Trial-related blood sampling and red-blood-cell transfusions in preterm infants
Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 2023
AIM: To determine if trial-related blood sampling increases the risk of later red-blood-cell (RBC) transfusion in very preterm infants, we compared the volume of clinical- and trial-related blood samples, in a specific trial and correlated to subsequent RBC transfusion. METHODS For 193 very preterm infants, participating in the FortiColos trial (NCT03537365), trial-related blood volume drawn was in accordance to ethical considerations established by the European Commission. Medical records were reviewed to assess the number and cumulated volume (mL/kg) of blood samples (both clinical- and trial-related). Data were compared with need of RBC transfusions during the first 28days of life. RESULTS Mean (SD) gestational age and bith weight was 28 ± 1 weeks and 1168 ± 301 g. In total, 11% of total blood volume was drawn for sampling (8.1 ± 5.1 mL/kg) and trial-related sampling accounted for 1.6 ± 0.6 mL/kg. Trial-related blood sampling had no impact on RBC transfusion (p=0.9). CONCLUSION Clinical blood sampling in very preterm infants is associated with blood loss and subsequent need for RBC transfusions. In a specific trial requiring blood samples, we found no additional burden of trial-related blood sampling. The study suggest that trial-related sampling is safe if European criteria are followed.
Assessment of Hemostatic Profile in Neonates with Intrauterine Growth Restriction: A Systematic Review of Literature
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2023
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects nearly 10 to 15% of pregnancies and is responsible for many short- and long-term adverse consequences, including hemostatic derangement. Both thrombotic and hemorrhagic events are described in the perinatal period in these neonates. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on the laboratory studies used to evaluate the hemostatic system of the IUGR small for gestational age neonate. We reviewed the current literature via PubMed and Scopus until September 2022. Following our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we finally included 60 studies in our review. Thrombocytopenia, characterized as hyporegenerative and a kinetic upshot of reduced platelet production due to in utero chronic hypoxia, was the main finding of most studies focusing on growth-restricted neonates, in most cases is mild and usually resolves spontaneously with the first 2 weeks of life. In regard to coagulation, growth-restricted newborns present with prolonged standard coagulation tests. Data regarding coagulation factors, fibrinolytic system, and anticoagulant proteins are scarce and conflicting, mainly due to confounding factors. As thromboelastography/rotational thromboelastometry (TEG/ROTEM) provides a more precise evaluation of the in vivo coagulation process compared with standard coagulation tests, its use in transfusion guidance is fundamental. Only one study regarding TEG/ROTEM was retrieved from this population, where no difference in ROTEM parameters compared with appropriate for gestational age neonates was found. Despite the laboratory aberrations, no correlation could be achieved with clinical manifestations of bleeding or thrombosis in the studies included. More studies are needed to assess hemostasis in IUGR neonates and guide targeted therapeutic interventions.
Coagulation in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A systematic review of studies shows lack of standardized reporting
Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis. 2022;6(2):e12687
OBJECTIVES Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) involves complex coagulation management and frequent hemostatic complications. ECMO practice between centers is variable. To compare results between coagulation studies, standardized definitions and clear documentation of ECMO practice is essential. We assessed how study population, outcome definitions, and ECMO-, coagulation-, and transfusion-related parameters were described in pediatric ECMO studies. DATA SOURCES Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION English original studies of pediatric ECMO patients describing hemostatic tests or outcome. DATA EXTRACTION Eligibility was assessed following PRISMA guidelines. Study population, outcome and ECMO-, coagulation, and transfusion parameters were summarized. DATA SYNTHESIS A total of 107 of 1312 records were included. Study population parameters most frequently included (gestational) age (79%), gender (60%), and (birth) weight (59%). Outcomes, including definitions of bleeding (29%), thrombosis (15%), and survival (43%), were described using various definitions. Description of pump type, oxygenator and cannulation mode occurred in 49%, 45%, and 36% of studies, respectively. The main coagulation test (53%), its reference ranges (49%), and frequency of testing (24%) were the most prevalent reported coagulation parameters. The transfusion thresholds for platelets, red blood cells, and fibrinogen were described in 27%, 18%, and 18% of studies, respectively. CONCLUSIONS This systematic review demonstrates a widespread lack of detail or standardization of several parameters in coagulation research of pediatric ECMO patients. We suggest several parameters that might be included in future coagulation studies. We encourage the ECMO community to adopt and refine this list of parameters and to use standardized definitions in future research.
Effect of Umbilical Cord Blood Sampling versus Admission Blood Sampling on Requirement of Blood Transfusion in Extremely Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial
The Journal of pediatrics. 2019
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of blood sampling from the placental end of the umbilical cord compared with initial blood sampling from neonates, on the need for first packed red blood cell transfusion in extremely preterm infants. We hypothesized that cord blood sampling could delay the time to first blood transfusion. STUDY DESIGN In this single-center, assessor blind, randomized controlled trial, we included extremely low birth weight neonates <28 weeks of gestational age at birth. Five milliliter of blood for initial laboratory investigations was collected either from the placental end of the umbilical cord (study group) or from the neonate upon neonatal intensive care unit admission (control group). Both groups received similar anemia prevention strategies. The primary outcome was the time (in days) to the first packed red blood cell transfusion, and was compared using survival analysis. RESULTS Eighty neonates were enrolled. The time to first transfusion was significantly delayed in the cord sampling group (30 vs 14 days, hazard ratio: 0.44, [95% CI 0.27-0.72], P < .001). Fewer neonates in the cord sampling group were transfused in the first 28 days of life (30% vs 75%, P < .001). Overall transfusion requirements and other clinical outcomes were similar in the groups. CONCLUSIONS Initial blood sampling from placental end of umbilical cord, when combined with anemia prevention strategies, significantly prolonged the time to first transfusion and reduced the need for early transfusions among extremely premature neonates. TRIAL REGISTRATION Ctri.nic.in/ (CTRI/2017/04/008320).
Volume Versus Mass Dosing of Epinephrine for Neonatal Resuscitation: A Randomized Trial
Hospital pediatrics. 2019;9(10):757-762
BACKGROUND Intravenous epinephrine for neonatal resuscitation requires weight-based calculations. Epinephrine is available in 2 different concentrations, increasing the risk of dosing errors. Expert panels have conflicting recommendations for the ordering method. The Neonatal Resuscitation Program recommends the volume (milliliters per kilogram) method, whereas the Institute for Safe Medication Practices recommends the mass (milligrams per kilogram) method. In this study, we aim to determine if the mass method is more accurate and efficient than the volume method. METHODS In a randomized crossover simulation study, 70 NICU and pediatric emergency department nurses calculated the intended dose then prepared epinephrine using both the mass and volume methods. Both epinephrine concentrations were available. Scenarios were video recorded and timed. The primary outcome was the proportion of epinephrine doses prepared correctly. Variables associated with correct dosing were analyzed by using logistic regression. RESULTS Of 136 total doses, 77 (57%) were prepared correctly. The correct intended dose was calculated more frequently by using the mass method (82% vs 68%; risk difference 15%; 95% confidence interval 3% to 26%), but there was no difference in the proportion of doses that were actually prepared correctly (53% of mass method doses versus 60% of volume method doses; risk difference -7%; 95% confidence interval -24% to 9%). There was no difference between methods in the time required to prepare the dose. Selecting the correct epinephrine concentration was the only variable associated with correct dosing. CONCLUSIONS The mass method was neither more accurate nor more efficient. Nurses made frequent errors when using both methods. This is a serious patient safety risk. Additional educational and medication safety interventions are urgently needed.
Reduction in red blood cell transfusions among preterm infants: results of a randomized trial with an in-line blood gas and chemistry monitor
BACKGROUND Critically ill, extremely premature infants develop anemia because of intensive laboratory blood testing and undergo multiple red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in the early weeks of life. To date, researchers have had only limited success in finding ways to reduce transfusions significantly in this patient population. OBJECTIVE To reduce RBC transfusions for these infants by using a point-of-care bedside monitor that returns analyzed blood to the patient. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS This was a prospective, 2-center, randomized, open, controlled, clinical trial with a 1:1 assignment of extremely low birth weight infants (weighing 500-1000 g at birth) to control or monitor groups and analysis with the intention-to-treat approach. Predefined RBC transfusion criteria were applied uniformly in the 2 groups. INTERVENTIONS Clinical treatment of study subjects with an in-line, ex vivo, bedside monitor that withdraws blood through an umbilical artery catheter, analyzes blood gases and sodium, potassium, and hematocrit levels, and returns the sample to the patient. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The total volume and number of RBC transfusions during the first 2 weeks of life and the total volume of blood removed for laboratory testing. RESULTS The trial was terminated prematurely when one center's NICU changed its standard method of laboratory testing. In the first 2 weeks of life, there was a nonsignificant 17% lower cumulative RBC transfusion volume in the monitor group (n = 46), compared with the control group (n = 47). However, data from the first week only (the period of greater catheter use) demonstrated a significant 33% lower cumulative RBC transfusion volume in the monitor group. Cumulative phlebotomy loss was approximately 25% less in the monitor group throughout the 2-week study period. There was no difference between groups in neonatal mortality, morbidity, and neurodevelopmental outcome rates at 18 to 24 months. This is the first randomized trial documenting that RBC transfusions administered to neonates can by reduced by decreasing laboratory phlebotomy loss. CONCLUSIONS As long as an umbilical artery catheter is available for blood sampling with an in-line blood gas and chemistry monitor, significant reductions in neonatal RBC transfusions can be achieved. The patients most likely to benefit from monitor use are the smallest, most critically ill newborns.