Erratum: Safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma for severe COVID-19: Interim report of a multicenter phase ii study from Saudi Arabia
Saudi Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2021;9(2):199-199
In the article “Safety and Efficacy of Convalescent Plasma for Severe COVID-19: Interim Report of a Multicenter Phase II Study from Saudi Arabia”, published on pages 16-23, Issue 1, Volume 9 of Saudi Journal of Medicine & Medical Sciences, the affiliation of Dr Khalid A Alsaleh is incorrect The correct affiliation is “Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia”
Presence and short-term persistence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors
BACKGROUND In March 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) as an investigational new drug for treatment of COVID-19. Since then, collection of CCP from COVID-19-recovered patients has been implemented in donor centers nationwide. Children's Hospital Colorado rapidly put into practice a CCP collection protocol, necessitating development and implementation of assays to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in CCP units. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We evaluated 87 units of CCP collected from 36 donors over two to four sequential donations using both antigen-binding assays for SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein and spike antigens and a live virus focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT(50) ). RESULTS Our data show that the majority of donors (83%) had a FRNT(50) titer of at least 80, and 61% had a titer of at least 160, which met the FDA's criteria for acceptable CCP units. Additionally, our data indicate that analysis of antibodies to a single SARS-CoV-2 antigen is likely to miss a percentage of seroconverters; however, these individuals tend to have neutralizing antibody titers of less than 80. There was considerable variability in the short-term, sustained antibody response, measured by neutralizing antibody titers, among our donor population. CONCLUSION The correlation of neutralizing activity and antigen-binding assays is necessary to qualify CCP for therapeutic use. Since SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels decline in a percentage of donors, and such a decline is not detectable by current qualitative assays implemented in many laboratories, robust, quantitative assays are necessary to evaluate CCP units best suited for therapeutic infusion in COVID-19 patients.
Convalescent plasma therapy in patients with COVID-19
Transfus Apher Sci. 2021;60(1):102955-102955
INTRODUCTION Passive antibody therapy has been used to immunize vulnerable people against infectious agents In this study, we aim to investigate the efficacy of convalescent plasma (CP) in the treatment of severe and critically ill patients diagnosed with COVID-19 METHOD The data of severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients who received anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody-containing CP along with the antiviral treatment (n = 888) and an age-gender, comorbidity, and other COVID-19 treatments matched severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients at 1:1 ratio (n = 888) were analyzed retrospectively RESULTS Duration in the intensive care unit (ICU), the rate of mechanical ventilation (MV) support and vasopressor support were lower in CP group compared with the control group (p = 0 001, p = 0 02, p = 0 001, respectively) The case fatality rate (CFR) was 24 7 % in the CP group, and it was 27 7 % in the control group Administration of CP 20 days after the COVID-19 diagnosis or COVID-19 related symptoms were associated with a higher rate of MV support compared with the first 3 interval groups (≤5 days, 6-10 days, 11-15 days) (p=0 001) CONCLUSION CP therapy seems to be effective for a better course of COVID-19 in severe and critically ill patients
Randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma therapy against standard therapy in patients with severe COVID-19 disease
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):9927
Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy in COVID-19 disease may improve clinical outcome in severe disease. This pilot study was undertaken to inform feasibility and safety of further definitive studies. This was a prospective, interventional and randomized open label pilot trial in patients with severe COVID-19. Twenty COVID-19 patients received two 200 ml transfusions of convalescent patient CP over 24-h compared with 20 who received standard of care. The primary outcome was the requirement for ventilation (non-invasive or mechanical ventilation). The secondary outcomes were biochemical parameters and mortality at 28 days. The CP group were a higher risk group with higher ferritin levels (p < 0.05) though respiratory indices did not differ. The primary outcome measure was required in 6 controls and 4 patients on CP (risk ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.22-2.0, p = 0.72); mean time on ventilation (NIV or MV) did not differ. There were no differences in secondary measures at the end of the study. Two patients died in the control and one patient in the CP arm. There were no significant differences in the primary or secondary outcome measures between CP and standard therapy, although a larger definitive study is needed for confirmation. However, the study did show that CP therapy appears to be safe in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with hypoxia.Clinical trials registration NCT04356534: 22/04/2020.
Retraction: A review of convalescent plasma transfusion in COVID-19: Old wine reserved for special occasions(2021) DOI: 10.4103/0970-2113.30)
Lung India. 2021;38(1):105-105
The review article titled "A review of convalescent plasma transfusion in COVID-19: Old wine reserved for special occasions" published in Lung India as Ahead of Print, 5 pages, 16th September 2020 , is being retracted because it is similar to a Letter to Editor titled "Convalescent plasma therapy in COVID 19: Every dark cloud has a silver lining" published in Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology, on pages 419-423, Volume 36, Issue 3, 2020, by the same group of authors Basis the publication dates of both the articles, journal s editorial board considers it to be a case of simultaneous publication and thus decided to retract
Plasmatherapy and COVID-19: does it work?
Exercer-La Revue Francophone De Medecine Generale. 2021;(173):240-240
Early versus deferred anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma in patients admitted for COVID-19: A randomized phase II clinical trial
Plos Medicine. 2021;18(3):e1003415
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma (CP), despite limited evidence on its efficacy, is being widely used as a compassionate therapy for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of early CP therapy in COVID-19 progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS The study was an open-label, single-center randomized clinical trial performed in an academic medical center in Santiago, Chile, from May 10, 2020, to July 18, 2020, with final follow-up until August 17, 2020. The trial included patients hospitalized within the first 7 days of COVID-19 symptom onset, presenting risk factors for illness progression and not on mechanical ventilation. The intervention consisted of immediate CP (early plasma group) versus no CP unless developing prespecified criteria of deterioration (deferred plasma group). Additional standard treatment was allowed in both arms. The primary outcome was a composite of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization for >14 days, or death. The key secondary outcomes included time to respiratory failure, days of mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay, mortality at 30 days, and SARS-CoV-2 real-time PCR clearance rate. Of 58 randomized patients (mean age, 65.8 years; 50% male), 57 (98.3%) completed the trial. A total of 13 (43.3%) participants from the deferred group received plasma based on clinical aggravation. We failed to find benefit in the primary outcome (32.1% versus 33.3%, odds ratio [OR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.32-2.84, p > 0.999) in the early versus deferred CP group. The in-hospital mortality rate was 17.9% versus 6.7% (OR 3.04, 95% CI 0.54-17.17 p = 0.246), mechanical ventilation 17.9% versus 6.7% (OR 3.04, 95% CI 0.54-17.17, p = 0.246), and prolonged hospitalization 21.4% versus 30.0% (OR 0.64, 95% CI, 0.19-2.10, p = 0.554) in the early versus deferred CP group, respectively. The viral clearance rate on day 3 (26% versus 8%, p = 0.204) and day 7 (38% versus 19%, p = 0.374) did not differ between groups. Two patients experienced serious adverse events within 6 hours after plasma transfusion. The main limitation of this study is the lack of statistical power to detect a smaller but clinically relevant therapeutic effect of CP, as well as not having confirmed neutralizing antibodies in donor before plasma infusion. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, we failed to find evidence of benefit in mortality, length of hospitalization, or mechanical ventilation requirement by immediate addition of CP therapy in the early stages of COVID-19 compared to its use only in case of patient deterioration. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT04375098.
Distinct SARS-CoV-2 antibody reactivity patterns in coronavirus convalescent plasma revealed by a coronavirus antigen microarray
Scientific Reports. 2021;11(1):7554
A coronavirus antigen microarray (COVAM) was constructed containing 11 SARS-CoV-2, 5 SARS-1, 5 MERS, and 12 seasonal coronavirus recombinant proteins. The array is designed to measure immunoglobulin isotype and subtype levels in serum or plasma samples against each of the individual antigens printed on the array. We probed the COVAM with COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) collected from 99 donors who recovered from a PCR+ confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results were analyzed using two computational approaches, a generalized linear model (glm) and random forest (RF) prediction model, to classify individual specimens as either Reactive or non-reactive against the SARS-CoV-2 antigens. A training set of 88 pre-COVID-19 specimens (PreCoV) collected in August 2019 and102 positive specimens from SARS-CoV-2 PCR+ confirmed COVID-19 cases was used for these analyses. Results compared with an FDA emergency use authorized (EUA) SARS-CoV2 S1-based total Ig chemiluminescence immunoassay (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics VITROS Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total, CoV2T) and with a SARS-CoV-2 S1-S2 spike-based pseudovirus micro neutralization assay (SARS-CoV-2 reporter viral particle neutralization titration (RVPNT) showed high concordance between the three assays. Three CCP specimens that were negative by the VITROS CoV2T immunoassay were also negative by both COVAM and the RVPNT assay. Concordance between VITROS CoV2T and COVAM was 96%, VITROS CoV2T and RVPNT 93%, and RVPNT and COVAM 91%. The discordances were all weakly reactive samples near the cutoff threshold of the VITROS CoV2T immunoassay. The multiplex COVAM allows CCP to be grouped according to antibody reactivity patterns against 11 SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Unsupervised K-means analysis, via the gap statistics, as well as hierarchical clustering analysis revealed three main clusters with distinct reactivity intensities and patterns. These patterns were not recapitulated by adjusting the VITROS CoV2T or RVPNT assay thresholds. Plasma classified by COVAM reactivity patterns offers potential to improve CCP therapeutic efficacy CoV2T alone. The use of a SARS-CoV-2 antigen array can qualify CCP for administration as a treatment for acute COVID-19, and interrogate vaccine immunogenicity and performance in preclinical, clinical studies, and routine vaccination to identify antibody responses predictive of protection from infection and disease.
High-throughput detection of antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike in longitudinal convalescent plasma samples
BACKGROUND The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus is the cause of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, infecting millions of people and causing more than two million deaths. The SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoproteins mediate viral entry and represent the main target for antibody responses. Humoral responses were shown to be important for preventing and controlling infection by coronaviruses. A promising approach to reduce the severity of COVID-19 is the transfusion of convalescent plasma. However, longitudinal studies revealed that the level of antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike declines rapidly after the resolution of the infection. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS To extend this observation beyond the RBD domain, we performed a longitudinal analysis of the persistence of antibodies targeting the full-length SARS-CoV-2 Spike in the plasma from 15 convalescent donors. We generated a 293T cell line constitutively expressing the SARS-CoV-2 Spike and used it to develop a high-throughput flow cytometry-based assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 Spike-specific antibodies in the plasma of convalescent donors. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION We found that the level of antibodies targeting the full-length SARS-CoV-2 Spike declines gradually after the resolution of the infection. This decline was not related to the number of donations but strongly correlated with the decline of RBD-specific antibodies and the number of days post-symptom onset. These findings help to better understand the decline of humoral responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike and provide important information on when to collect plasma after recovery from active infection for convalescent plasma transfusion.
A novel nano therapeutic using convalescent plasma derived exosomal (CP(Exo)) for COVID-19: A combined hyperactive immune modulation and diagnostics
Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2021;:109497
Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CP(Exo)) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CP(Exo) instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CP(Exo) has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.