjusted estimates suggested a reduction in the need for mechanical ventilation with convalescent plasma (OR 0.80 95% CI 0.71 to 0.91, low certainty). Pooled estimates from 2 RCTs showed inconclusive effects of convalescent plasma on the proportion of patients with nondetectable levels of virus in nasopharyngeal specimens on day 3 (OR 3.62, 95% CI 0.43, 30.49, very low-quality evidence). The present review reports uncertain estimates on the efficacy of convalescent plasma in the treatment of COVID-19. There is low certainty evidence of a possible reduction in mortality and mechanical ventilation, a faster viral clearance and the absence of any serious adverse events. However, its efficacy for these outcomes requires evidence from good quality and adequately powered randomized controlled trials. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-021-01417-w.
Bioethical Perspective of Convalescent Plasma Therapy for COVID-19: A Systematic Review
Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Societe francaise de transfusion sanguine. 2021
Convalescent plasma therapy (CP) has long been used to prevent and treat various infectious diseases before COVID-19 such as SARS, MERS, and H1N1. Because the viral and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 share the similarities between SARS and MERS, CP treatment could be a promising treatment option to save COVID-19. With only low quality medical evidence, but massive media support and a very significant public demand for the use of convalescent plasma for COVID-19, we are now faced with an ethical dilemma. Therefore, this paper uses a structured analysis that focuses on the preferred reporting items for a systematic review of ethical issues regarding the use of Convalescent Plasma Therapy for COVID-19. The use of convalescent plasma must meet the ethical principles of autonomy; such as voluntary, informed consent, and confidentiality. Consideration of the risk-benefit ratio for potential donor recipients also needs to be considered in order to meet the beneficence and non-maleficence principles. The principle of justice also needs to be applied both to donors, donor recipients and health workers, such as determining the priority of donor recipients, due to the increasing demand for convalescent plasma amid the limited circumstances of patients who have recovered from Covid-19 who voluntarily donate.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials testing the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Evidence-base for practise and implications for research
Transfusion Medicine (Oxford, England). 2021
BACKGROUND Despite scientific advances, there is no effective medical therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy in COVID-19. METHODS This review was carried out in accordance with Cochrane methodology including risk of bias assessment and grading of the quality of evidence. Only prospective clinical trials randomly assigning COVID-19 patients to convalescent plasma plus standard of care therapy (test arm) versus placebo/standard of care (control arm) were included. Two reviewers independently read each preprint/publication and extracted relevant data from individual studies. Data were pooled using the random-effects model and expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS A total of 13 206 patients from 12 randomised controlled trials were included. There was no significant difference in clinical improvement rate (RR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.98-1.02, p = 0.96) or time to clinical improvement (median difference of 1.08 days with 95% CI ranging from -0.15 to +2.30 days) between convalescent plasma versus placebo/standard of care therapy. The use of convalescent plasma was not associated with significantly reduced risk of death (RR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.65-1.02, p = 0.08). Reassuringly, overall incidence of infusion-related serious adverse events was low (3.25%) and not significantly different (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.93-1.40, p = 0.22) for convalescent plasma transfusion compared to placebo/standard of care therapy. CONCLUSIONS There is low to moderate certainty evidence that the addition of convalescent plasma to current standard of care therapy is generally safe but, does not result in any significant clinical benefit or reduction of mortality in COVID-19.
Convalescent plasma therapy in COVID-19 critically ill patients during advanced phases of clinical trials and their preliminary results
Einstein (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2021;19:eRW6186
The objective of this study was to highlight the global scientific effort to fight the SARS-CoV-2, addressing the preliminary results of passive immunization through convalescent plasma. We performed a search at the major databases of interventional clinical trial protocols about the transfusion of convalescent plasma in patients with COVID-19, as well as, published articles (n≥25), using the following search strategy: [(COVID-19 OR SARS-CoV-2 OR nCoV-2019) AND (Convalescent plasma OR Plasma exchange) AND (Treatment OR Therapy)]. A total of 24 interventional clinical trial protocols (advanced in phases II-III, III, and IV) were included in this review, as well as three studies that had enough outcomes to evaluate the efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy for patients with COVID-19. All interventional clinical trial protocols applied approximately 500mL of convalescent plasma (from single or more donations) in hospitalized patients, mainly in patients with severe disease associated with standard therapy for COVID-19, and compared to placebo or standard therapy plus specific drugs. Most of interventional clinical trial protocols are multicenter, and the phase IV studies are recruiting at intercontinental centers of North America, Oceania, Europe, but most are recruiting center inside their own county. The three studies published reported similar approach of convalescent plasma intervention with decrease in length of stay, mortality, with less than 4% of adverse events, mainly for treating critical cases with life-threatening disease. All advanced clinical trials focused on convalescent plasma therapy in patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in severe conditions, and the preliminary results provide strong evidence for therapy for the COVID-19 patients.
Convalescent Plasma for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Analysis
Jmir Public Health and Surveillance. 2021;7(4):e25500
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus termed SARS-CoV-2, has spread quickly worldwide. Convalescent plasma (CP) obtained from patients following recovery from COVID-19 infection and development of antibodies against the virus is an attractive option for either prophylactic or therapeutic treatment, since antibodies may have direct or indirect antiviral activities and immunotherapy has proven effective in principle and in many clinical reports. OBJECTIVE We seek to characterize the latest advances and evidence in the use of CP for COVID-19 through a systematic review and quantitative analysis, identify knowledge gaps in this setting, and offer recommendations and directives for future research. METHODS PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were continuously searched for studies assessing the use of CP for COVID-19, including clinical studies, commentaries, reviews, guidelines or protocols, and in vitro testing of CP antibodies. The screening process and data extraction were performed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Quality appraisal of all clinical studies was conducted using a universal tool independent of study designs. A meta-analysis of case-control and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted using a random-effects model. RESULTS Substantial literature has been published covering various aspects of CP therapy for COVID-19. Of the references included in this review, a total of 243 eligible studies including 64 clinical studies, 79 commentary articles, 46 reviews, 19 guidance and protocols, and 35 in vitro testing of CP antibodies matched the criteria. Positive results have been mostly observed so far when using CP for the treatment of COVID-19. There were remarkable heterogeneities in the CP therapy with respect to patient demographics, donor antibody titers, and time and dose of CP administration. The studies assessing the safety of CP treatment reported low incidence of adverse events. Most clinical studies, in particular case reports and case series, had poor quality. Only 1 RCT was of high quality. Randomized and nonrandomized data were found in 2 and 11 studies, respectively, and were included for meta-analysis, suggesting that CP could reduce mortality and increase viral clearance. Despite promising pilot studies, the benefits of CP treatment can only be clearly established through carefully designed RCTs. CONCLUSIONS There is developing support for CP therapy, particularly for patients who are critically ill or mechanically ventilated and resistant to antivirals and supportive care. These studies provide important lessons that should inform the planning of well-designed RCTs to generate more robust knowledge for the efficacy of CP in patients with COVID-19. Future research is necessary to fill the knowledge gap regarding prevention and treatment for patients with COVID-19 with CP while other therapeutics are being developed.
Correction: Convalescent Plasma for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Analysis
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance. 2021;7(6):e31554
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.2196/25500.].
The Effect of Convalescent Plasma Therapy on COVID-19 Patient Mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2021
To determine the effect of COVID-19 convalescent plasma on mortality, we aggregated patient outcome data from 10 randomized clinical trials (RCT), 20 matched-control studies, two dose-response studies, and 96 case-reports or case-series Studies published between January 1, 2020 – January 16, 2021 were identified through a systematic search of online PubMed and MEDLINE databases Random-effects analyses of RCT and matched-control data demonstrated that COVID-19 patients transfused with convalescent plasma exhibited a lower mortality rate compared to patients receiving standard treatments Additional analyses showed that early transfusion (within 3 days of hospital admission) of higher-titer plasma is associated with lower patient mortality These data provide evidence favoring the efficacy of human convalescent plasma as a therapeutic agent in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Convalescent plasma therapy as a conventional trick for treating COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis study
New Microbes and New Infections. 2021;:100901
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) is one of the well-known therapeutic protocols for treating infectious diseases that do not have special treatment nor vaccine. Several documents confirm the clinical efficacy of this therapy for treating bacterial and viral infections. METHODS A comprehensive systematic search was conducted by August 2020 using global databases including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane library, Google scholar, medRxiv, and bioRxiv. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal checklist was used to evaluate the included studies. Using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) software version 2.2 (Biostat, Englewood, NJ, USA), the pooled data analysis process was performed. RESULTS A total of 15 eligible articles were enrolled in the current quantitative synthesis. The statistical analysis showed that clinical improvement in the group of patients who had received convalescent plasma was significantly increased compared to the control group (OR: 2.23; 1.12-4.45 with 95% CIs; p value: 0.022; Q-value: 6.11; I (2) : 83.64; Eggers p value: 0.064; Beggs p value: 0.093). Furthermore, the rate of hospital discharge had increased in patients receiving CPT (OR: 2.92; 1.48-5.77 with 95% CIs; p value: 0.002; Q-Value: 4.32; I (2) : 53.80; Eggers p value: 0.32; Beggs p value: 0.50). CONCLUSIONS Because there is currently no fully effective antiviral drug against the virus, and it will take time to confirm the effectiveness of new drugs, CPT can be used as an alternative treatment strategy to improve the severe clinical manifestations of COVID-19.
The Effect of Convalescent Plasma Therapy on Mortality Among Patients With COVID-19: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Mayo Clinic proceedings. 2021;96(5):1262-1275
To determine the effect of COVID-19 convalescent plasma on mortality, we aggregated patient outcome data from 10 randomized clinical trials, 20 matched control studies, 2 dose-response studies, and 96 case reports or case series. Studies published between January 1, 2020, and January 16, 2021, were identified through a systematic search of online PubMed and MEDLINE databases. Random effects analyses of randomized clinical trials and matched control data demonstrated that patients with COVID-19 transfused with convalescent plasma exhibited a lower mortality rate compared with patients receiving standard treatments. Additional analyses showed that early transfusion (within 3 days of hospital admission) of higher titer plasma is associated with lower patient mortality. These data provide evidence favoring the efficacy of human convalescent plasma as a therapeutic agent in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.