Efficacy and safety of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin in patients with sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation - A meta-analysis
Thrombosis research. 2023;226:165-172
BACKGROUND Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM) is used to treat sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). However, no consistent clinical guidelines exist regarding the administration of rhTM in patients with sepsis-induced DIC. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhTM therapy in patients with sepsis-induced DIC. METHODS EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, Ichushi, and CINAHL databases were used to search for relevant articles that met the inclusion criteria of patients with sepsis-induced DIC treated with and without rhTM through November 2022. Mortality, DIC resolution, and incidence of bleeding complications were evaluated. DIC resolution was defined as the recovery from DIC after the start of DIC treatment. RESULTS Of the 1697 citations identified for screening, 17 studies involving 2296 patients were included. Administering rhTM significantly reduced mortality (odds ratio (OR) 0.54, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.71) and improved DIC resolution (OR 2.88, 95 % CI 1.83-4.52). There were no significant differences in the incidence of bleeding complications between the rhTM and control groups (OR 0.92, 95 % CI 0.66-1.28). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis revealed that rhTM could reduce mortality and improve DIC resolution without increasing the risk of bleeding in patients with sepsis-induced DIC. Our findings suggest that rhTM is a relatively effective and safe anticoagulant for the treatment of sepsis-induced DIC. SUMMARY Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin reduced mortality without increasing the bleeding risk in the treatment of sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Addition of terlipressin to norepinephrine in septic shock and effect of renal perfusion: a pilot study
Renal Failure. 2022;44(1):1207-1215
PURPOSE Terlipressin improves renal function in patients with septic shock. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of terlipressin on renal perfusion in patients with septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS This pilot study enrolled patients with septic shock in the intensive care unit of the tertiary hospital from September 2019 to May 2020. We randomly assigned patients to terlipressin and usual care groups using a 1:1 ratio. Terlipressin was intravenously pumped at a rate of 1.3 μg/kg/hour for 24 h. We monitored renal perfusion using renal contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). The primary outcome was peak sonographic signal intensity (a renal perfusion parameter monitored by CEUS) at 24 h after enrollment. RESULTS 22 patients were enrolled in this study with 10 in the terlipressin group and 12 in the usual care group. The baseline characteristics of patients between the two groups were comparable. The peak sonographic signal intensity at 24 h after enrollment in the terlipressin group (60.5 ± 8.6 dB) was significantly higher than that in the usual care group (52.4 ± 7.0 dB; mean difference, 7.1 dB; 95% CI, 0.4-13.9; adjusted p = .04). Patients in the terlipressin group had a lower time to peak, heart rates, norepinephrine dose, and a higher stroke volume at 24 h after enrollment. No significant difference in the urine output within 24 h and incidence of acute kidney injury within 28 days was found between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Terlipressin improves renal perfusion, increases stroke volume, and decreases norepinephrine dose and heart rates in patients with septic shock.
A Network Meta-Analysis of Two Doses of Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin for Treating Sepsis-Related Thrombocytopenia
International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2022;2022:2124019
Previous studies suggest that sepsis remains a common critical illness with a global incidence of 31.5 million. The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative therapeutic value of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) in treating sepsis patients with thrombocytopenia. We conducted a comprehensive electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and CNKI from its inception through December 31, 2021. Thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 963 patients were included. Network meta-analyses showed that rhTPO 300 U/kg/day and rhTPO 15000 U/day significantly increased the platelet (PLT) levels on the 7(th) day and decreased the requirement of transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs), plasma, and PLT compared with IVIG and NAT. SUCRA showed that rhTPO 300 U/kg/day ranked first in terms of 28-day mortality (85.5%) and transfusion, including RBC (88.7%), plasma (89.6%), and PLT (95.2%), while rhTPO 15000 U/day ranked first for the length of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay (95.9%) and PLT level at day 7 (91.6%). rhTPO 300 U/kg/day may be the optimal dose to reduce 28-day mortality and transfusion requirements. However, rhTPO 15000 U/day may be the optimal dose for shortening the ICU stay and increasing the PLT level on the 7th day. However, additional studies to further validate our findings are needed.
Methylene blue versus vasopressin analog for refractory septic shock in the preterm neonate: A randomized controlled trial
Journal of neonatal-perinatal medicine. 2021
BACKGROUND Refractory septic shock in neonates is still associated with high mortality, necessitating an alternative therapy, despite all currently available treatments. This study aims to assess the vasopressor effect of methylene blue (MB) in comparison to terlipressin (TP) as adjuvant therapy for refractory septic shock in the preterm neonate. METHODS A double-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units at Ain Shams University, Egypt. Thirty preterm neonates with refractory septic shock were randomized to receive either MB or TP as an adjuvant to conventional therapy. Both MB and TP were administered as an intravenous loading dose followed by continuous intravenous infusion. The hemodynamic variables, functional echocardiographic variables, and oxidant stress marker were assessed over a 24 h period together with the side effects of MB. RESULTS MB causes significant improvement in mean arterial blood pressure with a significant decrease of the norepinephrine requirements (1.15±0.21μm/kg/min at baseline vs. 0.55±0.15μm/kg/min at 24 h). MB infusion causes an increase of the pulmonary pressure (44.73±8.53 mmHg at baseline vs. 47.27±7.91 mmHg after 24 h) without affecting the cardiac output. Serum malonaldehyde decreased from 5.45±1.30 nmol/mL at baseline to 4.40±0.90 nmol/mL at 24 h in the MB group. CONCLUSION Administration of MB to preterm infants with refractory septic shock showed rapid increases in systemic vascular resistance and arterial blood pressure with minimal side effects.
The effect of early vasopressin use on patients with septic shock: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The American journal of emergency medicine. 2021;48:203-208
BACKGROUND The effect of early vasopressin initiation on clinical outcomes in patients with septic shock is uncertain. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of early start of vasopressin support within 6 h after the diagnosis on clinical outcomes in septic shock patients. METHODS We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies from inception to the 1st of February 2021. We included studies involving adult patients (> 16 years)with septic shock. All authors reported our primary outcome of short-term mortality and in the experimental group patients in the studies receiving vasopressin infusion within 6 h after diagnosis of septic shock and in the control group patients in the studies receiving no vasopressin infusion or vasopressin infusion 6 h after diagnosis of septic shock, clearly comparing with clinically relevant secondary outcomes(use of renal replacement therapy(RRT),new onset arrhythmias, ICU length of stay and length of hospitalization). Results were expressed as odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) with accompanying 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS Five studies including 788 patients were included. The primary outcome of this meta-analysis showed that short-term mortality between the two groups was no difference (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.48; P = 0.6; χ2 = 0.83; I2 = 0%). Secondary outcomes demonstrated that the use of RRT was less in the experimental group than that of the control group (OR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.88; P = 0.007; χ2 = 3.15; I2 = 36%).The new onset arrhythmias between the two groups was no statistically significant difference (OR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.31 to 1.1; P = 0.10; χ2 = 4.7; I2 = 36%). There was no statistically significant difference in the ICU length of stay(mean difference = 0.16; 95% CI, - 0.91 to 1.22; P = 0.77; χ2 = 6.08; I2 = 34%) and length of hospitalization (mean difference = -2.41; 95% CI, -6.61 to 1.78; P = 0.26; χ2 = 8.57; I2 = 53%) between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Early initiation of vasopressin in patients within 6 h of septic shock onset was not associated with decreased short-term mortality, new onset arrhythmias, shorter ICU length of stay and length of hospitalization, but can reduce the use of RRT. Further large-scale RCTs are still needed to evaluate the benefit of starting vasopressin in the early phase of septic shock.
Comparison of 5% human albumin and normal saline for fluid resuscitation in sepsis induced hypotension among patients with cirrhosis (FRISC study): a randomized controlled trial
Hepatology international. 2021
AIMS: Sepsis and septic shock are common causes of hospitalization and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. There is no data on the choice of fluid and resuscitation protocols in sepsis-induced hypotension in cirrhosis. METHODS In this open-label trial conducted at a single center, we enrolled 308 cirrhotics with sepsis-induced hypotension and randomized them to receive either 5% albumin or normal saline. The primary endpoint was a reversal of hypotension [mean arterial pressure, MAP, ≥ 65 mmHg] at 3 h. Secondary endpoints included serial effects on heart rate, arterial lactate and urine output. RESULTS 154 patients each received 5% albumin (males, 79.8%, mean MAP 52.9 ± 7.0 mm Hg) or 0.9% saline (85.1%, 53.4 ± 6.3 mm Hg) with comparable baseline parameters and liver disease severity. Reversal of hypotension was higher in patients receiving 5% albumin than saline at the end of one hour [25.3% and 11.7%, p = 0.03, Odds ratio (95% CI)-1.9 (1.08-3.42)] and at the end of three hours [11.7% and 3.2%, p = 0.008, 3.9 (1.42-10.9)]. Sustained reduction in heart rate and hyperlactatemia (p < 0.001) was better in the albumin group. At one week, the proportion of patients surviving was higher in the albumin group than those receiving saline (43.5% vs 38.3%, p = 0.03). Female gender and SOFA ≥ 11 were predictors of non-response to fluid. CONCLUSIONS 5% human albumin is safe and beneficial in reversing sepsis-induced hypotension compared to normal saline in patients with cirrhosis improving clinically assessable parameters of systemic hemodynamics, tissue perfusion and in-hospital short-term survival of cirrhosis patients with sepsis.
[The role of recombinant human thrombopoietin in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated thrombocytopenia: a clinical study]
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2020;32(12):1445-1449
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of recombinant human thrombogenin (rhTPO) on sepsis-associated thrombocytopenia. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted. One hundred patients with sepsis-associated thrombocytopenia admitted to the department of critical care medicine of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from August 2019 to October 2020 were enrolled. The enrolled patients were divided into rhTPO-using group (TPO group) and routine group (control group) by random number table method, with 50 cases in each group. Both groups were treated according to the guideline of Sepsis-3. In addition, TPO group received rhTPO 15 000 U, once daily for 7 days. Geneal information and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) were recorded. The levels of platelet count (PLT), blood coagulation function [prothrombin time (PT) and prothrombin activity (PTA)], myocardial enzyme indexes [troponin (Tn) and creatine kinase (CK)], liver and kidney function [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil) and creatinine (Cr)] and inflammatory biomarkers [procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] were recorded before treatment and 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after treatment. The infusion volume of blood components, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in ICU, total length of hospitalization, total cost of hospitalization and 28-day outcome were recorded. According to whether the PLT was lower than 50×10(9)/L, the patients in TPO group were divided into the TPO A group (PLT ≥ 50×10(9)/L, 16 cases) and TPO B group (PLT < 50×10(9)/L, 34 cases), and the absolute value of PLT increase, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in ICU, total length of hospitalization, total cost of hospitalization and 28-day outcome of the two groups were compared. RESULTS (1) In TPO and control groups, there were no statistically significant differences in gender, age, proportion of patients with primary infection site, APACHEII score, PLT, coagulation function, myocardial enzymes, liver and kidney function and inflammation indexes before treatment (all P > 0.05). (2) The PLT levels of the TPO group were significantly higher than those of the control group on the 5th and 7th day after treatment (×10(9)/L: day 5, 63.94±44.01 vs. 49.85±29.26, day 7, 125.85±112.31 vs. 76.81±50.87, both P < 0.05), and there were no statistically significant differences in PT, PTA, Tn, CK, AST, TBil, Cr, PCT or CRP before and on the 1, 3, 5, 7 days after treatment between TPO and control groups (all P > 0.05). (3) The amount of platelet transfusion in the TPO group was lower than that in the control group [treatment amount: 0 (0, 0) vs 0 (0, 2.00), P = 0.001]. (4) There were no statistically significant differences in mechanical ventilation time, length of stay in ICU, total length of hospitalization, total cost of hospitalization or 28-day outcome between TPO and control groups (all P > 0.05). The mechanical ventilation time, ICU stay time and total hospitalization time of TPO A group were longer than those in TPO B group, but the differences were not statistically significant [mechanical ventilation time (hours): 131.00 (0, 311.00) vs. 50.00 (0, 192.00), ICU stay time (days): 14.44±8.57 vs. 11.73±9.24, total hospitalization time (days): 15.00 (6.00, 23.50) vs. 18.00 (8.00, 31.00), all P > 0.05]. The absolute value of PLT increase in TPO A group was higher than that of TPO B group, but the difference was not statistically significant [×10(9)/L: 65.00 (16.50, 131.50) vs. 36.00 (18.00, 130.00), P > 0.05]. CONCLUSIONS RhTPO can significantly increase the PLT of patients with sepsis-related thrombocytopenia, thereby reduce the amount of platelet transfusion, but it cannot shorten the length of ICU stay time and total hospitalization time, and it cannot reduce 28-day mortality.
Assessing the Course of Organ Dysfunction Using Joint Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Modeling in the Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial
Crit Care Explor. 2020;2(4):e0104
Non-mortality septic shock outcomes (e.g., Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score) are important clinical endpoints in pivotal sepsis trials. However, comparisons of observed longitudinal non-mortality outcomes between study groups can be biased if death is unequal between study groups or is associated with an intervention (i.e., informative censoring). We compared the effects of vasopressin versus norepinephrine on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score in the Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial to illustrate the use of joint modeling to help minimize potential bias from informative censoring. Design: Secondary analysis of the Vasopressin and Septic Shock Trial data. Setting: Twenty-seven ICUs in Canada, Australia, and United States. Subjects: Seven hundred sixty-three participants with septic shock who received blinded vasopressin (n = 389) or norepinephrine infusions (n = 374). Measurements and Main Results: Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were calculated daily until discharge, death, or day 28 after randomization. Mortality was numerically higher in the norepinephrine arm (28 d mortality of 39% vs 35%; p = 0.25), and there was a positive association between higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores and patient mortality, characteristics that suggest a potential for bias from informative censoring of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores by death. The best-fitting joint longitudinal (i.e., linear mixed-effects model) and survival (i.e., Cox proportional hazards model for the time-to-death) model showed that norepinephrine was associated with a more rapid improvement in the total Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score through day 4, and then the daily Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores converged and overlapped for the remainder of the study period. Conclusions: Short-term reversal of organ dysfunction occurred more rapidly with norepinephrine compared with vasopressin, although differences between study arms did not persist after day 4. Joint models are an accessible methodology that could be used in critical care trials to assess the effects of interventions on the longitudinal progression of key outcomes (e.g., organ dysfunction, biomarkers, or quality of life) that may be informatively truncated by death or other censoring events.
[Effect of terlipressin on prognosis of adult septic shock patients: a Meta-analysis]
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2020;32(2):134-139
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of terlipressin on prognosis of adult septic shock patients. METHODS All randomized controlled clinical trials (RCT) of terlipressin in the treatment of adult septic shock patients from January 1980 to December 2019 were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang, SinoMed, PubMed, Embase, Springer Link, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and etc. Patients in the treatment group received terlipressin while patients in the control group received norepinephrine or other vasopressors. Main outcome indicator was mortality. Secondary outcome indicators included the incidence of severe adverse events, limb peripheral ischemic events and renal complications. Literature screening, data extraction and quality evaluation were conducted by two researchers respectively. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3 software. Funnel plot was used to analyze the publication bias. RESULTS A total of 507 related literatures were retrieved. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 RCT studies were finally included, with a total of 811 patients. One study was considered to have a lower risk of bias, 6 studies had uncertain risk of bias, and 1 study had a higher risk of bias. The Meta-analysis showed that terlipressin did not significantly improve the mortality of septic shock patients compared with the control group [odds ratio (OR) = 0.89, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 0.67-1.19, P = 0.45]; increased the incidence of severe adverse events (OR = 2.98, 95%CI was 1.99-4.45, P < 0.000 01); there was a tendency to increase the incidence of limb peripheral ischemic events, but without statistical difference (OR = 10.81, 95%CI was 0.88-133.19, P = 0.06); and reduced the incidence of renal complications (OR = 0.30, 95%CI was 0.09-0.96, P = 0.04). Funnel plot analysis indicated that there might be publication bias in a study on case fatality and incidence of serious adverse events in the included literature. No significant publication bias was found in studies on the incidence of limb peripheral ischemic events and the incidence of kidney-related complications. CONCLUSIONS The available evidence suggests that terlipressin could not significantly improve mortality in adult's septic shock patients, but it may reduce the incidence of renal complications. A tendency to increase the incidence of limb peripheral ischemic events in the terlipressin-treated group needs to be emphasized.
Efficacy and Safety of Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin on Sepsis Patients With Thrombocytopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:940
BACKGROUND The efficacy and safety of the administration of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) in sepsis patients with thrombocytopenia were still inconclusive. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether rhTPO is a benefit for sepsis patients with thrombocytopenia. METHODS PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database were electronically searched to the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from inception to March 4, 2020. The primary outcome was the level of platelet (PLT) on the 7(th) day of treatment, and secondary outcomes were 28-d mortality, the level of coagulation indicators, hepatic and renal function indicators, blood transfusion, and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. RESULTS Ten RCTs involving 681 patients were included. For compared with conventional antibiotic therapy, rhTPO could significantly increase platelet counts (PCs) [standardized mean difference (SMD), 2.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.94; P < 0.001], decreased 28-d mortality [relative risk (RR), 0.66; 95%CI, 0.46-0.97; P=0.03], transfusion volume of blood products and length of ICU stay. Additionally, for compared with conventional antibiotic therapy combined with intravenous immunoglobulin, the pooled results shown that rhTPO also associated with an improvement of PCs on 7(th) of treatment (SMD, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.54-1.17; P < 0.001), and a reduced transfusion volume of blood products. However, there were no differences in 28-d mortality and the length of ICU stay. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence shown that rhTPO could increase PCs on 7(th) day of treatment and reduce the transfusion volume of blood products in sepsis-related thrombocytopenia during hospitalization. The conclusions are needed to be verified indeed by more multicenter RCTs due to the limitation of the included studies.