Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome After a 7% Burn: A Case Study and Systematic Literature Review
Annals of plastic surgery. 2019
INTRODUCTION Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a life-threatening condition, which occurs in children after sustaining a burn. Often diagnosed retrospectively, many patients may not receive optimal treatment.The primary objective of this study was to evaluate a severe and complex case of TSS at our unit and subsequently conduct a Preferred Reporting for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-compliant systematic literature review, to identify cases of postthermal injury TSS and evaluate their presentation and management. CASE REPORT A 9-year-old boy with Down syndrome presented with a 7% total body surface area scald to his back and posterior head. Four days after discharge, he developed a fever. The following day, he deteriorated, becoming stridulous and unresponsive. A working diagnosis of TSS was made. The patient's intensive care stay was arduous with multiple complications, including 2 cardiac arrests. METHODS A Preferred Reporting for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-compliant systematic literature review was conducted. MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science were searched using key terms "burns, thermal injury, scalds, paediatric, child, infant, neonate, toxic shock syndrome" to identify cases. Two authors independently checked each study against inclusion criteria. RESULTS The systematic literature search yielded 9 articles, identifying 40 cases. Ages ranged between 9 months and 8 years. The mean number of days' postburn patients presented with symptoms of TSS was 2.5 days (1-7 days). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (75%), rash (70%), and diarrhea, and/or vomiting (52.5%). Intravenous immunoglobulins were administered in 11 (27.5%) cases. DISCUSSION We have highlighted a case where a possible delayed diagnosis along with the immunodeficiency seen in Down syndrome may have impacted the severity of TSS. The literature review highlighted that a significant proportion of patients do not meet diagnostic criteria. CONCLUSIONS It is fundamental that appropriate diagnostic and management guidelines are developed. Furthermore, this case highlights the importance of educating patient's carers and health professionals of key symptoms to be wary of postburn.
Fibrin tissue sealant and minor skin grafts in burn surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS. 2019
BACKGROUND The indications for use of fibrin glue in skin grafting burn patients remains understudied. The purpose of this study is to review the efficacy of fibrin tissue sealant in skin graft adherence, establish guidelines for use of fibrin tissue sealant, and review the cost effectiveness of fibrin glue. METHODS Publications with the following criteria were included: comparative human studies, autologous skin grafts, and autologous or commercial fibrin sealant. Outcomes assessed included evidence of engraftment, wound closure, rates of hematoma/seroma, graft loss and infection. Meta-analysis obtained pooled odds ratios for outcomes of interest. Cost analysis was performed using data available in the literature. RESULTS 7 studies and 751 interventions (fibrin) and controls (staples) were included in the final analysis. 67.6% grafts with fibrin were 100% adherent by one week, vs. 55.5% (OR 1.45, p=0.086). Complete wound closure by one month was 80.2% with fibrin, vs. 73.3% (OR 1.34, p=0.187). Hematoma/seroma occurred 38.2% with fibrin, vs. 64.7% (OR 0.487, p=0.122). Graft loss was higher in the control group, 21% vs. 12.6% (OR 0.891, p=0.604). Average cost of fibrin glue was $50 per ml, and averaged costs of stapler and staple remover was $30 USD ($10-50). CONCLUSION Fibrin glue is as effective as staples for adhering skin grafts, and trends towards lower rates of hematoma/seroma. In topographically complex regions, fibrin glue may be a better choice for adherence of skin grafts.
Albumin in burn shock resuscitation: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical studies
Journal of Burn Care Research. 2016;37((3):):e268-78
Critical appraisal of outcomes after burn shock resuscitation with albumin has previously been restricted to small relatively old randomized trials, some with high risk of bias. Extensive recent data from nonrandomized studies assessing the use of albumin can potentially reduce bias and add precision. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of burn shock resuscitation with albumin on mortality and morbidity in adult patients. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled clinical studies evaluating mortality and morbidity in adult patients receiving albumin for burn shock resuscitation were identified by multiple methods, including computer database searches and examination of journal contents and reference lists. Extracted data were quantitatively combined by random-effects meta-analysis. Four randomized and four nonrandomized studies with 688 total adult patients were included. Treatment effects did not differ significantly between the included randomized and nonrandomized studies. Albumin infusion during the first 24 hours showed no significant overall effect on mortality. However, significant statistical heterogeneity was present, which could be abolished by excluding two studies at high risk of bias. After those exclusions, albumin infusion was associated with reduced mortality. The pooled odds ratio was 0.34 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.19 to 0.58 (P < .001). Albumin administration was also accompanied by decreased occurrence of compartment syndrome (pooled odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.07–0.50; P < .001). This meta-analysis suggests that albumin can improve outcomes of burn shock resuscitation. However, the scope and quality of current evidence are limited, and additional trials are needed.
Albumin administration for fluid resuscitation in burn patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. 2016;43((1):):17-24
OBJECTIVE The objective was to systematically review the literature summarizing the effect on mortality of albumin compared to non-albumin solutions during the fluid resuscitation phase of burn injured patients. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL and the content of two leading journals in burn care, Burns and Journal of Burn Care and Research. STUDY SELECTION Two reviewers independently selected randomized controlled trials comparing albumin vs. non-albumin solutions for the acute resuscitation of patients with >20% body surface area involvement. DATA EXTRACTION Reviewers abstracted data independently and assessed methodological quality of the included trials using predefined criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS A random effects model was used to assess mortality. We identified 164 trials of which, 4 trials involving 140 patients met our inclusion criteria. Overall, the methodological quality of the included trials was fair. We did not find a significant benefit of albumin solutions as resuscitation fluid on mortality in burn patients (relative risk (RR) 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-4.08). Total volume of fluid infusion during the phase of resuscitation was lower in patients receiving albumin containing solution -1.00ml/kg/%TBSA (total body surface area) (95% CI, -1.42 to -0.58). CONCLUSION The pooled estimate demonstrated a neutral effect on mortality in burn patients resuscitated acutely with albumin solutions. Due to limited evidence and uncertainty, an adequately powered, high quality trial could be required to assess the impact of albumin solutions on mortality in burn patients.