Prognostic serum biomarkers in cancer patients with COVID-19: A systematic review
Translational oncology. 2022;21:101443
PURPOSE Cancer patients with COVID-19 likely express biomarker changes in circulation. However, the biomarkers used in SARS-CoV-2 infected cancer patients for COVID-19 severity and prognosis are largely unclear. Therefore, this systematic review aims to determine what biomarkers were measured in cancer patients with COVID-19 and their prognostic utility. METHODS A systematic literature review in PubMed, Embase, and Scopus was performed on June 16th, 2021. The search keywords coronavirus, neoplasm, biomarkers, and disease progression were used to filter out 17 eligible studies, which were then carefully evaluated. RESULTS A total of 4,168 patients, 16 types of cancer, and 60 biomarkers were included. Seven up-regulated markers, including CRP, d-dimer, ferritin, IL-2R, IL-6, LDH, and PCT, were identified in eligible studies. Albumin and hemoglobin were significantly down-regulated in cancer patients with COVID-19. Moreover, we observed that the SARS-CoV-2 infected cancer patients with lower CRP, ferritin, and LDH levels successfully survived from COVID-19 treatments. CONCLUSION Several important clinical biomarkers, such as CRP, ferritin, and LDH, may serve as the prognostic markers to predict the outcomes following COVID-19 treatment and monitor the deterioration of COVID-19 in cancer patients.
The impact of anti-tumor approaches on the outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis based on 52 cohorts incorporating 9231 participants
BMC cancer. 2022;22(1):241
BACKGROUND This study was designed to investigate the impact of anti-tumor approaches (including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy) on the outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant trials. The primary endpoints were severe disease and death of cancer patients treated with anti-tumor therapy before COVID-19 diagnosis. In addition, stratified analyses were implemented towards various types of anti-tumor therapy and other prognostic factors. Furthermore, odds ratios (ORs) were hereby adopted to measure the outcomes with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS As indicated in the study consisting of 9231 individuals from 52 cohorts in total, anti-tumor therapy before COVID-19 diagnosis could elevate the risk of death in cancer patients (OR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.07-1.36, P = 0.0026) and the incidence of severe COVID-19 (OR: 1.19, 95%CI: 1.01-1.40, P = 0.0412). Among various anti-tumor approaches, chemotherapy distinguished to increase the incidence of death (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.08-1.38, P = 0.0013) and severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 1.02-1.18, P = 0.0165) as to cancer patients with COVID-19. Moreover, for cancer patients with COVID-19, surgery and targeted therapy could add to the risk of death (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.00-1.61, P = 0.0472), and the incidence of severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.01-1.30, P = 0.0357) respectively. In the subgroup analysis, the incidence of death (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.34, P = 0.0158) raised in case of chemotherapy adopted for solid tumor with COVID-19. Besides, age, gender, hypertension, COPD, smoking and lung cancer all served as potential prognostic factors for both death and severe disease of cancer patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS Anti-tumor therapy, especially chemotherapy, augmented the risk of severe disease and death for cancer patients with COVID-19, so did surgery for the risk of death and targeted therapy for the incidence of severe COVID-19.
Comorbidities and mortality rate in COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancies: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of clinical laboratory analysis. 2022;:e24387
INTRODUCTION The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It seems that there is an association between blood cancer and an increased risk of severe COVID-19. This study aimed to review the literature reporting the COVID-19 outcomes in patients with hematological malignancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched using the following keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, blood cancer, myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia. All the published articles in English from January 1, 2019, until March 10, 2021 were collected and evaluated. RESULTS In total, 53 studies with 2395 patients were included based on inclusion criteria. Most of these studies took place in Spain (14.81%), followed by the USA (11.11%), China (9.26%), and the UK (9.26%). More than half of COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancy were male (56.73%). Oxygen therapy played an important role in COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, anticoagulant therapies such as enoxaparin and heparin were two great assists for these patients. Fever (74.24%), cough (67.64%), and fatigue (53.19%) were the most reported clinical manifestations. In addition, hypertension and dyslipidemia were the most common comorbidities. The mortality rate due to COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancies was 21.34%. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that hematologic cancer patients were more susceptible to a severe COVID-19 than patients without blood cancer. Thus, the management of COVID-19 in these patients requires much more attention, and their screening should perform regularly.
From H1N1 to COVID-19: What we have seen in children with hemoglobinopathies
Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2022;77:100004
This work aimed to better understand the impact of pandemics of respiratory viruses on children with hemoglobinopathies through a comprehensive review of the literature. MEDLINE, SCIELO, LILACS, and PUBMED were used as data sources to find articles without time period restrictions. Previous observations suggest that patients with hemoglobinopathies are a group especially susceptible to the complications of viral respiratory infections, with greater morbidity and mortality related to them. Within this context, this review found that, during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the risk of hospitalization in children and adults increased, especially in patients with a history of complications such as acute chest syndrome. In addition, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic appears to have less repercussion among children with hemoglobinopathies compared to adults, similar to what is seen in the general population. In the H1N1 pandemic, patients with hemoglobinopathies behaved as a group more susceptible to complications, with increased morbidity and mortality. However, for COVID-19, the existing data to date on these patients do not show the same clinical impact. Thus, although these children deserve attention in case of infection due to their potential risks, they seem to have a favorable evolution.
Association of active immunotherapy with outcomes in cancer patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND During the COVID-19 pandemic, there are growing concerns about the safety of administering immunotherapy in cancer patients with COVID-19. However, current clinical guidelines provided no clear recommendation. METHODS Studies were searched and retrieved from electronic databases. The meta-analysis was performed by employing the generic inverse-variance method. A random-effects model was used to calculate the unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs with the corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS This meta-analysis included 20 articles with 6,042 cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19. According to the univariate analysis, the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the mortality of cancer patients (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.68-1.25; P=0.61). Moreover, after adjusting for confounders, the adjusted OR for mortality was 0.51, with borderline significance (95% CI: 0.25-1.01; P=0.053). Similarly, the univariate analysis showed that the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the risk of severe/critical disease in cancer patients (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.47; P=0.66). No significant between-study heterogeneity was found in these analyses. CONCLUSIONS Accepting immunotherapy within 30 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 was not significantly associated with a higher risk of mortality or severe/critical disease of infected cancer patients. Further prospectively designed studies with large sample sizes are required to evaluate the present results.
COVID 19 and febrile neutropenia: Case report and systematic review
Travel medicine and infectious disease. 2022;47:102305
OBJECTIVES In pandemic conditions, patients with febrile neutropenia are also at risk of COVID-19. Aim of this systematic review is to evaluate COVID-19 cases presented with febrile neutropenia and provide information regarding incidence, clinical course and prognosis. METHODS We systematically searched on COVID-19 and febrile neutropenia cases in PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science. RESULTS A total of 19 febrile neutropenic patients were analyzed. A male predominance was noted. Eleven cases had hematological malignancies. Fourteen of the cases were previously received chemotherapy. Five patients had severe neutropenia: 3 had hematologic cancer and none died. 17 (89.5%) cases have pulmonary involvement and seven of them had severe disease with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Three cases with ARDS were died. 12 of them received G-CSF for treatment. Five cases were developed respiratory failure after G-CSF use. Overall mortality was 15.8%, while death was not observed in patients without malignancy and solid organ tumors, the mortality rate was 27% in cases with hematological malignancies. CONCLUSION In ongoing pandemic, febrile neutropenic patients should be precisely evaluated for COVID-19 disease. It should be remembered that there may not be typical signs and symptoms and laboratory findings of COVID-19 disease because of the immunosuppression.
Post-COVID-19 hematologic complications: a systematic review
Expert review of hematology. 2022
INTRODUCTION COVID-19 crisis continues around the world. Some patients developed complications after the disease, which have been reported in limited studies. The aim of this study is to comprehensively assess the post-COVID hematologic complications in patients. AREAS COVERED We searched PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar between January 2020 and August 2021 using related keywords. Evaluation of the articles was performed by two independent researchers. The extracted data included number of patients, age, type of hematological complication, duration of follow-up, response to treatment and prognosis. EXPERT OPINION Sixty five articles reported post-COVID hematologic complications. The most frequent hematologic complication in COVID-19 patients is thromboembolic events, which often occur in two forms: deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary emboli (PE). In a group of patients after the diagnosis of COVID-19, a significant decrease in platelets was observed, which was attributed to the ITP induced by COVID-19. Hemolytic anemia and aplastic anemia have also been reported rarely in patients. Finally, post-COVID hematologic complications appear to go beyond thromboembolic events. Although these complications have been reported rarely, searching for methods to identify susceptible patients and prevent these complications could be the subject of future research.
A systematic review assessing the under-representation of cancer patients in COVID-19 trials
Acta haematologica. 2022
Background - The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have emerged as a global pandemic that threatens thousands around the world. Observational cohort studies have demonstrated that cancer patients have inferior outcomes due to underlying malignancy, treatment-related immunosuppression, or increased comorbidities. We aimed to examine the representation of cancer patients (hematological malignancies and solid tumors) in COVID-19 therapeutic and prophylactic interventional trials. Methods- In this review, all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between December 2019 and August 2021 were included. We included only trials evaluating medications that were recommended by NIH guidelines: steroids, Tocilizumab, Remdesivir and REGN-COV2. Results- The search yielded 540 potentially relevant RCTs, 22 of which were considered suitable. All trials included patients with solid cancer and hematological malignancies in the formal reported inclusion criteria. However, only two trials reported the accurate number of cancer patients included. Ten trials excluded neutropenic patients and seven trials excluded thrombocytopenic patients. Eleven trials excluded patients that were treated with any immunosuppression treatment. None of the two trials that included cancer patients reported separate outcomes for this population. Conclusion- Our systematic review shows that cancer patients are under-represented in COVID-19 interventional therapeutic trials, and evidence regarding outcomes are lacking.
Mortality in adult patients with solid or hematological malignancies and SARS-CoV-2 infection with a specific focus on lung and breast cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2021;163:103365-103365
BACKGROUND A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to estimate mortality in adult patients with solid or hematological malignancies and SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS A systematic search of PubMed, up to 31 January 2021, identified publications reporting the case-fatality rate (CFR) among adult patients with solid or hematological malignancies and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The CFR, defined as the rate of death in this population, was assessed with a random effect model; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS Among 135 selected studies (N = 33,879 patients), the CFR was 25.4% (95% CI 22.9%-28.2%). At a sensitivity analysis including studies with at least 100 patients, the CFR was 21.9% (95% CI 19.1%-25.1%). Among COVID-19 patients with lung (N = 1,135) and breast (N = 1,296) cancers, CFR were 32.4% (95% CI 26.5%-39.6%) and 14.2% (95% CI 9.3%-21.8%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Patients with solid or hematological malignancies and SARS-CoV-2 infection have a high probability of mortality, with comparatively higher and lower CFRs in patients with lung and breast cancers, respectively.
Hematologic autoimmune disorders in the course of COVID-19: a systematic review of reported cases
Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands). 2021;26(1):225-239
OBJECTIVE As COVID-19 is a new emerging disease, the hematological/immunological changes that develop in the infected patients remain unknown. This study aims to systematically review the hematologic autoimmune complications in these patients. METHOD Data from three online databases including Medline (via PubMed), Scopus and Web of Science were searched on 19 December 2020, and after excluding duplicate, irrelevant and inappropriate records, eligible documents were identified. Afterwards, information such as patients' history, presentations, paraclinical data, treatment course and outcome were extracted from the records. RESULTS A total of 58 documents were considered to be eligible for data extraction which described 94 patients with COVID-19 who developed hematologic autoimmune disorder in their course of infection. Of these patients with COVID-19, the most common hematologic autoimmune disorder was immune thrombocytopenic purpura (55 cases) followed by autoimmune hemolytic anemia (22 cases). Other hematologic autoimmune disorders include antiphospholipid syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Evans syndrome and autoimmune neutropenia. CONCLUSION The current study would help us to always consider an autoimmune etiology for cases with abnormal hematologic finding which further lead to an appropriate treatment of the patients, especially when the symptoms present in about 1-2 weeks after the first manifestation of the infection symptoms. Maybe, at least in this pandemic, it should be recommended to evaluate patients with unexpected and unexplained decrease in their hemoglobulin or platelet count for COVID-19. Another challenging issue is the treatment options. Given the multiorgan involvement and multifaceted nature of the infection, an individualized approach should be taken for each patient.