Examining 1:1 Versus 4:1 Packed Red Blood Cell to Fresh Frozen Plasma Ratio Transfusion During Pediatric Burn Excision
Journal of burn care & research : official publication of the American Burn Association. 2020
Blood transfusions following major burn injury are common due to operative losses, blood sampling, and burn physiology. While massive transfusion improves outcomes in adult trauma patients, literature examining its effect in critically ill children is limited. The study purpose was to prospectively compare outcomes of major pediatric burns receiving a 1:1 vs 4:1 packed red blood cell (PRBC) to fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion strategy during massive burn excision. Children with >20% total body surface area (TBSA) burns were randomized to a 1:1 or 4:1 PRBC/FFP transfusion ratio during burn excision. Parameters examined include patient demographics, burn size, Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) scores, Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) scores, laboratory values, total blood products transfused, and the presence of blood stream infections or pneumonia. A total of 68 children who met inclusion criteria were randomized into two groups (n=34). Mean age, PRISM scores, estimated blood loss (600 mL (400 - 1175 mL) v 600 mL (300 - 1150 mL), p = 0.68), ventilator days (5 v 9, p = 0.47), and length of stay (57 v 60 days, p = 0.24) had no difference. No differences in frequency of blood stream infection (20 v 18, p = 0.46) or pneumonia events (68 v 116, p = 0.08) were noted. On multivariate analysis, only TBSA burn size, inhalation injury, and PRISM scores (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with infections.
Physiological response to fluid resuscitation with Ringer Lactate versus Plasmalyte in critically ill burn patients
Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 2020
The metabolic consequences in vivo of various balanced solutions are poorly known in critically ill patients. The main objective of this study was to describe the metabolic consequences of Plasmalyte(R) versus Ringer lactate (RL) in critically ill burn patients, with a special focus on the plasma clearance of buffer anions (i.e. gluconate, acetate and lactate). We conducted a randomized trial between August 2017 and October 2018 in a tertiary teaching hospital in Paris, France. Patients with burn total body surface area >30% were randomized to receive Plasmalyte(R) or RL. The primary endpoint was the base excess (BE) 24 hours after inclusion. The secondary endpoints were acetate, gluconate and lactate plasma concentration, the strong ion difference (SID). Twenty-eight patients were randomized. Twenty-four hours after inclusion, plasma BE was not significantly different in the Plasmalyte(R) and RL groups (-0.9 [CI95% -1.8-0.9] vs -2.1 [CI95% -4.6-0.6] mmol/L respectively, p=0.26). Plasma gluconate concentration was higher in the Plasmalyte(R) group (p<0.001) with a maximum level of 1.86 (CI95% 0.98-4.0) mmol/L vs 0 (IC95% 0-0.15) mmol/L. Plasma acetate and lactate were not significantly different. Ionized calcium level was lower in the Plasmalyte(R) group (p=0.002). Hemodynamics did not differ between groups. To conclude, alkalinizing effect of Plasmalyte(R) was less important than expected with no difference in base excess compared to RL, in part due to gluconate accumulation. Acetate and lactate did not significantly accumulate. Plasmalyte(R) led to significantly lower ionized calcium levels.
Restrictive Transfusion Strategy Is More Effective in Massive Burns: Results of the TRIBE Multicenter Prospective Randomized Trial
Military Medicine. 2018
Objectives: Studies suggest that a restrictive transfusion strategy is safe in burns, yet the efficacy of a restrictive transfusion policy in massive burn injury is uncertain. Our objective: compare outcomes between massive burn (≥60% total body surface area (TBSA) burn) and major (20-59% TBSA) burn using a restrictive or a liberal blood transfusion strategy. Methods: Patients with burns ≥20% were block randomized by age and TBSA to a restrictive (transfuse hemoglobin <7 g/dL) or liberal (transfuse hemoglobin <10 g/dL) strategy throughout hospitalization. Data collected included demographics, infections, transfusions, and outcomes. Results: Three hundred and forty-five patients received 7,054 units blood, 2,886 in massive and 4,168 in restrictive. Patients were similar in age, TBSA, and inhalation injury. The restrictive group received less blood (45.57 +/- 47.63 vs. 77.16 +/- 55.0, p < 0.03 massive; 11.0 +/- 16.70 vs. 16.78 +/- 17.39, p < 0.001) major). In massive burn, the restrictive group had fewer ventilator days (p < 0.05). Median ICU days and LOS were lower in the restrictive group; wound healing, mortality, and infection did not differ. No significant outcome differences occurred in the major (20-59%) group (p > 0.05). Conclusions: A restrictive transfusion strategy may be beneficial in massive burns in reducing ventilator days, ICU days and blood utilization, but does not decrease infection, mortality, hospital LOS or wound healing.
Autologous keratinocyte suspension in platelet concentrate accelerates and enhances wound healing - a prospective randomized clinical trial on skin graft donor sites: platelet concentrate and keratinocytes on donor sites
Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair. 2013;6((1):):8
BACKGROUND Wound healing involves complex mechanisms, which, if properly chaperoned, can enhance patient recovery. The abilities of platelets and keratinocytes may be harnessed in order to stimulate wound healing through the formation of platelet clots, the release of several growth factors and cytokines, and cell proliferation. The aim of the study was to test whether autologous keratinocyte suspensions in platelet concentrate would improve wound healing. The study was conducted at the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland in 45 patients, randomized to three different topical treatment groups: standard treatment serving as control, autologous platelet concentrate (PC) and keratinocytes suspended in autologous platelet concentrate (PC+K). Split thickness skin graft donor sites were chosen on the anterolateral thighs of patients undergoing plastic surgery for a variety of defects. Wound healing was assessed by the duration and quality of the healing process. Pain intensity was evaluated at day five. RESULTS Healing time was reduced from 13.9+/-0.5 days (mean+/-SEM) in the control group to 7.2+/-0.2 days in the PC group (P<0.01). An addition of keratinocytes in suspension further reduced the healing time to 5.7+/-0.2 days. Pain was reduced in both the PC and PC+K groups. Data showed a statistically detectable advantage of using PC+K over PC alone (P<0.01). CONCLUSION The results demonstrate the positive contribution of autologous platelets combined with keratinocytes in stimulating wound healing and reducing pain. This strikingly simple approach could have a significant impact on patient care, especially critically burned victims for whom time is of the essence. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY INFORMATION Protocol Record Identification Number: 132/03. Registry URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Perioperative treatment algorithm for bleeding burn patients reduces allogeneic blood product requirements
British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2012;109((3):):376-81.
BACKGROUND Surgical excision of burn wounds is often associated with severe bleeding. Timely and targeted correction of coagulopathy reduces transfusion requirements and improves survival in trauma victims. We hypothesized that rapid correction of coagulopathy after a treatment algorithm based on point-of-care viscoelastic coagulation testing would decrease allogeneic blood product transfusions during surgical excision of burn wounds. METHODS Thirty consecutive patients undergoing surgical excision of burn wounds were enrolled into this prospective, randomized, controlled, single-centre study. In the control group, coagulation management was performed according to the clinicians' discretion. For the algorithm group, we standardized treatment based on the Austrian recommendation for the management of trauma-induced coagulopathy using point-of-care rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). The main outcome parameter was the cumulative number of allogeneic blood units transfused on the day of surgery. RESULTS The difference between the groups regarding the cumulative use of allogeneic blood products was highly significant with 3.0 (1.3-5.5) blood products in the algorithm group compared with 9.0 (6.0-12.3) in the control group [median (inter-quartile range); P=0.002]. No plasma was administered in the algorithm group compared with 5.0 (1.5-7.5) units overall in the control group (P<0.001). Fibrinogen concentrate administration was not significantly different between the groups (P=0.89). Tranexamic acid was not administered. CONCLUSIONS The significant reduction in allogeneic blood product requirements during surgical burn wound excision is a prospective proof of concept that a bleeding management algorithm based on thromboelastometry is efficacious. Hypofibrinogenaemia and hyperfibrinolysis are not significant pathomechanisms of bleeding in this setting and ROTEM helps to avoid unnecessary interventions.
Hemodynamic and oxygen transport effects of pentastarch in burn resuscitation
Annals of Surgery. 1989;209((3):):341-5.
If nonprotein colloid plasma expanders could be demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in burn resuscitation, a significant cost benefit would result. This study was a randomized cross-over comparison of 500 ml of 5% albumin and 500 ml of 10% pentastarch, a new hydroxyethyl starch, in acute burn resuscitation. Pentastarch was an effective plasma expander, resulting in increases of preload, cardiac output, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption; the hemodynamic effects of pentastarch infusion were equal or superior to those of albumin. Both albumin and pentastarch infusions resulted in increased bleeding and clotting times; these effects were most likely dilutional. Pentastarch is a promising plasma substitute for burn resuscitation; the effects of a 500 ml infusion are equal or superior to those of albumin. Further study is necessary to assess the safety of larger infusion volumes.