Outcome of Early Hemostatic Intervention in Children With Sepsis and Nonovert Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Admitted to PICU: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2020
Critically ill children with sepsis may develop catastrophic thrombotic and hemorrhagic syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy as a final common pathway. OBJECTIVES Evaluation of the outcome of early hemostatic management of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in patients with severe sepsis/septic shock admitted to PICU, before the development of clinically overt disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. DESIGN Prospective interventional, open label randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING PICU at Alexandria University Children's Hospital. PATIENTS The study included 80 patients with proven severe sepsis/septic shock in nonovert disseminated intravascular coagulopathy stage. They were randomly assigned into two groups (group 1 and group 2). INTERVENTIONS Specific intervention was applied for group 1 (plasma transfusion, low-dose unfractionated heparin, and tranexamic acid). MEASUREMENTS All patients had assessment of Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score, Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score, inotropic score, routine laboratory, and hemostatic tests including fibrin degradation products and D-dimers. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy risk assessment scores were calculated on daily basis. RESULTS Mortality rate was significantly higher in group 2. Progression to overt disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was significantly more common among group 2 patients than group 1 (45% and 10%, respectively) (p < 0.0001). Disseminated intravascular coagulopathyRisk Assessment Scores were significantly higher on the second and fifth days among group 2 patients. The initial specific hemostatic intervention was the only significant predictor of survival and prevention of progression to overt disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that early use of a combination of fresh frozen plasma transfusion, low-dose heparin, and tranexamic acid in children with severe sepsis/septic shock in the "window of opportunity" before the development of overt disseminated intravascular coagulopathy stage was associated with better outcome for survival and prevention of progression to overt disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, with no increase in bleeding risk. Larger multicenter studies are needed to further prove this practice.