Investigation of plasma exchange and hemoperfusion effects and complications for the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) disease: a systematic scoping review
Journal of Medical Virology. 2021
BACKGROUND Some previous studies suggested that the plasma exchange (PE) and hemoperfusion (HP) played a cardinal role in treatment of severe COVID-19 cases through diminishing the cytokine storm. This study aimed to assess the effects of PE and HP on cytokine storm in patients with severe COVID-19 through a systematic scoping review. METHODS Four Electronic databases [Medline (accessed from PubMed), Scopus, Science Direct, and Cochrane library] were searched systematically on February 2, 2021 using MESH terms and related keywords in English language. Considering the titles and abstracts, unrelated studies were excluded. The full texts of the remained studies were evaluated by authors, independently. Then, their findings were assessed and reported. RESULTS Total of 755 articles were obtained within the first step of searching, and 518 ones remained after removing the duplications. Through the title and abstract screening, 438 were removed. Of the rest, 59 papers were excluded. Finally, after reading the full text of the remained articles, 21 ones included in data extraction. Most of the previous reported evidence were case reports and case series. Findings were summarized in two categories; First category encompassed nine studies regarding to HP and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), and second category was included twelve studies about PE. CONCLUSION The results revealed that HP and PE within the cytokine storm phase would be beneficial with high probability in the treatment of severely ill COVID-19 patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Efficacy of IVIG (Intravenous Immunoglobulin) for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): a meta-analysis
International Immunopharmacology. 2021;:107732-107732
Background The benefit of IVIG (Intravenous Immunoglobulin) therapy for COVID-19 remains controversial We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of IVIG treatment in patients with COVID-19 Methods We searched articles from Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, MedRxiv between 1 January 2020 and February 17, 2021 We selected randomized clinical trials and observational studies with a control group to assess the efficiency of IVIG in treating patients with COVID-19 Subjects were divided into ‘non-severe’, ‘severe’ and ‘critical’ three subgroups based on the information of the study and the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of severity We pooled the data of mortality and other outcomes using either a fixed-effect model or a random-effects model Results Our meta-analysis retrieved 4 clinical trials and 3 cohort studies including 825 hospitalized patients The severity of COVID-19 is associated with the efficiency of IVIG In critical subgroup, IVIG could reduce the mortality compared with the control group [RR=0 63 (0 45-0 88,I2=25%) But there was no significant difference in the severe or non-severe subgroups Conclusion IVIG has demonstrated clinical efficacy on critical ill patients with COVID-19 There may be a relationship between the efficacy of IVIG and the COVID-19 disease severity Well-designed clinical trials to identify the clinical and biochemical characteristics in COVID-19 patients’ population that could benefit from IVIG are warranted in the future
COVID-19 pandemic: Challenges and approaches in blood transfusions
Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. 2021;28(1):1-10
One of the goals of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization is to provide adequate healthy blood and reduce the risk of various viral and bacterial transmission infections With the removal of alternative blood donation, all blood units and blood products are provided through voluntary blood donation in Iran The Blood Transfusion Organization screens the donated blood according to standard guidelines to ensure blood recipients and physicians of providing healthy and pathogen-free components With the emergence of novel pathogens, such as the pandemic of the COVID-19 virus, despite Iran's self-sufficiency in blood supply and blood products, the number of blood donors has decreased significantly since there is a lack of comprehensive information on pathophysiology and virus transmission ways Moreover, the existence of some shortages in screening programs can cause problems Therefore, this study was performed to review the studies conducted investigating this emerging virus regarding blood transfusions and the supply of blood components worldwide [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences is the property of Birjand University of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use This abstract may be abridged No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract (Copyright applies to all Abstracts )
Hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 IVIG (C-IVIG) treatment in severe and critical COVID-19 patients: A phase I/II randomized control trial
BACKGROUND Hyperimmune anti-COVID-19 Intravenous Immunoglobulin (C-IVIG) is an unexplored therapy amidst the rapidly evolving spectrum of medical therapies for COVID-19 and is expected to counter the three most life-threatening consequences of COVID-19 including lung injury by the virus, cytokine storm and sepsis. METHODS A single center, phase I/II, randomized controlled, single-blinded trial was conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. Participants were COVID-19 infected individuals, classified as either severely or critically ill with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Participants were randomized through parallel-group design with sequential assignment in a 4:1 allocation to either intervention group with four C-IVIG dosage arms (0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30 g/kg), or control group receiving standard of care only (n = 10). Primary outcomes were 28-day mortality, patient's clinical status on ordinal scale and Horowitz index (HI), and were analysed in all randomized participants that completed the follow-up period (intention-to-treat population). The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04521309). FINDINGS Fifty participants were enrolled in the study from June 19, 2020 to February 3, 2021 with a mean age of 56.54±13.2 years of which 22 patients (44%) had severe and 28 patients (56%) had critical COVID-19. Mortality occurred in ten of 40 participants (25%) in intervention group compared to six of ten (60%) in control group, with relative risk reduction in intervention arm I (RR, 0.333; 95% CI, 0.087-1.272), arm II (RR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.171-1.463), arm III (RR, 0.167; 95% CI, 0.024-1.145), and arm IV (RR, 0.667; 95% CI, 0.268-1.660). In intervention group, median HI significantly improved to 359 mmHg [interquartile range (IQR) 127-400, P = 0.009)] by outcome day, while the clinical status of intervention group also improved as compared to control group, with around 15 patients (37.5%) being discharged by 7th day with complete recovery. Additionally, resolution of chest X-rays and restoration of biomarkers to normal levels were also seen in intervention groups. No drug-related adverse events were reported during the study. INTERPRETATION Administration of C-IVIG in severe and critical COVID-19 patients was safe, increased the chance of survival and reduced the risk of disease progression. FUNDING Higher Education Commission (HEC), Pakistan (Ref no. 20-RRG-134/RGM/R&D/HEC/2020).
Therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with life-threatening COVID-19: a randomized control clinical trial
International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2021;:106334
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) following life-threatening COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Open-label, randomized clinical trial of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with life-threatening COVID-19 [positive real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction test, plus acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, organ failure, hyperinflammation]. The study was terminated after 87/120 patients were enrolled. INTERVENTION AND RANDOMIZATION Standard treatment plus TPE (n = 43) versus standard treatment (n = 44), and stratified by peripheral arterial oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO(2)/FiO(2)) ratio (> 150 versus ≤ 150). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcomes were 35-day mortality and TPE safety. Secondary outcomes were association between TPE and mortality, improvement in Sequential Organ Function Assessment (SOFA) score, change in inflammatory biomarkers, days on mechanical ventilation (MV), and ICU length-of-stay. RESULTS Eighty-seven patients [median years of age 49 (IQR: 34-63); 72 males (82.8%)] were randomized [44 to standard care; 43 to standard care plus TPE]. Days on MV (p=0.007) and ICU length-of-stay (p=0.02) were lower in the TPE group versus controls. Thirty-five-day mortality was lower in the TPE group (20.9% vs. 34.1% in controls), but this did not reach statistical significance [Kaplan-Meir analysis: p=0.582). TPE was associated with increased lymphocytes and ADAMTS-13 activity; plus decreased serum lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, D-dimers, and interleukin-6. Multivariable regression analysis provided several predictors of 35-day mortality: PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio [hazard ratio (HR): 0.98, 95% CI: 0.96-1.00, p=0.02], ADAMTS-13 activity (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.98, p=0.01), and PE (HR: 3.57, 95% CI: 1.43-8.92, p=0.007). Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant reduction in SOFA score for TPE patients (p<0.05) compared to controls. CONCLUSION In critically ill COVID-19 patients the addition of TPE to standard ICU therapy was associated with faster clinical recovery and no increased 35-day mortality.
Therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with life-threatening COVID-19: a randomised controlled clinical trial
Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2021;:106334-106334
Assessment of efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) following life-threatening COVID-19. This was an open-label, randomised clinical trial of ICU patients with life-threatening COVID-19 (positive RT-qPCR plus ARDS, sepsis, organ failure, hyperinflammation). Study was terminated after 87/120 patients enrolled. Standard treatment plus TPE (n = 43) versus standard treatment (n = 44), and stratified by PaO2/FiO2 ratio (>150 vs. ≤150), were compared. Primary outcomes were 35-day mortality and TPE safety. Secondary outcomes were association between TPE and mortality, improvement in SOFA score, change in inflammatory biomarkers, days on mechanical ventilation (MV), and ICU length of stay (LOS). Eighty-seven patients [median age 49 (IQR 34-63) years; 82.8% male] were randomised (44 standard care; 43 standard care plus TPE). Days on MV (P = 0.007) and ICU LOS (P = 0.02) were lower in the TPE group. 35-Day mortality was non-significantly lower in the TPE group (20.9% vs. 34.1%; Kaplan-Meier, P = 0.582). TPE was associated with increased lymphocytes and ADAMTS-13 activity and decreased serum lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, ferritin, d-dimers and interleukin-6. Multivariable regression analysis provided several predictors of 35-day mortality: PaO2/FiO2 ratio (HR, 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00; P = 0.02]; ADAMTS-13 activity (HR, 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; P = 0.01); pulmonary embolism (HR, 3.57, 95% CI 1.43-8.92; P = 0.007). Post-hoc analysis revealed a significant reduction in SOFA score for TPE patients (P < 0.05). In critically-ill COVID-19 patients, addition of TPE to standard ICU therapy was associated with faster clinical recovery and no increased 35-day mortality.
The impact of the covid-19 pandemic on the continuity of transfusion care for thallasemic patients: A case report
Pan African Medical Journal. 2021;38(33):1-8
The COVID-19 pandemic could have a major impact on the capacity of health systems to continue the delivery of essential health service While health systems around the world are being challenged by increasing demand for care of COVID-19 patients, it is critical to maintain preventive and curative services, especially for the most vulnerable populations such people living with chronic conditions like thallasemics In this context and since the start of the SARS-CoV-2 health crisis, the National Blood Transfusion Center of Morocco has ranked among its priorities the need to maintain transfusion management for chronic polytransfused patients, particularly those with thalassemia We report in this paper, the case of a thallasemic patient whose transfusion management was disrupted by the restrictive measures introduced by the Moroccan authorities and for which the National Blood Center of Morocco provided effective support © Sabah Bouhou et al
Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Treatment of Severe Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) - A Literature Overview
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2021;147(2):AB67-AB67
Low risk of SARS-CoV-2 in blood transfusion
PloS one. 2021;16(4):e0249069
BACKGROUND The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to remain a global challenge. There is emerging evidence of SARS-CoV-2 virus found in the blood of patients from China and some developed countries. However, there is inadequate data reported in Ghana and other parts of Africa, where blood transfusion service heavily relies on voluntary and replacement blood donors. This study aimed to investigate whether plasma of infected individuals could pose significant transfusion transmitted risk of COVID-19 in Ghanaian populations. METHODS This cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted at the Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research into Tropical Medicine (KCCR), KNUST, Ghana. Study subjects comprised contacts of COVID-19 individuals, those with classical symptoms of COVID-19 and individuals who had recovered based on the new Ghana discharge criteria. Whole blood, sputum or deep coughed saliva samples were collected and transported to KCCR for SARS-CoV-2 testing. Viral nucleic acid was extracted from sputum/nasopharyngeal samples using Da An Gene column based kit and from plasma using LBP nucleic acid extraction kit. Real-Time PCR was performed specifically targeting the ORF1ab and Nucleocapsid (N) genomic regions of the virus. RESULTS A total of 97 individuals were recruited into the study, with more than half being males (58; 59.7%). The mean age of all subjects was 33 years (SD = 7.7) with minimum being 22 years and maximum 56 years. Majority (76; 78.4%) of all the subjects were asymptomatic, and among the few symptomatic subjects, cough (10; 10.3%) was the most predominant symptom. Of the 97 sputum samples tested, 79 (81.4%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. We identified SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in the plasma of 1 (1.03%) subject who had clinically recovered. CONCLUSION This study reports the identification of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in a convalescent individual in Ghana. Due to the low prevalence observed and the marginal cycling thresholds associated, the risk of transfusion transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is negligible. Well-powered studies and advanced diagnostics to determine infectious viremia is recommended to further evaluate the potential risk of hematogenous transmission among recovered patients.
Association of Intravenous Immunoglobulins Plus Methylprednisolone vs Immunoglobulins Alone With Course of Fever in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children
IMPORTANCE Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is the most severe pediatric disease associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, potentially life-threatening, but the optimal therapeutic strategy remains unknown. OBJECTIVE To compare intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) plus methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone as initial therapy in MIS-C. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective cohort study drawn from a national surveillance system with propensity score-matched analysis. All cases with suspected MIS-C were reported to the French National Public Health Agency. Confirmed MIS-C cases fulfilling the World Health Organization definition were included. The study started on April 1, 2020, and follow-up ended on January 6, 2021. EXPOSURES IVIG and methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was persistence of fever 2 days after the introduction of initial therapy or recrudescence of fever within 7 days, which defined treatment failure. Secondary outcomes included a second-line therapy, hemodynamic support, acute left ventricular dysfunction after first-line therapy, and length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit. The primary analysis involved propensity score matching with a minimum caliper of 0.1. RESULTS Among 181 children with suspected MIS-C, 111 fulfilled the World Health Organization definition (58 females [52%]; median age, 8.6 years [interquartile range, 4.7 to 12.1]). Five children did not receive either treatment. Overall, 3 of 34 children (9%) in the IVIG and methylprednisolone group and 37 of 72 (51%) in the IVIG alone group did not respond to treatment. Treatment with IVIG and methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone was associated with lower risk of treatment failure (absolute risk difference, -0.28 [95% CI, -0.48 to -0.08]; odds ratio [OR], 0.25 [95% CI, 0.09 to 0.70]; P = .008). IVIG and methylprednisolone therapy vs IVIG alone was also significantly associated with lower risk of use of second-line therapy (absolute risk difference, -0.22 [95% CI, -0.40 to -0.04]; OR, 0.19 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.61]; P = .004), hemodynamic support (absolute risk difference, -0.17 [95% CI, -0.34 to -0.004]; OR, 0.21 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.76]), acute left ventricular dysfunction occurring after initial therapy (absolute risk difference, -0.18 [95% CI, -0.35 to -0.01]; OR, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.06 to 0.66]), and duration of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (median, 4 vs 6 days; difference in days, -2.4 [95% CI, -4.0 to -0.7]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among children with MIS-C, treatment with IVIG and methylprednisolone vs IVIG alone was associated with a more favorable fever course. Study interpretation is limited by the observational design.