Efficacy of human immunoglobulin injection and effects on serum inflammatory cytokines in neonates with acute lung injury
Experimental and therapeutic medicine. 2021;22(3):931
The present study aimed to explore the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) injection in neonates with acute lung injury (ALI) and assess its effects on serum inflammatory cytokine levels. The research subjects were 140 neonates with ALI who were evenly distributed into a control group (COG) and a study group (STG). The COG patients were treated routinely, whereas patients in the STG were administered IVIG in addition to the standard treatment received by the COG. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)), PaO(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO(2)), mechanical ventilation time and hospitalization time were compared between the two groups. ELISA was used to determine the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the patients before treatment and at 12, 24 and 36 h after treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the survival of the patients, including their survival for 30 days after treatment. The patients were divided into high and low cytokine expression groups based on their mean expression levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-α before treatment. After treatment, PaO(2) and PaO(2)/FiO2 were significantly higher and mechanical ventilation and hospitalization time were reduced in the STG in comparison with the COG (all P<0.001). At 12, 24 and 36 h after treatment, serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the STG were lower than those in the COG (both P<0.05). The 30-day survival rate after treatment was not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). The 30-day survival rate in the high IL-6 and high TNF-α expression COG was lower than that in the low IL-6 and low TNF-α expression COG (both P<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that IVIG may improve pulmonary gas exchange, shorten the course of disease and reduce the inflammatory response in neonates with ALI.
Intravenous albumin for the prevention of hemodynamic instability during sustained low-efficiency dialysis: a randomized controlled feasibility trial (The SAFER-SLED Study)
Annals of intensive care. 2021;11(1):174
BACKGROUND Hemodynamic instability is a frequent complication of sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) treatments in the ICU. Intravenous hyperoncotic albumin may prevent hypotension and facilitate ultrafiltration. In this feasibility trial, we sought to determine if a future trial, powered to evaluate clinically relevant outcomes, is feasible. METHODS This single-center, blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized feasibility trial included patients with acute kidney injury who started SLED in the ICU. Patients were randomized to receive 25% albumin versus 0.9% saline (control) as 100 mL boluses at the start and midway through SLED, for up to 10 sessions. The recruitment rate and other feasibility outcomes were determined. Secondary exploratory outcomes included ultrafiltration volumes and metrics of hemodynamic instability. RESULTS Sixty patients (271 SLED sessions) were recruited over 10 months. Age and severity of illness were similar between study groups. Most had septic shock and required vasopressor support at baseline. Protocol adherence occurred for 244 sessions (90%); no patients were lost to follow-up; no study-related adverse events were observed; open label albumin use was 9% and 15% in the albumin and saline arms, respectively. Ultrafiltration volumes were not significantly different. Compared to the saline group, the albumin group experienced less hemodynamic instability across all definitions assessed including a smaller absolute decrease in systolic blood pressure (mean difference 10.0 mmHg, 95% confidence interval 5.2-14.8); however, there were significant baseline differences in the groups with respect to vasopressor use prior to SLED sessions (80% vs 61% for albumin and saline groups, respectively). CONCLUSIONS The efficacy of using hyperoncotic albumin to prevent hemodynamic instability in critically ill patients receiving SLED remains unclear. A larger trial to evaluate its impact in this setting, including evaluating clinically relevant outcomes, is feasible. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03665311); First Posted: Sept 11th, 2018. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03665311?term=NCT03665311&draw=2&rank=1.
[Evaluation of pharmaceutical prevention and treatment of intensive care unit-acquired weakness: a Meta-analysis]
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2020;32(3):357-361
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of preventing and treatment of pharmaceuticals on intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) by systematic review. METHODS The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) concerning pharmaceutical prevention and treatment about ICU-AW in SinoMed, CNKI, Wanfang data, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMbase, and other sources were searched from their foundation to May 30th, 2019. The patients in the intervention group were treated with drugs to prevent or treat ICU-AW; and those in control group were treated with other rehabilitation methods. Data searching, extracting and quality evaluation were assessed by two reviewers independently. Stata 12.0 software was then used for Meta-analysis. Only descriptive analysis was conducted when only one study was enrolled. RESULTS A total of 11 RCTs were enrolled with 1 865 patients in the intervention group and 1 894 in the control group. The results of quality evaluation showed that 4 studies were A-level and 7 studies were B-level, indicating that the overall quality of the enrolled literature was high. Meta-analysis showed that intensive insulin therapy could prevent ICU-AW [relative risk (RR) = 0.761, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.662-0.876, P = 0.000], but reduced phenylalanine loss (nmolx100 mL(-1)xmin(-1): -3+/-3 vs. -11+/-3, P < 0.05) and glutamine intake (nmolx100 mL(-1)xmin(-1): -97+/-22 vs. -51+/-13, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the prevention and treatment of ICU-AW between other drugs (including growth hormone, glutamine, dexmedetomidine, neostigmine, oxandrolone, and intravenous immunoglobulin) and control group. CONCLUSIONS Intensive insulin therapy can prevent ICU-AW, but the risk of hypoglycemia will increase. Other drugs including growth hormone, glutamine, dexmedetomidine, neostigmine, oxandrolone, and intravenous immunoglobulin have no obvious advantages in the prevention and treatment of ICU-AW, so no drug has been recommended to prevent and treat ICU-AW.
Efficacy of furosemide-albumin compared with furosemide in critically ill hypoalbuminemia patients admitted to intensive care unit: a prospective randomized clinical trial
BACKGROUND Some physicians co-administer albumin with loop diuretics to overcome diuretic resistance in critically ill hypoalbuminemia patients, though previous studies have reported conflicting results on this matter. OBJECTIVE The effects of adding albumin to furosemide to enhance its efficacy in critically ill hypoalbuminemia patients are evaluated. METHODS This was a non-blinded randomized trial. 49 adult critically ill patients with hypoalbuminemia and generalized edema who received randomly furosemide and furosemide/albumin complex were enrolled. The patients' urine was collected at intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after initiation of the furosemide treatment, and the urine output and urinary excretion of furosemide and sodium were measured. The urinary excretion of furosemide was considered an indicator of drug efficacy. RESULTS The amount of sodium and furosemide excreted in urine showed no significant differences between the two groups; however, the mean of the urinary excretion of furosemide in the first 2 h after drug infusion was significantly higher (p = 0.03) in the furosemide/albumin group. No significant correlation between APACHE II scores and serum albumin levels and the urinary excretion of furosemide was seen. CONCLUSION The results indicated that there is not statistically significant differences between groups with furosemide alone and combined with albumin in urinary furosemide excretion. It seems that adding albumin for furosemide pharmacotherapy regime is not recommended as an intervention to increase furosemide efficacy in critically ill hypoalbuminemia patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION IRCT with the registration number IRCT201412132582N12 in 23 February 2015; https://en.irct.ir/trial/2356 Graphical abstract.
Effect of Albumin Addition to Cardiopulmonary Bypass Prime on Outcomes in Children Undergoing Open-Heart Surgery (EACPO Study)-A Randomized Controlled Trial
World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery. 2020;:2150135120959088
BACKGROUND There is a paucity of literature regarding the association of high oncotic priming solutions for pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and outcomes, and no consensus exists regarding the composition of optimal CPB priming solution. This study aimed to examine the impact of high oncotic pressure priming by the addition of 20% human albumin on outcomes. METHODS Double-blinded, randomized controlled study was done in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Consecutive children with congenital heart diseases admitted for open-heart surgery were randomized into two groups, where the study group received an additional 20% albumin to conventional blood prime before CPB initiation. RESULTS We enrolled 39 children in the high oncotic prime (added albumin) group and 37 children in the conventional prime group. In the first 24-hour postoperative period, children in the albumin group had significantly lower occurrence of hypotension (28.2% vs 54%, P = .02), requirement of fluid boluses (25.6% vs 54%, P = .006), and lactate clearance time (6 vs 9 hours, P < .001). Albumin group also had significantly higher platelet count (×10(3)/µL) at 24 hours (112 vs 91, P = .02). There was no significant difference in intra-CPB hemodynamic parameters and incidence of acute kidney injury. In subgroup analysis based on risk category, significantly decreased intensive care unit stay (4 vs 5 days, P = .04) and hospital stay (5 vs 7 days, P = .002) were found in the albumin group in low-risk category. CONCLUSION High oncotic pressure CPB prime using albumin addition might be beneficial over conventional blood prime, and our study does provide a rationale for further studies.
A Pilot Study on Continuous Infusion of 4% Albumin in Critically Ill Patients: Impact on Nosocomial Infection via a Reduction Mechanism for Oxidized Substrates
Crit Care Explor. 2019;1(9):e0044
Care-related infections affect up to 11% of ICU patients. Running therapeutic albumin is sometimes associated to less infection: whether a specific method of its infusion is of any interest to modulate innate defense is unknown. Our objectives were: 1) to test whether the method for albumin infusion is important to prevent care-related infections and 2) to analyze in vitro the antioxidative role of albumin on host defense proteins during shock (using vasostatin-I as an example). Design: In a prospective, randomized, open-label trial, shock patients were allocated to receive either continuously 4% albumin or intermittently 20% albumin, as long as they were infused with norepinephrine. A translational study including in vivo and in vitro analyses of albumin-vasostatin-I interactions is reported. Setting: A tertiary ICU caring for 1,000 patients per year. Patients: Fifty shock patients with serum albumin less than 20 g/L. Interventions: In vivo colonization and nosocomial infections were recorded and time-dependent changes in serum albumin, chromogranin A, and vasostatin-I concentrations as well. In vitro, we studied biochemical albumin-vasostatin-I relationship using biochemical methods. Measurements and Main Results: Over 18 days, we recorded a decrease in colonization (four vs 12 episodes; p = 0.035) and nosocomial infection frequency (two vs 13 episodes; p = 0.002) in patients infused continuously 4% albumin versus controls. In vitro, albumin interacts with the disulfide loop vasostatin-I (residues 17-40) and continuous 4% albumin infusion restores its oxidative status required for antimicrobial activity. Conclusions: Continuous 4% albumin is effective in reducing care-related infections in shock patients by increasing the availability of antimicrobial vasostatin-I. This might guide future care of shock patients.
Medical treatment for botulism
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2019;4:Cd008123
BACKGROUND Botulism is an acute paralytic illness caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Supportive care, including intensive care, is key, but the role of other medical treatments is unclear. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of medical treatments on mortality, duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, tube or parenteral feeding, and risk of adverse events in botulism. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase on 23 January 2018. We reviewed bibliographies and contacted authors and experts. We searched two clinical trials registers, WHO ICTRP and clinicaltrials.gov, on 21 February 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs examining the medical treatment of any of the four major types of botulism (infant intestinal botulism, food-borne botulism, wound botulism, and adult intestinal toxemia). Potential medical treatments included equine serum trivalent botulism antitoxin, human-derived botulinum immune globulin intravenous (BIG-IV), plasma exchange, 3,4-diaminopyridine, and guanidine. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We followed standard Cochrane methodology.Our primary outcome was in-hospital death from any cause occurring within four weeks from randomization or the beginning of treatment. Secondary outcomes were death from any cause occurring within 12 weeks, duration of hospitalization, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of tube or parenteral feeding, and proportion of participants with adverse events or complications of treatment. MAIN RESULTS A single RCT met the inclusion criteria. Our 2018 search update identified no additional trials. The included trial evaluated BIG-IV for the treatment of infant botulism and included 59 treatment participants and 63 control participants. The control group received a control immune globulin that did not have an effect on botulinum toxin. Participants were followed during the length of their hospitalization to measure the outcomes of interest. There was some violation of intention-to-treat principles, and possibly some between-treatment group imbalances among participants admitted to the intensive care unit and mechanically ventilated, but otherwise the risk of bias was low. There were no deaths in either group, making any treatment effect on mortality inestimable. There was a benefit in the treatment group on mean duration of hospitalization (BIG-IV: 2.60 weeks, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95 to 3.25; control: 5.70 weeks, 95% CI 4.40 to 7.00; mean difference (MD) -3.10 weeks, 95% CI -4.52 to -1.68; moderate-certainty evidence); mechanical ventilation (BIG-IV: 1.80 weeks, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.40; control: 4.40 weeks, 95% CI 3.00 to 5.80; MD -2.60 weeks, 95% CI -4.06 to -1.14; low-certainty evidence); and tube or parenteral feeding (BIG-IV: 3.60 weeks, 95% CI 1.70 to 5.50; control: 10.00 weeks, 95% CI 6.85 to 13.15; MD -6.40 weeks, 95% CI -10.00 to -2.80; moderate-certainty evidence), but not on proportion of participants with adverse events or complications (BIG-IV: 63.08%; control: 68.75%; risk ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.18; absolute risk reduction 0.06, 95% CI 0.22 to -0.11; moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS We found low- and moderate-certainty evidence supporting the use of BIG-IV in infant intestinal botulism. A single RCT demonstrated that BIG-IV probably decreases the duration of hospitalization; may decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation; and probably decreases the duration of tube or parenteral feeding. Adverse events were probably no more frequent with immune globulin than with placebo. Our search did not reveal any evidence examining the use of other medical treatments including serum trivalent botulism antitoxin.
Small volume resuscitation with 20% albumin in intensive care: physiological effects : The SWIPE randomised clinical trial
Intensive Care Medicine. 2018;44((11):):1797-1806.
PURPOSE We set out to assess the resuscitation fluid requirements and physiological and clinical responses of intensive care unit (ICU) patients resuscitated with 20% albumin versus 4-5% albumin. METHODS We performed a randomised controlled trial in 321 adult patients requiring fluid resuscitation within 48 h of admission to three ICUs in Australia and the UK. RESULTS The cumulative volume of resuscitation fluid at 48 h (primary outcome) was lower in the 20% albumin group than in the 4-5% albumin group [median difference - 600 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 800 to - 400; P < 0.001]. The 20% albumin group had lower cumulative fluid balance at 48 h (mean difference - 576 ml, 95% CI - 1033 to - 119; P = 0.01). Peak albumin levels were higher but sodium and chloride levels lower in the 20% albumin group. Median (interquartile range) duration of mechanical ventilation was 12.0 h (7.6, 33.1) in the 20% albumin group and 15.3 h (7.7, 58.1) in the 4-5% albumin group (P = 0.13); the proportion of patients commenced on renal replacement therapy after randomization was 3.3% and 4.2% (P = 0.67), respectively, and the proportion discharged alive from ICU was 97.4% and 91.1% (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Resuscitation with 20% albumin decreased resuscitation fluid requirements, minimized positive early fluid balance and was not associated with any evidence of harm compared with 4-5% albumin. These findings support the safety of further exploration of resuscitation with 20% albumin in larger randomised trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION http://www.anzctr.org.au . Identifier ACTRN12615000349549.
Furosemide and Albumin for Diuresis of Edema (FADE): A parallel-group, blinded, pilot randomized controlled trial
Journal of Critical Care. 2018;48:462-467
PURPOSE To assess the feasibility of a trial evaluating whether hyperoncotic albumin, in addition to diuretics, improves diuresis and facilitates liberation from mechanical ventilation in critically ill adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS We randomized 46 hemodynamically stable patients with hypoalbuminemia, prescribed diuretics by treating clinicians, to receive 100mL of 25% albumin or 0.9% saline placebo BID, for three days, in blinded fashion. We chose five feasibility measurements: enrolment of 50% of eligible patients, at least one patient/week; administration of study treatment within 2h of diuretics in 85% of patients; completion of study regimen in 80% of patients; and avoidance of open label albumin in 85% of patients. Clinical outcomes included fluid balance, ventilator-free days, and mortality. RESULTS We randomized 85% of eligible patients. Eighty-four percent received study treatment within 2h of diuretics, 69% received all doses of study treatment. Study treatment was held in the albumin and placebo groups because of no further need for diuresis (4 vs. 1), hypotension (2 v. 4), and albumin>35 (1 v. 0). Twenty percent of patients received open-label albumin. Clinical outcomes were similar between groups. CONCLUSIONS The current study design did not demonstrate feasibility, but can inform the design of a definitive trial.
Immunoglobulin for alloimmune hemolytic disease in neonates
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2018;3
BACKGROUND Exchange transfusion and phototherapy have traditionally been used to treat jaundice and avoid the associated neurological complications. Because of the risks and burdens of exchange transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been suggested as an alternative therapy for alloimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) to reduce the need for exchange transfusion. OBJECTIVES To assess the effect and complications of IVIg in newborn infants with alloimmune HDN on the need for and number of exchange transfusions. SEARCH METHODS We performed electronic searches of CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase (Ovid), Web of Science, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Academic Search Premier, and the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and controlled-trials.com in May 2017. We also searched reference lists of included and excluded trials and relevant reviews for further relevant studies. SELECTION CRITERIA We considered all randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of IVIg in the treatment of alloimmune HDN. Trials must have used predefined criteria for the use of IVIg and exchange transfusion therapy to be included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used the standard methods of Cochrane and its Neonatal Review Group. We assessed studies for inclusion and two review authors independently assessed quality and extracted data. We discussed any differences of opinion to reach consensus. We contacted investigators for additional or missing information. We calculated risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) for categorical outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) for continuous variables. We used GRADE criteria to assess the risk of bias for major outcomes and to summarize the level of evidence. MAIN RESULTS Nine studies with 658 infants fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Term and preterm infants with Rh or ABO (or both) incompatibility were included. The use of exchange transfusion decreased significantly in the immunoglobulin treated group (typical RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.49; typical RD -0.22, 95% CI -0.27 to -0.16; NNTB 5). The mean number of exchange transfusions per infant was also significantly lower in the immunoglobulin treated group (MD -0.34, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.17). However, sensitivity analysis by risk of bias showed that in the only two studies in which the treatment was masked by use of a placebo and outcome assessment was blinded, the results differed; there was no difference in the need for exchange transfusions (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.98) or number of exchange transfusions (MD -0.04, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.10). Two studies assessed long-term outcomes and found no cases of kernicterus, deafness or cerebral palsy. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Although overall results show a significant reduction in the need for exchange transfusion in infants treated with IVIg, the applicability of the results is limited because of low to very low quality of evidence. Furthermore, the two studies at lowest risk of bias show no benefit of IVIg in reducing the need for and number of exchange transfusions. Based on these results, we have insufficient confidence in the effect estimate for benefit of IVIg to make even a weak recommendation for the use of IVIg for the treatment of alloimmune HDN. Further studies are needed before the use of IVIg for the treatment of alloimmune HDN can be recommended, and should include blinding of the intervention by use of a placebo as well as sufficient sample size to assess the potential for serious adverse effects.