From H1N1 to COVID-19: What we have seen in children with hemoglobinopathies
Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2022;77:100004
This work aimed to better understand the impact of pandemics of respiratory viruses on children with hemoglobinopathies through a comprehensive review of the literature. MEDLINE, SCIELO, LILACS, and PUBMED were used as data sources to find articles without time period restrictions. Previous observations suggest that patients with hemoglobinopathies are a group especially susceptible to the complications of viral respiratory infections, with greater morbidity and mortality related to them. Within this context, this review found that, during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the risk of hospitalization in children and adults increased, especially in patients with a history of complications such as acute chest syndrome. In addition, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic appears to have less repercussion among children with hemoglobinopathies compared to adults, similar to what is seen in the general population. In the H1N1 pandemic, patients with hemoglobinopathies behaved as a group more susceptible to complications, with increased morbidity and mortality. However, for COVID-19, the existing data to date on these patients do not show the same clinical impact. Thus, although these children deserve attention in case of infection due to their potential risks, they seem to have a favorable evolution.
The impact of anti-tumor approaches on the outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis based on 52 cohorts incorporating 9231 participants
BMC cancer. 2022;22(1):241
BACKGROUND This study was designed to investigate the impact of anti-tumor approaches (including chemotherapy, targeted therapy, endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy) on the outcomes of cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant trials. The primary endpoints were severe disease and death of cancer patients treated with anti-tumor therapy before COVID-19 diagnosis. In addition, stratified analyses were implemented towards various types of anti-tumor therapy and other prognostic factors. Furthermore, odds ratios (ORs) were hereby adopted to measure the outcomes with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS As indicated in the study consisting of 9231 individuals from 52 cohorts in total, anti-tumor therapy before COVID-19 diagnosis could elevate the risk of death in cancer patients (OR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.07-1.36, P = 0.0026) and the incidence of severe COVID-19 (OR: 1.19, 95%CI: 1.01-1.40, P = 0.0412). Among various anti-tumor approaches, chemotherapy distinguished to increase the incidence of death (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.08-1.38, P = 0.0013) and severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 1.02-1.18, P = 0.0165) as to cancer patients with COVID-19. Moreover, for cancer patients with COVID-19, surgery and targeted therapy could add to the risk of death (OR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.00-1.61, P = 0.0472), and the incidence of severe COVID-19 (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.01-1.30, P = 0.0357) respectively. In the subgroup analysis, the incidence of death (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.34, P = 0.0158) raised in case of chemotherapy adopted for solid tumor with COVID-19. Besides, age, gender, hypertension, COPD, smoking and lung cancer all served as potential prognostic factors for both death and severe disease of cancer patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS Anti-tumor therapy, especially chemotherapy, augmented the risk of severe disease and death for cancer patients with COVID-19, so did surgery for the risk of death and targeted therapy for the incidence of severe COVID-19.
Association of active immunotherapy with outcomes in cancer patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND During the COVID-19 pandemic, there are growing concerns about the safety of administering immunotherapy in cancer patients with COVID-19. However, current clinical guidelines provided no clear recommendation. METHODS Studies were searched and retrieved from electronic databases. The meta-analysis was performed by employing the generic inverse-variance method. A random-effects model was used to calculate the unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs with the corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS This meta-analysis included 20 articles with 6,042 cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19. According to the univariate analysis, the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the mortality of cancer patients (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.68-1.25; P=0.61). Moreover, after adjusting for confounders, the adjusted OR for mortality was 0.51, with borderline significance (95% CI: 0.25-1.01; P=0.053). Similarly, the univariate analysis showed that the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the risk of severe/critical disease in cancer patients (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.47; P=0.66). No significant between-study heterogeneity was found in these analyses. CONCLUSIONS Accepting immunotherapy within 30 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 was not significantly associated with a higher risk of mortality or severe/critical disease of infected cancer patients. Further prospectively designed studies with large sample sizes are required to evaluate the present results.
Comorbidities and mortality rate in COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancies: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of clinical laboratory analysis. 2022;:e24387
INTRODUCTION The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It seems that there is an association between blood cancer and an increased risk of severe COVID-19. This study aimed to review the literature reporting the COVID-19 outcomes in patients with hematological malignancies. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched using the following keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, blood cancer, myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia. All the published articles in English from January 1, 2019, until March 10, 2021 were collected and evaluated. RESULTS In total, 53 studies with 2395 patients were included based on inclusion criteria. Most of these studies took place in Spain (14.81%), followed by the USA (11.11%), China (9.26%), and the UK (9.26%). More than half of COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancy were male (56.73%). Oxygen therapy played an important role in COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, anticoagulant therapies such as enoxaparin and heparin were two great assists for these patients. Fever (74.24%), cough (67.64%), and fatigue (53.19%) were the most reported clinical manifestations. In addition, hypertension and dyslipidemia were the most common comorbidities. The mortality rate due to COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancies was 21.34%. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated that hematologic cancer patients were more susceptible to a severe COVID-19 than patients without blood cancer. Thus, the management of COVID-19 in these patients requires much more attention, and their screening should perform regularly.
COVID 19 and febrile neutropenia: Case report and systematic review
Travel medicine and infectious disease. 2022;47:102305
OBJECTIVES In pandemic conditions, patients with febrile neutropenia are also at risk of COVID-19. Aim of this systematic review is to evaluate COVID-19 cases presented with febrile neutropenia and provide information regarding incidence, clinical course and prognosis. METHODS We systematically searched on COVID-19 and febrile neutropenia cases in PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science. RESULTS A total of 19 febrile neutropenic patients were analyzed. A male predominance was noted. Eleven cases had hematological malignancies. Fourteen of the cases were previously received chemotherapy. Five patients had severe neutropenia: 3 had hematologic cancer and none died. 17 (89.5%) cases have pulmonary involvement and seven of them had severe disease with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Three cases with ARDS were died. 12 of them received G-CSF for treatment. Five cases were developed respiratory failure after G-CSF use. Overall mortality was 15.8%, while death was not observed in patients without malignancy and solid organ tumors, the mortality rate was 27% in cases with hematological malignancies. CONCLUSION In ongoing pandemic, febrile neutropenic patients should be precisely evaluated for COVID-19 disease. It should be remembered that there may not be typical signs and symptoms and laboratory findings of COVID-19 disease because of the immunosuppression.
Hemoperfusion and blood purification strategies in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review
Artificial organs. 2021
BACKGROUND Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe cases requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Together with supportive therapies (ventilation in particular), the suppression of the pro-inflammatory state has been a hypothesized target. Pharmacological therapies with corticosteroids and interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antagonists have reduced mortality. The use of extracorporeal cytokine removal, also known as hemoperfusion (HP), could be a promising non-pharmacological approach to decrease the pro-inflammatory state in COVID-19. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of PubMed and EMBASE databases in order to summarize the evidence regarding HP therapy in COVID-19. We included original studies and case series enrolling at least five patients. RESULTS We included 11 articles and describe the characteristics of the populations studied from both clinical and biological perspectives. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally low. Only two studies had a control group, one of which included 101 patients in total. The remaining studies had a range between 10 and 50 patients included. There was large variability in the HP techniques implemented and in clinical and biological outcomes reported. Most studies described decreasing levels of IL-6 after HP treatment. CONCLUSION Our review does not support strong conclusions regarding the role of HP in COVID-19. Considering the very low level of clinical evidence detected, starting HP therapies in COVID-19 patients does not seem supported outside of clinical trials. Prospective randomized data are needed.
Multicenter Study of the Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Covid-19 in Patients with Lymphoma: An Analysis of the Oncological Group for the Treatment and Study of Lymphomas (Gotel)
Current Oncology. 2021;28(2):1249-1255
The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coronavirus has generated a pandemic, in which there are population groups at higher risk and who are potentially fatal victims of the disease Cancer patients have been considered a group with special susceptibility, particularly patients with lung tumour involvement and haematological neoplasms The Spanish Lymphoma Oncology Group (GOTEL) carried out a multicenter study of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in patients with lymphoma Results: A total of 150 patients were included between 22 May and 11 June 2020 The mean age was 65 years (range 17–89), 70 women (46 5%) and 80 men (53, 5%) At the time of diagnosis of lymphoma, 13 cases were stage I (9%), 27 (18%) stage II, 37 (24 5%) stage III, and 73 (48 5%) stage IV, while 6 6% had a primary extranodal origin A total of 10 cases with positive serology for SARS-CoV-2 were identified, which is a prevalence of 6% in this population None of the patients required intensive care unit management and all fully recovered from the infection Conclusion: IgG antibody seroprevalence in lymphoma patients appears similar to that of the general population and does not show greater aggressiveness
Prophylactic antibiotics for preventing pneumococcal infection in children with sickle cell disease
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;3:Cd003427
BACKGROUND Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders that result in haemoglobin abnormalities and other complications. Injury to the spleen, among other factors, contribute to persons with SCD being particularly susceptible to infection. Infants and very young children are especially vulnerable. The 'Co-operative Study of Sickle Cell Disease' observed an incidence rate for pneumococcal septicaemia of 10 per 100 person-years in children under the age of three years. Vaccines, including customary pneumococcal vaccines, may be of limited use in this age group. Therefore, prophylactic penicillin regimens may be advisable for this population. This is an update of a Cochrane Review which was first published in 2002, and previously updated, most recently in 2017. OBJECTIVES To compare the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis against pneumococcus in children with SCD receiving antibiotic prophylaxis compared to those without in relation to: 1. incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection; 2. mortality (as reported in the included studies); 3. drug-related adverse events (as reported in the included studies) to the individual and the community; 4. the impact of discontinuing at various ages on incidence of infection and mortality. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and also two clinical trials registries: ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Registry Platform (not in 2020 given access issues relating to Covid-19 pandemic). Additionally, we carried out hand searching of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Date of the most recent search: 25 January 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing prophylactic antibiotics to prevent pneumococcal infection in children with SCD with placebo, no treatment or a comparator drug. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS The standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane were used. Both authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. The authors used the GRADE criteria to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS Six trials were identified by the searches, of which three trials were eligible for inclusion. A total of 880 children, who were between three months to five years of age at randomization were included. The included studies were conducted in centres in the USA and in Kingston, Jamaica. In trials that investigated initiation of penicillin on risk of pneumococcal infection, the odds ratio was 0.37 (95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.86) (two trials, 457 children) (low-certainty evidence), while for withdrawal the odds ratio was 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 2.71) (one trial, 400 children) (low-certainty evidence). Adverse drug effects were rare and minor. Rates of pneumococcal infection were found to be relatively low in children over the age of five years. Overall, the certainty of the evidence for all outcomes was judged to be low. The results from the risk of bias assessment undertaken identified two domains in which the risk of bias was considered to be high, these were incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) (two trials) and allocation concealment (selection bias) (one trial). Domains considered to have a low risk of bias for all three trials were selective reporting (reporting bias) and blinding (performance and detection bias). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS The evidence examined was determined to be of low certainty and suggests that prophylactic penicillin significantly reduces risk of pneumococcal infection in children with homozygous SCD, and is associated with minimal adverse reactions. Further research may help to determine the ideal age to safely withdraw penicillin.
Proportion of Hematological Cancer Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection during the COVID-19 Pandemic: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Hematology, transfusion and cell therapy. 2021
INTRODUCTION The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a novel infection which has spread rapidly across the globe and currently presents a grave threat to the health of the cancer patient. OBJECTIVE The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the proportion of hematological cancer patients with the SARS-CoV-2 infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD A comprehensive literature review was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EKB SciELO, SID, CNKI and Wanfang databases to retrieve all relevant publications up to January 31, 2021. Observational studies, consecutive case-series and case-control studies were included. The proportion for hematological cancer patients with COVID-19 was estimated using the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (95% CIs). RESULTS Fourteen studies with a total of 3,770 infected cancer patients and 685 hematological cancer cases with COVID-19 were selected. Combined data revealed that the overall proportion of hematological cancer patients with COVID-19 was 16.5% (95% CI 0.130 - 0.208, p ≤ 0.001). The stratified analysis by ethnicity showed that the proportion was 18.8% and 12.4% in Caucasian and Asian hematological cancer patients with COVID-19, respectively. Moreover, subgroup analysis by country of origin showed that its proportion was the highest in the United Kingdom (22.5%), followed by France (17.1%) and China (8.2%). CONCLUSION This meta-analysis result indicated that the proportion of hematological cancer patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the COVID-19 pandemic was 16.5%. Further larger sample sizes and multicenter studies among different ethnic groups are necessary to get a better assessment of the proportion.
Incidence Rate of COVID-19 Infection in Hemoglobinopathies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
During the coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pandemic, several studies were performed to determine the mortality and incidence rates of coronavirus infection among patients with hemoglobinopathies. However, there has been no systematic approach or meta-analysis to evaluate the results worldwide. This meta-analysis summarized the existing evidence of incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19 and related risk factors among patients with hemoglobinopathies with a focus on β-thalassemia (β-thal) and sickle cell disease. The review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Two authors independently screened the articles, extracted eligible ones, and assessed the quality of studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) checklist. The collected data were analyzed by the Stata software. The amount of heterogeneity was demonstrated by the I(2) test. The incidence of COVID-19 among patients with a hemoglobinopathy, β-thal and sickle cell disease was 4.44, 1.34, and 17.22 per 100,000 person-day, respectively, to June 15 2020. The mortality rate of COVID-19 in patients with hemoglobin (Hb) disorders was calculated as 1.07 per 1000 person-day in the same period. Our findings showed a higher incidence rate of COVID-19 in sickle cell disease patients compared to the general population. A slightly higher mortality rate was also observed in patients with hemoglobinopathies compared to the general population, possibly due to the associated risk factors and comorbidities in this vulnerable group, which underscore special care, timely diagnosis and management along with current immunization, were crucial in decreasing the frequency, disease severity and mortality of these patients.