[Effect of fluid resuscitation guided by pulse contour cardiac output monitoring technology on organ function in extremely severe burn patients]
Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns. 2020;36(10):939-946
Objective: To investigate the effect of fluid resuscitation guided by pulse contour cardiac output (PiCCO) monitoring technology on the organ function in extremely severe burn patients. Methods: From May 2015 to March 2019, 52 patients with extremely severe burn hospitalized in Tongren Hospital of Wuhan University & Wuhan Third Hospital, meeting the inclusion criteria, were recruited to conduct a prospectively randomized control study. The patients were divided into PiCCO monitoring rehydration group (25 cases, 17 males and 8 females) and traditional rehydration group (27 cases, 20 males and 7 females) according to the random number table, with the ages of (47±9) and (49±8) years respectively. After admission, all the patients were rehydrated according to the rehydration formula of the Third Military Medical University during shock stage. In traditional rehydration group, fluid resuscitation of the patients was performed by monitoring the traditional shock indicators such as urine volume and central venous pressure, while PiCCO monitoring was performed in patients in PiCCO monitoring rehydration group, and the global end-diastolic volume index combined with the other relevant indicators of PiCCO monitoring were used to guide rehydration on the basis of the monitoring indicators of traditional rehydration group. The rehydration coefficients and urine volumes per kilogram of body weight per hour during the first and second 24 h post injury were compared between the two groups, which were compared with the corresponding rehydration scheme value of the Third Military Medical University (hereinafter referred to as the scheme value) at the same time. The total rehydration volumes within post injury hour (PIH) 8 and during the first and second 24 h post injury, the urine volumes per hour during the first and second 24 h post injury, and the levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, lactate clearance rate, procalcitonin, creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) in blood and mean arterial pressure (MAP) on post injury day (PID) 1, 2, and 3 were measured. The incidence of complications, the application case number of mechanical ventilation, and the mechanical ventilation time within PID 28 were analyzed. Data were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance for repeated measurement, t test, Bonferroni correction, Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact probability method test. Results: During the second 24 h post injury, the rehydration coefficient of patients in traditional rehydration group was significantly higher than the scheme value (t=5.120, P<0.01). During the first and second 24 h post injury, the rehydration coefficients of patients in PiCCO monitoring rehydration group were significantly higher than the scheme values (t=3.655, 10.894, P<0.01) and those in traditional rehydration group (t=3.172, 2.363, P<0.05 or P<0.01). Within PIH 8, the total rehydration volumes of patients between the two groups were similar. During the first and second 24 h post injury, the total rehydration volumes of patients in PiCCO monitoring rehydration group were significantly higher than those in traditional rehydration group (t=4.428, 3.665, P<0.01). During the first and second 24 h post injury, the urine volumes per kilogram of body weight per hour of patients in traditional rehydration group were significantly higher than the schema values (t=4.293, 6.362, P<0.01), and the urine volumes per kilogram body weight per hour of patients in PiCCO monitoring rehydration group were significantly higher than the schema values (t=6.461, 8.234, P<0.01). The urine volumes per kilogram of body weight per hour and urine volumes per hour of patients in PiCCO monitoring rehydration group during the second 24 h post injury were significantly higher than those in traditional rehydration group (t=2.849, 3.644, P<0.05 or P<0.01). The creatinine levels of patients between the two groups on PID 1, 2, and 3 were similar. The urea nitrogen levels of patients in PiCCO monitoring rehydration group on PID 1, 2, and 3 were (6.8±1.5), (5.6±1.4), (4.4±1.4) mmol/L respectively, which were significantly lower than (8.6±1.8), (6.6±1.5), (5.5±1.4) mmol/L in traditional rehydration group (t=3.817, 2.511, 2.903, P<0.05 or P<0.01). The lactate clearance rates of patients in PiCCO monitoring rehydration group on PID 1, 2, and 3 were significantly higher than those in traditional rehydration group (t=2.516, 4.540, 3.130, P<0.05 or P<0.01). The procalcitonin levels of patients in PiCCO monitoring rehydration group on PID 2 and 3 were significantly lower than those in traditional rehydration group (Z=-2.491, -2.903, P<0.05). The CK-MB level of patients in PiCCO monitoring rehydration group on PID 3 was (35±10) U/L, which was significantly lower than (51±16) U/L in traditional rehydration group (t=4.556, P<0.01). The MAP levels of patients between the two groups on PID 1, 2, and 3 were similar. Within PID 28, the incidence of complications of patients in traditional rehydration group was significantly higher than that in PiCCO monitoring rehydration group (χ(2)=4.995, P<0.05), and the application case number of mechanical ventilation and the mechanical ventilation time of patients between the two groups were similar. Conclusions: The use of PiCCO monitoring technology to guide the early fluid resuscitation of extremely severe burn patients is beneficial for accurate determination of the fluid volume required by the patients and reduction of organ injury caused by improper rehydration.
Examining 1:1 Versus 4:1 Packed Red Blood Cell to Fresh Frozen Plasma Ratio Transfusion During Pediatric Burn Excision
Journal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association. 2020
Blood transfusions following major burn injury are common due to operative losses, blood sampling, and burn physiology. While massive transfusion improves outcomes in adult trauma patients, literature examining its effect in critically ill children is limited. The study purpose was to prospectively compare outcomes of major pediatric burns receiving a 1:1 vs 4:1 packed red blood cell (PRBC) to fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion strategy during massive burn excision. Children with >20% total body surface area (TBSA) burns were randomized to a 1:1 or 4:1 PRBC/FFP transfusion ratio during burn excision. Parameters examined include patient demographics, burn size, Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) scores, Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) scores, laboratory values, total blood products transfused, and the presence of blood stream infections or pneumonia. A total of 68 children who met inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups (n=34). Mean age, PRISM scores, estimated blood loss (600 mL (400 - 1175 mL) v 600 mL (300 - 1150 mL), p = 0.68), ventilator days (5 v 9, p = 0.47), and length of stay (57 v 60 days, p = 0.24) had no difference. No differences in frequency of blood stream infection (20 v 18, p = 0.46) or pneumonia events (68 v 116, p = 0.08) were noted. On multivariate analysis, only TBSA burn size, inhalation injury, and PRISM scores (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with infections.
The best strategy for red blood cell transfusion in severe burn patients, restrictive or liberal: A randomized controlled trial
Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. 2020
INTRODUCTION Although blood transfusion is common in burns, data are lacking in appropriate transfusion thresholds. It has been reported that a restrictive blood transfusion policy decreases blood utilization and improves outcomes in critically ill adults, but the impact of a restrictive blood transfusion policy in burn patients is unclear. We decided to investigate the outcome of decreasing the blood transfusion threshold. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty patients with TBSA > 20% who met our inclusion criteria were included. They were randomly divided into control and intervention groups. The intervention group received packed cells only when Hemoglobin declined to less than 8 g/dL at routine laboratory evaluations. While the control group received packed-cell when hemoglobin was declined to less than 10 g/dl. The total number of the received packed cell before, during and after any surgical procedure was recorded. The outcome was measured by the evaluation of the infection rate and other complications. RESULT The mean hemoglobin level before transfusion was 7.7 ± 0.4 g/dL in the restrictive group and 8.8 ± 0.7 g/dL in the liberal group. The mean number of RBC unit transfusion per patient in the restrictive group was significantly lower than the traditional group (3.28 ± 2.2 units vs. 5.9 ± 3.7 units) (p-value = 0.006). The total number of RBC transfused units varied significantly between the two groups (p-value = 0.014). The number of transfused RBC units outside the operation room showed a significant difference between groups (restrictive: 2.8 ± 1.4 units vs. liberal: 4.4 ± 2.6 units) (p = 0.004). We did not find any significant difference in mortality rate or other outcome measures between groups. CONCLUSION Applying the restrictive transfusion strategy in thermal burn patients who are highly prone to all kinds of infection, does not adversely impact the patient outcome, and results in significant cost savings to the institution and lower rate of infection. We conclude that the restrictive transfusion practice during burn excision and grafting is well tolerated and effective in reducing the number of transfusions without increasing complications. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION REFERENCE IRCT20190209042660N1.
Adult thermal burn patients (n= 80).
Restrictive transfusion threshold: haemoglobin less than 8 g/dL (n= 40).
Liberal transfusion threshold: haemoglobin less than 10 g/dL (n= 40).
The mean haemoglobin level before transfusion was 7.7 ± 0.4 g/dL in the restrictive group and 8.8 ± 0.7 g/dL in the liberal group. The mean number of RBC unit transfusion per patient in the restrictive group was significantly lower than the traditional group (3.28 ± 2.2 units vs. 5.9 ± 3.7 units). The total number of RBC transfused units varied significantly between the two groups. The number of transfused RBC units outside the operation room showed a significant difference between groups (restrictive: 2.8 ± 1.4 units vs. liberal: 4.4 ± 2.6 units). No significant difference in mortality rate or other outcome measures between groups was found.
Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma As A Preparative for Resurfacing Burn Wounds with Split Thickness Skin Grafts
World J Plast Surg. 2020;9(1):29-32
BACKGROUND Split thickness skin graft is a widely accepted technique to cover large defects. Shearing, hematoma and infection have often been attributed as major causes for graft loss. Autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been used in various treatment modalities in the field of plastic surgery for its healing, adhesive and hemostatic properties owing to the growth factors that are released. This Study primarily throws light on the usage of PRP over difficult Burn wound beds to augment graft uptake and attenuate complications. METHODS The patients were divided into two groups of those who were subjected to use of autologous PRP as a preparative burn surfacing and the control group who underwent standard method of treatment. RESULTS Patients in PRP group significantly showed a higher graft adherence rate as compared to those with other method. It also reduced pain, and hematoma formation. CONCLUSION Application of PRP is a safe, cost effective, easy method to increase graft adherence rate in patients with burns where graft loss is noticed and there is shortage of donor sites.
Evaluation of the Effect of Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Wound Healing at Split-Thickness Skin Graft Donor Sites: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Triple-Blind Study
The international journal of lower extremity wounds. 2020;:1534734619900432
Split-thickness skin grafting (STSG) is widely used to heal wounds resulting from trauma, burns, and chronic wounds. This study aimed to determine the true effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on patients with burn wounds requiring STSG during treatment of donor wounds. This randomized, triple-blind clinical trial was conducted on patients who referred to the burn ward of Vasei Hospital of Sabzevar, Iran, from May 2017 to May 2018. The donor site was randomly divided into 2 groups: PRF and control (Vaseline petrolatum gauze) using Vaseline gauze. In the intervention group, the PRF gel was applied to the wound and covered with Vaseline gauze and wet dressing. Conversely, only Vaseline gauze and wet dressing were applied to the control group. Outcome evaluation was conducted using paired t test and Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test, as appropriate, on days 8 and 15. The mean age of the patients was 33.10 +/- 2.60 years, and 51.50% were male. The mean wound healing time in the PRF and control groups was 11.80 +/- 3.51 and 16.30 +/- 4.32 days, respectively (P < .001). The PRF group showed significantly higher wound healing rates than the control group at 8 and 15 days dressing (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Moreover, the mean wound healing for all wound healing indices diagnosed by 2 specialists in PRF was higher than control group on days 8 and 15 (P < .001). We found a statistically significant difference on days 8 and 15 regarding the mean pain levels between the 2 groups (P < .001). The findings showed that PRF can significantly increase the time and rate of donor wound healing compared with conventional treatment and also reduce the severity of pain.
Physiological response to fluid resuscitation with Ringer Lactate versus Plasmalyte in critically ill burn patients
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 2020
The metabolic consequences in vivo of various balanced solutions are poorly known in critically ill patients. The main objective of this study was to describe the metabolic consequences of Plasmalyte(R) versus Ringer lactate (RL) in critically ill burn patients, with a special focus on the plasma clearance of buffer anions (i.e. gluconate, acetate and lactate). We conducted a randomized trial between August 2017 and October 2018 in a tertiary teaching hospital in Paris, France. Patients with burn total body surface area >30% were randomized to receive Plasmalyte(R) or RL. The primary endpoint was the base excess (BE) 24 hours after inclusion. The secondary endpoints were acetate, gluconate and lactate plasma concentration, the strong ion difference (SID). Twenty-eight patients were randomized. Twenty-four hours after inclusion, plasma BE was not significantly different in the Plasmalyte(R) and RL groups (-0.9 [CI95% -1.8-0.9] vs -2.1 [CI95% -4.6-0.6] mmol/L respectively, p=0.26). Plasma gluconate concentration was higher in the Plasmalyte(R) group (p<0.001) with a maximum level of 1.86 (CI95% 0.98-4.0) mmol/L vs 0 (IC95% 0-0.15) mmol/L. Plasma acetate and lactate were not significantly different. Ionized calcium level was lower in the Plasmalyte(R) group (p=0.002). Hemodynamics did not differ between groups. To conclude, alkalinizing effect of Plasmalyte(R) was less important than expected with no difference in base excess compared to RL, in part due to gluconate accumulation. Acetate and lactate did not significantly accumulate. Plasmalyte(R) led to significantly lower ionized calcium levels.
Restrictive Transfusion Strategy Is More Effective in Massive Burns: Results of the TRIBE Multicenter Prospective Randomized Trial
Military Medicine. 2018
Objectives: Studies suggest that a restrictive transfusion strategy is safe in burns, yet the efficacy of a restrictive transfusion policy in massive burn injury is uncertain. Our objective: compare outcomes between massive burn (≥60% total body surface area (TBSA) burn) and major (20-59% TBSA) burn using a restrictive or a liberal blood transfusion strategy. Methods: Patients with burns ≥20% were block randomized by age and TBSA to a restrictive (transfuse hemoglobin <7 g/dL) or liberal (transfuse hemoglobin <10 g/dL) strategy throughout hospitalization. Data collected included demographics, infections, transfusions, and outcomes. Results: Three hundred and forty-five patients received 7,054 units blood, 2,886 in massive and 4,168 in restrictive. Patients were similar in age, TBSA, and inhalation injury. The restrictive group received less blood (45.57 +/- 47.63 vs. 77.16 +/- 55.0, p < 0.03 massive; 11.0 +/- 16.70 vs. 16.78 +/- 17.39, p < 0.001) major). In massive burn, the restrictive group had fewer ventilator days (p < 0.05). Median ICU days and LOS were lower in the restrictive group; wound healing, mortality, and infection did not differ. No significant outcome differences occurred in the major (20-59%) group (p > 0.05). Conclusions: A restrictive transfusion strategy may be beneficial in massive burns in reducing ventilator days, ICU days and blood utilization, but does not decrease infection, mortality, hospital LOS or wound healing.
The Effects of Storage Age of Blood in Massively Transfused Burn Patients: A Secondary Analysis of the Randomized Transfusion Requirement in Burn Care Evaluation Study
Critical Care Medicine. 2018;46((12):):e1097-e1104.
OBJECTIVES Major trials examining storage age of blood transfused to critically ill patients administered relatively few blood transfusions. We sought to determine if the storage age of blood affects outcomes when very large amounts of blood are transfused. DESIGN A secondary analysis of the multicenter randomized Transfusion Requirement in Burn Care Evaluation study which compared restrictive and liberal transfusion strategies. SETTING Eighteen tertiary-care burn centers. PATIENTS Transfusion Requirement in Burn Care Evaluation evaluated 345 adults with burns greater than or equal to 20% of the body surface area. We included only the 303 patients that received blood transfusions. INTERVENTIONS The storage ages of all transfused red cell units were collected during Transfusion Requirement in Burn Care Evaluation. A priori measures of storage age were the the mean storage age of all transfused blood and the proportion of all transfused blood considered very old (stored ≥ 35 d). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The primary outcome was the severity of multiple organ dysfunction. Secondary outcomes included time to wound healing, the duration of mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality. There were 6,786 red cell transfusions with a mean (+/- SD) storage age of 25.6 +/- 10.2 days. Participants received a mean of 23.4 +/- 31.2 blood transfusions (range, 1-219) and a mean of 5.3 +/- 10.7 units of very old blood. Neither mean storage age nor proportion of very old blood had any influence on multiple organ dysfunction severity, time to wound healing, or mortality. Duration of ventilation was significantly predicted by both mean blood storage age and the proportion of very old blood, but this was of questionable clinical relevance given extreme variability in duration of ventilation (adjusted r ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Despite massive blood transfusion, including very old blood, the duration of red cell storage did not influence outcome in burn patients. Provision of the oldest blood first by Blood Banks is rational, even for massive transfusion.
Efficacy of lyophilised patlet-rich plasma powder on healing rate in patients with deep second degree burn injury: a prospective double-blind randomized clinical trial
Annals of Plastic Surgery. 2018;80((2S, Suppl 1):):S66-S69.
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a kind of plasma that is rich in platelets after processing. It includes various growth factors and cytokines, which speed up the process of wound healing and hemostasis. The PRP solution used in this study is diluted from lyophilized PRP powder, which decreased the possibility of contamination, facilitated the storage, and prolonged the storage life. From in vitro fibroblast proliferation testing, the numbers of PRP supplement were performed for 1, 4, and 7 times by continuous replacement of culture medium each day. Four times of lyophilized PRP supplement was selected for clinical study due to sufficient promotion of fibroblast proliferation. Next, 27 patients of deep second-degree burn wound were included in this study. Patients were assigned to two groups: PRP group (n = 15) and control group (n = 12). A concentration of 1.0 x 10 platelets/cm (wound area) according to wound size was sprayed on the wound evenly. Function was mainly assessed by the percentage of wound closure and bacteria picking out rate in 2 and 3 weeks. The wound closure at 3 weeks showed a significant difference in PRP group (P < 0.05). The healing rate of PRP group reached nearly 80% and made a breakthrough of 90% in 3 weeks, showing a significant difference compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Lyophilized PRP can be considered as an effective treatment to increase healing rate in patients with deep second-degree burn injury.
EHTIC study: evaluation of a new hemostatic agent based on tissue factor in skin grafting procedures
Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. 2017;43((4):):780-788
BACKGROUND Excessive bleeding is a major concern in scar debridement and grafting procedures. TT-173 is a new topical hemostatic agent based on recombinant human tissue factor that has shown promising results in patients who underwent tooth extraction. EHTIC study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TT-173 to reduce the bleeding in donor sites of skin grafting procedures. METHODS EHTIC study was a phase II, randomized, parallel, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Patients received TT-173 (n=38) or placebo (n=33) sprayed over donor site after graft harvest. Time to hemostasis and incidence of adverse events were recorded. Systemic absorption of the product and its immunogenicity were also measured during the follow up of the subjects. RESULTS Treatment with TT-173 significantly reduced the bleeding time from 7 to 3min (Log-Rank p<0.0001). Moreover, bleeding stopped within the 10min of evaluation period in all the patients that received TT-173. In contrast, 24.24% of patients from placebo group required additional measures to arrest hemorrhage (Fisher p=0.0013). Product related adverse events, systemic absorption into blood stream, interferences with the healing of the donor site or immunogenic reaction against TT-173 were not observed. CONCLUSION The new hemostatic agent TT-173 has proven efficacious and safe to reduce the bleeding from donor site. This study paves the way for further investigation of the product as topical hemostatic treatment in plastic surgery and other surgical indications.