Balanced Crystalloids versus Normal Saline in Adults with Sepsis: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(7)
The crystalloid fluid of choice in sepsis remains debatable. We aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to compare the effect of balanced crystalloids (BC) vs. normal saline (NS) in adults with sepsis. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Sciences databases through 22 January 2022, was performed for studies that compared BC vs. NS in adults with sepsis. Our outcomes included mortality and acute kidney injury (AKI), need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), and ICU length of stay (LOS). Pooled risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using a random-effect model. Fifteen studies involving 20,329 patients were included. Overall, BC showed a significant reduction in the overall mortality (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.96), 28/30-day mortality (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.95), and AKI (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93) but similar 90-day mortality (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.90-1.03), need for RRT (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.76-1.08), and ICU LOS (MD -0.25 days, 95% CI -3.44, 2.95), were observed between the two groups. However, subgroup analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed no statistically significant differences in overall mortality (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.82-1.02), AKI (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.47-1.06), and need for RRT (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.36-1.41). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that overall BC was associated with reduced mortality and AKI in sepsis compared to NS among patients with sepsis. However, subgroup analysis of RCTs showed no significant differences in both overall mortality and AKI between the groups. There was no significant difference in the need for RRT or ICU LOS between BC and NS. Pending further data, our study supports using BC over NS for fluid resuscitation in adults with sepsis. Further large-scale RCTs are necessary to validate our findings.
The Impact of Choice Architecture on Sepsis Fluid Resuscitation Decisions: An Exploratory Survey-Based Study
MDM policy & practice. 2022;7(1):23814683221099454
BACKGROUND Discordance with well-known sepsis resuscitation guidelines is often attributed to rational assessments of patients at the point of care. Conversely, we sought to explore the impact of choice architecture (i.e., the environment, manner, and behavioral psychology within which options are presented and decisions are made) on decisions to prescribe guideline-discordant fluid volumes. DESIGN We conducted an electronic, survey-based study using a septic shock clinical vignette. Physicians from multiple specialties and training levels at an academic tertiary-care hospital and academic safety-net hospital were randomized to distinct answer sets: control (6 fluid options), time constraint (6 fluid options with a 10-s limit to answer), or choice overload (25 fluid options). The primary outcome was discordance with Surviving Sepsis Campaign fluid resuscitation guidelines. We also measured response times and examined the relationship between each choice architecture intervention group, response time, and guideline discordance. RESULTS A total of 189 of 624 (30.3%) physicians completed the survey. Time spent answering the vignette was reduced in time constraint (9.5 s, interquartile range [IQR] 7.3 s to 10.0 s, P < 0.001) and increased in choice overload (56.8 s, IQR 35.9 s to 86.7 s, P < 0.001) groups compared with control (28.3 s, IQR 20.0 s to 44.6 s). In contrast, the relative risk of guideline discordance was higher in time constraint (2.07, 1.33 to 3.23, P = 0.001) and lower in choice overload (0.75, 0.60, to 0.95, P =0.02) groups. After controlling for time spent reading the vignette, the overall odds of choosing guideline-discordant fluid volumes were reduced for every additional second spent answering the vignette (OR 0.98, 0.97, to 0.99, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Choice architecture may affect fluid resuscitation decisions in sepsis regardless of patient conditions, warranting further investigation in real-world contexts. These effects should be considered when implementing practice guidelines. HIGHLIGHTS Time constrained clinical decision making was associated with increased proportion of guideline-discordant responses and relative risk of failure to prescribe guideline-recommended intravenous fluids using a sepsis clinical vignette.Choice overload increased response times and was associated with decreased proportion of guideline-discordant responses and relative risk of guideline discordance.Physician odds of choosing to prescribe guideline-discordant fluid volumes were reduced with increased deliberation as measured by response times.Clinicians, researchers, policy makers, and administrators should consider the effect of choice architecture on clinical decision making and guideline discordance when implementing guidelines for sepsis and other acute care conditions.
Clinical and biochemical endpoints and predictors of response to plasma exchange in septic shock: results from a randomized controlled trial
Critical care (London, England). 2022;26(1):134
BACKGROUND Recently, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated rapid but individually variable hemodynamic improvement with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in patients with septic shock. Prediction of clinical efficacy in specific sepsis treatments is fundamental for individualized sepsis therapy. METHODS In the original RCT, patients with septic shock of < 24 h duration and norepinephrine (NE) requirement ≥ 0.4 μg/kg/min received standard of care (SOC) or SOC + one single TPE. Here, we report all clinical and biological endpoints of this study. Multivariate mixed-effects modeling of NE reduction was performed to investigate characteristics that could be associated with clinical response to TPE. RESULTS A continuous effect of TPE on the reduction in NE doses over the initial 24 h was observed (SOC group: estimated NE dose reduction of 0.005 µg/kg/min per hour; TPE group: 0.018 µg/kg/min per hour, p = 0.004). Similarly, under TPE, serum lactate levels, continuously decreased over the initial 24 h in the TPE group, whereas lactate levels increased under SOC (p = 0.001). A reduction in biomarkers and disease mediators (such as PCT (p = 0.037), vWF:Ag (p < 0.001), Angpt-2 (p = 0.009), sTie-2 (p = 0.005)) along with a repletion of exhausted protective factors (such as AT-III (p = 0.026), Protein C (p = 0.012), ADAMTS-13 (p = 0.008)) could be observed in the TPE but not in the SOC group. In a multivariate mixed effects model, increasing baseline lactate levels led to greater NE dose reduction effects with TPE as opposed to SOC (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS Adjunctive TPE is associated with the removal of injurious mediators and repletion of consumed protective factors altogether leading to preserved hemodynamic stabilization in refractory septic shock. We identified that baseline lactate concentration as a potential response predictor might guide future designing of large RCTs that will further evaluate TPE with regard to hard endpoints. Trial registration Retrospectively registered 18th January 2020 at clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04231994 ).
A randomized-controlled trial comparing 20% albumin to plasmalyte in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension [ALPS trial]
Journal of hepatology. 2022
BACKGROUND AND AIM The choice of resuscitation fluid in cirrhosis patients with sepsis-induced hypotension (SIH) is unclear. 5% albumin has been superior to normal saline in the FRISC study. We compared the efficacy and safety of 20% albumin, which has greater oncotic properties with plasmalyte in reversing SIH. METHODS Critically-ill cirrhosis(CIC) patients underwent open-label randomization to receive either 20% albumin [0.5-1.0gm/kg over 3 hours; n=50] or plasmalyte (30ml/kg over 3 hours, n=50). The primary end-point of the study was the attainment of mean arterial pressure (MAP) above 65 mmHg at three hours. RESULTS Baseline characteristics were comparable in albumin and plasmalyte groups; arterial lactate(mmol/L) [6.16±3.18 vs. 6.38±4.77; p=0.78), MAP (mmHg) [51.4±6.52 vs. 49.9±4.45; p=0.17] and SOFA score [10.8±2.96 vs. 11.1±4.2; p=0.68] respectively. Most patients were alcoholics (39%) and had pneumonia (40%). In the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, albumin was superior to plasmalyte in achieving the primary end-point (62% vs. 22%; p<0.001). A rapid decline in arterial lactate (P=0.03), a lesser proportion of dialysis [48% vs. 62%; p=0.16], and a higher time to initiation of dialysis (in hours) [68.13±47.79 vs. 99.7± 63.4; p=0.06] was seen with albumin. However, the 28-day mortality was not different (58% vs. 62%, p=0.57). Patients in the albumin group required discontinuation of therapy in 11 (22%) patients due to adverse effects compared to none in plasmalyte group. CONCLUSION In patients with cirrhosis and SIH, 20% albumin transiently improves the hemodynamics with early lactate clearance than plasmalyte but needs monitoring as it is more often attended with pulmonary complications. Both fluids provide comparable 28 days survival. NCT02721238 LAY SUMMARY The current randomized controlled trial performed in critically ill patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension highlights that 20% albumin restores hemodynamics but causes more pulmonary complications than plasmalyte. The impact on renal functions was also modest. These effects did not result in improvement in deaths at 28-days. Plasmalyte is safer and well-tolerated and can be considered for volume resuscitation in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension.
Albumin replacement therapy in immunocompromised patients with sepsis - Secondary analysis of the ALBIOS trial
Journal of critical care. 2021;63:83-91
BACKGROUND The best fluid replacement strategy and the role of albumin in immunocompromised patients with sepsis is unclear. METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of immunocompromised patients enrolled in the ALBIOS trial which randomized patients with severe sepsis or septic shock to receive either 20% albumin (target 30 g per liter or more) and crystalloid or crystalloid alone during ICU stay. RESULTS Of 1818 patients originally enrolled, 304 (16.4%) were immunocompromised. One-hundred-thirty-nine (45.7%) patients were randomized in the albumin while 165 (54.2%) in the crystalloid group. At 90 days, 69 (49.6%) in the albumin group and 89 (53.9%) in the crystalloids group died (hazard ratio - HR - 0.94; 95% CI 0.69-1.29). No differences were observed with regards to 28-day mortality, SOFA score (and sub-scores), length of stay in the ICU and in the hospital, proportion of patients who had developed acute kidney injury or received renal replacement therapy, duration of mechanical ventilation. Albumin was not independently associated with a higher or lower 90-day mortality (HR 0.979, 95% CI 0.709-1.352) as compared to crystalloid. CONCLUSION Albumin replacement during the ICU stay, as compared with crystalloids alone, did not affect clinical outcomes in a cohort of immunocompromised patients with sepsis.
Randomized Controlled Trial of Ultrasound-guided Fluid Resuscitation of Sepsis-Induced Hypoperfusion and Septic Shock
The western journal of emergency medicine. 2021;22(2):369-378
INTRODUCTION The ultrasound measurement of inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter change during respiratory phase to guide fluid resuscitation in shock patients is widely performed, but the benefit on reducing the mortality of sepsis patients is questionable. The study objective was to evaluate the 30-day mortality rate of patients with sepsis-induced tissue hypoperfusion (SITH) and septic shock (SS) treated with ultrasound-guided fluid management (UGFM) using ultrasonographic change of the IVC diameter during respiration compared with those treated with the usual-care strategy. METHODS This was a randomized controlled trial conducted in an urban, university-affiliated tertiary-care hospital. Adult patients with SITH/SS were randomized to receive treatment with UGFM using respiratory change of the IVC (UGFM strategy) or with the usual-care strategy during the first six hours after emergency department (ED) arrival. We compared the 30-day mortality rate and other clinical outcomes between the two groups. RESULTS A total of 202 patients were enrolled, 101 in each group (UGFM vs usual-care strategy) for intention-to-treat analysis. There was no significant difference in 30-day overall mortality between the two groups (18.8% and 19.8% in the usual-care and UGFM strategy, respectively; p > 0.05 by log rank test). Neither was there a difference in six-hour lactate clearance, a change in the sequential organ failure assessment score, or length of hospital stay. However, the cumulative fluid amount given in 24 hours was significantly lower in the UGFM arm. CONCLUSION In our ED setting, the use of respiratory change of IVC diameter determined by point-of-care ultrasound to guide initial fluid resuscitation in SITH/SS ED patients did not improve the 30-day survival probability or other clinical parameters compared to the usual-care strategy. However, the IVC ultrasound-guided resuscitation was associated with less amount of fluid used.
Balanced crystalloids versus saline in critically ill adults with low plasma bicarbonate: A secondary analysis of a clinical trial
Journal of critical care. 2021
PURPOSE We aimed to determine if balanced crystalloids compared with saline improve outcomes in critically ill adults admitted with low plasma bicarbonate. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of the Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART). We included patients who presented to the Emergency Department with a first measured plasma bicarbonate less than 20 mmol/L. Among these patients, we compared the effect of balanced crystalloid versus saline on the primary outcome of major adverse kidney events within 30 days (MAKE30), defined as a composite of death, new renal-replacement therapy, or persistent renal dysfunction (final inpatient creatinine ≥200% baseline). Secondary outcomes included 30 day in-hospital mortality, receipt of new RRT, persistent renal dysfunction, incident AKI, and vasopressor-free days. RESULTS Among the 2029 patients with an initial plasma bicarbonate concentration < 20 mmol/L, there was no difference in the incidence of MAKE30 between those assigned to balanced crystalloid versus saline (21.8% vs 21.3%; P = 0.93). Secondary outcomes were similar between the balanced crystalloid and saline groups. CONCLUSIONS Among critically ill adults presenting to the Emergency Department, initial plasma bicarbonate concentration does not appear to be a useful marker to guide the selection of balanced crystalloid versus saline.
Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Protects Patients with Sepsis-Associated Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation by Improving Endothelial Function
Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2021;27:10760296211053313
The mortality rate of sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is high. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in sepsis-associated DIC patients by improving endothelial function. A total of 112 sepsis-associated DIC patients were randomly divided into the TPE group (n = 40), the heparin (HP) group (n = 36), and the SHAM group (n = 36). The SHAM group received conventional treatment; the HP group was treated with HP based on conventional treatment; and the TPE group received conventional treatment plus TPE. The differences in thromboelastogram (TEG), platelet (PLT), coagulation function, and the endothelial cell (EC) injury biomarkers at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after TPE were compared among the three groups, and the three groups were compared in terms of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, the length of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, 28-day mortality rate, 28-day cumulative survival rate, the incidence of bleeding events, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The efficacy of TPE is superior to the HP in increasing PLT, improving coagulation function, increasing the 28-day cumulative survival rate, and reducing the length of ICU hospitalization, 28-day mortality, and the incidence of bleeding events, AKI, and ARDS with statistically significant differences (P < .05). Moreover, the effect of TPE outperforms HP on the EC injury biomarkers with statistically significant differences (P < .05). Our results suggest that TPE may be more effective than HP in the treatment of patients with sepsis-associated DIC. The possible mechanism is via improving endothelial function.
Patients with sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), (n= 112).
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), (n= 40).
Heparin (HP), (n= 36); conventional treatment (n= 36).
The efficacy of TPE was superior to the HP in increasing platelet, improving coagulation function, increasing the 28-day cumulative survival rate, and reducing the length of intensive care unit hospitalization, 28-day mortality, and the incidence of bleeding events, acute kidney injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome with statistically significant differences. The effect of TPE outperformed HP on the endothelial cell injury biomarkers with statistically significant differences.
The effects of a limited infusion rate of fluid in the early resuscitation of sepsis on glycocalyx shedding measured by plasma syndecan-1: a randomized controlled trial
Journal of intensive care. 2021;9(1):1
BACKGROUND Aggressive fluid administration is recommended in the resuscitation of septic patients. However, the delivery of a rapid fluid bolus might cause harm by inducing degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx. This research aimed to examine the effects of the limited infusion rate of fluid on glycocalyx shedding as measured by syndecan-1 in patients with sepsis-induced hypoperfusion. METHODS A prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label trial was conducted between November 2018 and February 2020 in an urban academic emergency department. Patients with sepsis-induced hypoperfusion, defined as hypotension or hyperlactatemia, were randomized to receive either the standard rate (30 ml/kg/h) or limited rate (10 ml/kg/h) of fluid for the first 30 ml/kg fluid resuscitation. Subsequently, the fluid rate was adjusted according to the physician's discretion but not more than that of the designated fluid rate for the total of 6 h. The primary outcome was differences in change of syndecan-1 levels at 6 h compared to baseline between standard and limited rate groups. Secondary outcomes included adverse events, organ failure, and 90-day mortality. RESULTS We included 96 patients in the intention-to-treat analysis, with 48 assigned to the standard-rate strategy and 48 to the limited-rate strategy. The median fluid volume in 6 h in the limited-rate group was 39 ml/kg (interquartile range [IQR] 35-52 ml/kg) vs. 53 ml/kg (IQR 46-64 ml/kg) in the standard-rate group (p < 0.001). Patients in the limited-rate group were less likely to received vasopressors (17% vs 42%; p = 0.007) and mechanical ventilation (20% vs 41%; p = 0.049) during the first 6 h. There were no significantly different changes in syndecan-1 levels at 6 h between the two groups (geometric mean ratio [GMR] in the limited-rate group, 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-1.02; p = 0.07). There were no significant differences in adverse events, organ failure outcomes, or mortality between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS In sepsis resuscitation, the limited rate of fluid resuscitation compared to the standard rate did not significantly reduce changes in syndecan-1 at 6 h. TRIAL REGISTRATION Thai Clinical Trials Registry number: TCTR20181010001. Registered 8 October 2018, http://www.clinicaltrials.in.th/index.php?tp=regtrials&menu=trialsearch&smenu=fulltext&task=search&task2=view1&id=4064.
Comparison of 5% human albumin and normal saline for fluid resuscitation in sepsis induced hypotension among patients with cirrhosis (FRISC study): a randomized controlled trial
Hepatology international. 2021
AIMS: Sepsis and septic shock are common causes of hospitalization and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. There is no data on the choice of fluid and resuscitation protocols in sepsis-induced hypotension in cirrhosis. METHODS In this open-label trial conducted at a single center, we enrolled 308 cirrhotics with sepsis-induced hypotension and randomized them to receive either 5% albumin or normal saline. The primary endpoint was a reversal of hypotension [mean arterial pressure, MAP, ≥ 65 mmHg] at 3 h. Secondary endpoints included serial effects on heart rate, arterial lactate and urine output. RESULTS 154 patients each received 5% albumin (males, 79.8%, mean MAP 52.9 ± 7.0 mm Hg) or 0.9% saline (85.1%, 53.4 ± 6.3 mm Hg) with comparable baseline parameters and liver disease severity. Reversal of hypotension was higher in patients receiving 5% albumin than saline at the end of one hour [25.3% and 11.7%, p = 0.03, Odds ratio (95% CI)-1.9 (1.08-3.42)] and at the end of three hours [11.7% and 3.2%, p = 0.008, 3.9 (1.42-10.9)]. Sustained reduction in heart rate and hyperlactatemia (p < 0.001) was better in the albumin group. At one week, the proportion of patients surviving was higher in the albumin group than those receiving saline (43.5% vs 38.3%, p = 0.03). Female gender and SOFA ≥ 11 were predictors of non-response to fluid. CONCLUSIONS 5% human albumin is safe and beneficial in reversing sepsis-induced hypotension compared to normal saline in patients with cirrhosis improving clinically assessable parameters of systemic hemodynamics, tissue perfusion and in-hospital short-term survival of cirrhosis patients with sepsis.