Detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus using an alternative molecular method and evaluation of biochemical, hematological, inflammatory, and oxidative stress in healthcare professionals
Microbial Pathogenesis. 2021;:104975
In early December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by a new strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), occurred in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern. Since then, frontline healthcare professionals have been experiencing extremely stressful situations and damage to their physical and mental health. These adverse conditions cause stress and biochemical, hematological, and inflammatory changes, as well as oxidative damage, and could be potentially detrimental to the health of the individual. The study population consisted of frontline health professionals working in BHU in a city in southern Brazil. Among the 45 participants, two were infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and were diagnosed using immunochromatographic tests such as salivary RT-LAMP and qRT-PCR. We also evaluated biochemical, hematological, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers in the participants. The infected professionals (CoV-2-Prof) showed a significant increase in the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, lactic dehydrogenase, lymphocytes, and monocytes. In this group, the levels of uric acid, triglycerides, leukocytes, neutrophils, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelets decreased. In the group of uninfected professionals (NoCoV-2-Prof), significant increase in HDL levels and the percentages of eosinophils and monocytes, was observed. Further, in this group, uric acid, LDH, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels, and the hematocrit count and mean corpuscular volume were significantly reduced. Both groups showed significant inflammatory activity with changes in the levels of C-reactive protein and mucoprotein. The NoCoV-2-Prof group showed significantly elevated plasma cortisol levels. To our kowledge, this study is the first to report the use of the RT-LAMP method with the saliva samples of health professionals, to evalute of SARS-CoV-2.
Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children During Induction Chemotherapy in a Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Concurrent COVID-19
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. 2021
A 15-year-old male presented with fatigue and weight loss for 1 month, petechiae and bruising for 2 weeks. He was diagnosed with concurrent new acute myeloid leukemia and coronavirus disease 2019. He was febrile and chest computed tomography scan showed ground glass opacities. Fever resolved after 4 days. Polymerase chain reaction test for coronavirus disease 2019 became negative after 2 days. Induction chemotherapy was initiated on day 8 and was complicated by multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. The multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children was managed with symptomatic treatment and continued chemotherapy. Patient recovered and end of induction bone marrow showed remission of the leukemia.
Hospitalized COVID-19 patients with active lymphoma have eight times higher risk of death than COVID-19 controls
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2021;203(9)
BACKGROUND Over 790,000 patients in the United States are currently living with or are in remission from lymphoma. It is established that lymphoma patients are at greater risk for both bacterial and viral infections. While there is limited research examining the risk of COVID-19 infection in patients with an active malignancy, even fewer studies have examined those with active lymphoma. This study aimed to examine the all-cause mortality of COVID-19 patients with active lymphoma compared to hospitalized COVID-19 control patients. METHODS We performed a retrospective case-control and cohort study of adult inpatients diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in a tertiary, academic referral center in Richmond, Virginia. We analyzed the unadjusted and adjusted association of patients with active lymphoma diagnosis and all-cause hospital mortality. We performed multiple logistic regressions adjusting for age, gender, race, the month at presentation, which captures the health system's adaptation, and the remaining 30 individual diagnostic categories of the Elixhauser comorbidity index. We externally validated our findings using compiled data from 657 institutions across the United States on patients with lymphoma hospitalized for COVID-19. RESULTS Among 628 inpatients with COVID-19, 1.1% (7) had active lymphoma. The unadjusted mortality of patients with lymphoma was 57.1% compared to 8.4% of the corresponding patients without lymphoma. The unadjusted OR for hospital death was 15.6 (95% CI 3.2 to 67, P=0.001). The adjusted OR of death in patients with lymphoma was 79.5 (95% 6.4 to 983, P= 0.001). The average adjusted mortality in patients with lymphoma was 65% compared with 8.4% among patients of equivalent age, gender, race, month of presentation and comorbidities. From aggregate data of COVID-19 patients across 657 US institutions, the average mortality for patients with lymphoma was 41.07% (95% CI 36.8 to 45.3) and for patients without lymphoma was 12.11% (95% CI 12.7 to 11.5). CONCLUSION Our results show that, of those patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection, the patients with active lymphoma have a nearly 8-fold increased risk of death compared to their non-lymphoma counterparts when adjusted for age, gender, race, month of presentation, and other comorbidities. External validation data demonstrated a greater than 3-fold increased risk of death in COVID-19 patients with active lymphoma compared to non-lymphoma patients. This research highlights the importance of mitigation strategies, such as social distancing and masking, to decrease the risk of COVID-19 infection in lymphoma patients and may have implications for prioritizing vaccines or therapies in the future. FIGURE.
Management of aplastic anemia during the phase of defervescence of the COVID-19 pandemic
Medicina clinica. 2021
Low SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in a cohort of Brazilian sickle cell disease patients: Possible effects of emphasis on social isolation for a population initially considered to be at very high risk
Despite being initially considered at higher risk for severe COVID-19, sickle cell disease (SCD) patients have mostly presented clinical severity similar to the general population. As their vulnerability to become infected remains uncertain, we assessed the seroreactivity for SARS-CoV-2 to estimate the prevalence of infection and possible phenotypic and socioeconomic determinants for their contagion. Serologic evaluation was performed on 135 patients with an overall prevalence of 11%;positivity was associated with older age and use of public transportation. We speculate that social distancing instructions recommended by our clinic may have contributed to lower levels of infection, but potential protection factors need further investigation.
Measures to reduce red cell use in patients with sickle cell disease requiring red cell exchange during a blood shortage
Blood advances. 2021;5(12):2586-2592
The COVID-19 pandemic has created major disruptions in health care delivery, including a severe blood shortage. The inventory of Rh and K antigen-negative red cell units recommended for patients with hemoglobinopathies became alarmingly low and continues to be strained. Because patients with sickle cell disease requiring chronic red cell exchange (RCE) incur a large demand for red cell units, we hypothesized that implementation of 2 measures could reduce blood use. First, obtaining the pretransfusion hemoglobin S (HbS) results by procedure start time would facilitate calculation of exact red cell volume needed to achieve the desired post-RCE HbS. Second, as a short-term conservation method, we identified patients for whom increasing the targeted end procedure hematocrit up to 5 percentage points higher than the pretransfusion level (no higher than 36%) was not medically contraindicated. The goal was to enhance suppression of endogenous erythropoiesis and thereby reduce the red cell unit number needed to maintain the same target HbS%. These 2 measures resulted in an 18% reduction of red cell units transfused to 50 patients undergoing chronic RCE during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite reduction of blood use, pretransfusion HbS% target goals were maintained and net iron accumulation was low. Both strategies can help alleviate a shortage of Rh and K antigen-negative red cells, and, more generally, transfusing red cell units based on precise red cell volume required can optimize patient care and judicious use of blood resources.
BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccine is significantly less effective in patients with hematologic malignancies
American Journal of Hematology. 2021
Patients with hematologic malignancies have an increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Vaccination against COVID-19 is especially important in these patients, but whether they develop immune response following vaccination is unknown. We studied serologic responses to the BNT162b2 vaccine in this population. A lower proportion of patients were seropositive following vaccination (75%) than in a comparison group (99%), p<0.001, and median antibody titers in patients were lower (90 AU/ml, IQR 12.4-185.5 and 173 AU/ml, IQR 133-232, respectively, p<0.001). Older age, higher LDH, and number of treatment lines correlated with lower seropositivity likelihood and antibody titers, while absolute lymphocyte count, globulin level, and time from last treatment to vaccination, correlated with higher seropositivity likelihood and antibody titers. CLL patients had the lowest seropositivity rate followed by indolent lymphoma. Patients recently treated with chemo-immunotherapy, anti CD20 antibodies, BCL2, BTK or JAK2 inhibitors had significantly less seropositive responses and lower median antibody titers (29%, 1.9 AU/ml, IQR 1.9-12; 0%, 1.9 AU/ml, IQR 1.9-1.9; 25%, 1.9 AU/ml, IQR 1.9-25; 40%, 1.9 AU/ml, IQR 1.9-92.8; 42%, 10.9 AU/ml, IQR 5.7-66.4 respectively, p<0.001). Serological response to BNT162b2 vaccine in patients with hematologic malignancies is considerably impaired, and they could remain at risk for severe COVID-19 infection and death. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Low Neutralizing Antibody Responses Against SARS-CoV-2 in Elderly Myeloma Patients After the First BNT162b2 Vaccine Dose
COVID-19 vaccination in haematology services
The Lancet. Haematology. 2021;8(2):e95
When hematologic malignancies meet COVID-19 in the United States: Infections, death and disparities
Blood Reviews. 2021;47:100775
Scientific data is limited on the risks, adverse outcomes and racial disparities for COVID-19 illness in individuals with hematologic malignancies in the United States. To fill this void, we screened and analyzed a nation-wide database of patient electronic health records (EHRs) of 73 million patients in the US (up to September 1st) for COVID-19 and eight major types of hematologic malignancies. Patients with hematologic malignancies had increased odds of COVID-19 infection compared with patients without hematologic malignancies for both all-time diagnosis (malignancy diagnosed in the past year or prior) (adjusted Odds ratio or AOR: 2.27 [2.17-2.36], p < 0.001) and recent diagnosis (malignancy diagnosed in the past year) (AOR:11.91 [11.31-12.53], p < 0.001), with strongest effect for recently diagnosed acute lymphoid leukemia (AOR: 31.03 [25.87-37.27], p < 0.001), essential thrombocythemia (AOR: 20.65 [19.10-22.32], p < 0.001), acute myeloid leukemia (AOR: 18.94 [15.79-22.73], p < 0.001), multiple myeloma (AOR: 14.21 [12.72-15.89], p < 0.001). Among patients with hematologic malignancies, African Americans had higher odds of COVID-19 infection than Caucasians with largest racial disparity for multiple myeloma (AOR: 4.23 [3.21-5.56], p < 0.001). Patients with recently diagnosed hematologic malignancies had worse outcomes (hospitalization: 51.9%, death: 14.8%) than COVID-19 patients without hematologic malignancies (hospitalization: 23.5%, death: 5.1%) (p < 0.001) and hematologic malignancy patients without COVID-19 (hospitalization: 15.0%, death: 4.1%) (p < 0.001).