The effect of exchange transfusion on mortality in neonatal sepsis: a meta-analysis
European journal of pediatrics. 2021
Although antimicrobials are the cornerstone of neonatal sepsis management, adjunctive therapies are required to improve outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of exchange transfusion (ET) on mortality (primary outcome) in neonatal sepsis, as well as on immunoglobulin, complement and neutrophil levels and assess its complications (secondary outcomes). Databases searched include PubMed, NCBI, Google Scholar, CINHAL, Ovid and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled observational studies (COSs) and uncontrolled observational studies (UOSs) reporting mortality data from using ET in neonatal sepsis were included. Studies with additional interventions, non-septic ET indications and populations aged > 28 days were excluded. Data extracted include demographics, features of study, sepsis and ET, as well as mortality rates, immunological and laboratory changes and complications. Data was meta-analysed and displayed using forest plots. The meta-analysis of 14 studies (3 RCTs, 11 COSs) revealed a mortality benefit in septic neonates who underwent ET-RR 0.72 (CI 0.61-0.86, p = 0.01) and a significant increase in pooled immunological parameters (immunoglobulin, complement levels) (SMD 1.13, [0.25, 2.02], p = 0.02) and neutrophil levels (SMD 1.07 [0.04, 2.11], p = 0.03) compared to controls. The descriptive analysis of 9 UOSs revealed thrombocytopenia as the most frequently reported complication (n = 48). Moderate-high risk of bias was largely due to inadequate sample sizes and follow-up durations.Conclusion: Currently, the use of ET in neonatal sepsis is not directly recommended due to low certainty of evidence, inadequate power and moderate-high risk of bias and heterogeneity.Trial registration: PROSPERO (CRD42020176629) ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=176629 ) What is Known: • Exchange transfusion is one of the adjunctive methods for treatment of neonatal sepsis. What is New: • The pooled analysis of all studies shows that exchange transfusion has a low certainty of evidence in the context of neonatal mortality. However, at this point, this intervention cannot be refuted or recommended due to heterogeneity of studies and inadequate power.
High dose coupled plasma filtration and adsorption in septic shock patients. Results of the COMPACT-2: a multicentre, adaptive, randomised clinical trial
Intensive care medicine. 2021
PURPOSE This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of high-dose (> 0.2 L/kg of treated plasma per day) coupled plasma filtration-adsorption (CPFA) in treating patients with septic shock. METHODS Multicentre, randomised, adaptive trial, performed in 12 Italian intensive care units (ICUs). Patients aged 14 or more, admitted to the ICU with septic shock, or had developed it during the stay were eligible. The final outcome was mortality at discharge from the last hospital at which the patient received care. RESULTS Between May 2015, and October 2017, 115 patients were randomised. The first interim analysis revealed a number of early deaths, prompting an unplanned analysis. Last hospital mortality was non-significantly higher in the CPFA (55.6%) than in the control group (46.2%, p = 0.35). The 90-day survival curves diverged in favour of the controls early after randomisation and remained separated afterwards (p = 0.100). An unplanned analysis showed higher mortality in CPFA compared to controls among patients without severe renal failure (p = 0.025); a dose-response relationship was observed between treated plasma volume and mortality (p = 0.010). CONCLUSION The COMPACT-2 trial was stopped due to the possible harmful effect of CPFA in patients with septic shock. The harmful effect, if present, was particularly marked in the early phase of septic shock. Patients not requiring renal replacement therapy seemed most exposed to the possible harm, with evidence of a dose-response effect. Until the mechanisms behind these results are fully understood, the use of CPFA for the treatment of patients with septic shock is not recommended.
Patients aged 14 or more with septic shock, enrolled in the COMPACT-2 multicentre trial (n= 115).
High dose coupled plasma filtration-adsorption (CPFA), (n= 63).
Standard care (n= 52).
The first interim analysis revealed a number of early deaths, prompting an unplanned analysis. Last hospital mortality was non-significantly higher in the CPFA (55.6%) than in the control group (46.2%). The 90-day survival curves diverged in favour of the controls early after randomisation and remained separated afterwards. An unplanned analysis showed higher mortality in CPFA compared to controls among patients without severe renal failure; a dose-response relationship was observed between treated plasma volume and mortality. The COMPACT-2 trial was stopped due to the possible harmful effect of CPFA in patients with septic shock.
Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Protects Patients with Sepsis-Associated Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation by Improving Endothelial Function
Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. 2021;27:10760296211053313
The mortality rate of sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is high. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in sepsis-associated DIC patients by improving endothelial function. A total of 112 sepsis-associated DIC patients were randomly divided into the TPE group (n = 40), the heparin (HP) group (n = 36), and the SHAM group (n = 36). The SHAM group received conventional treatment; the HP group was treated with HP based on conventional treatment; and the TPE group received conventional treatment plus TPE. The differences in thromboelastogram (TEG), platelet (PLT), coagulation function, and the endothelial cell (EC) injury biomarkers at 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 days after TPE were compared among the three groups, and the three groups were compared in terms of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, the length of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization, 28-day mortality rate, 28-day cumulative survival rate, the incidence of bleeding events, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The efficacy of TPE is superior to the HP in increasing PLT, improving coagulation function, increasing the 28-day cumulative survival rate, and reducing the length of ICU hospitalization, 28-day mortality, and the incidence of bleeding events, AKI, and ARDS with statistically significant differences (P < .05). Moreover, the effect of TPE outperforms HP on the EC injury biomarkers with statistically significant differences (P < .05). Our results suggest that TPE may be more effective than HP in the treatment of patients with sepsis-associated DIC. The possible mechanism is via improving endothelial function.
Patients with sepsis-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), (n= 112).
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), (n= 40).
Heparin (HP), (n= 36); conventional treatment (n= 36).
The efficacy of TPE was superior to the HP in increasing platelet, improving coagulation function, increasing the 28-day cumulative survival rate, and reducing the length of intensive care unit hospitalization, 28-day mortality, and the incidence of bleeding events, acute kidney injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome with statistically significant differences. The effect of TPE outperformed HP on the endothelial cell injury biomarkers with statistically significant differences.
The premature closure of ROMPA clinical trial: mortality reduction in septic shock by plasma adsorption
BMJ open. 2019;9(12):e030139
OBJECTIVES Coupled Plasma Filtration and Adsorption (CPFA) use in septic shock remains controversial. The objective is to clarify whether the application of high doses of CPFA in addition to the current clinical practice could reduce hospital mortality in septic shock patients in Intensive Care Units at 28 days and at 90 days follow-up. DESIGN We designed a prospective randomised clinical trial, Reduccion de la Mortalidad Plasma-Adsorcion (ROMPA), to demonstrate an absolute mortality reduction of 20% (alpha=0.05; 1-beta=0.8; n=190 (95x2)). SETTING Being aware of the pitfalls associated with previous medical device trials, we developed a training programme to improve CPFA use (especially clotting problems). The protocol was approved by the ethics committees of all participating centres. Circumstances beyond our control produced a change in recruitment conditions unacceptable to ROMPA researchers and the trial was discontinued. PARTICIPANTS By closure, five centres from an initial 10 fulfilled the necessary trial criteria, with 49 patients included, 30 in the control group (CG) and 19 in the intervention group (IG). INTERVENTION CPFA. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Hospital mortality at 28 days and 90 days follow-up. RESULTS After 28 days, 14 patients died (46.7%) from the CG and 11 (57.9%) from the IG, not reaching statistical significance (p=0.444). At 90 days, 19 patients had died (63.3%) from the CG and 11 patients (57.9%) from the IG, (p=0.878). The adjustment by propensity score or the use of the Kaplan-Meier technique failed to achieve statistical difference, neither by Intention to Treat nor by the Actual Intervention Received. CONCLUSION We herewith present the results gained from the prematurely closed trial. The results are inconclusive due to low statistical power but we consider that this data is of interest for the scientific community and potentially necessary for any ensuing debate. REGISTER NCT02357433 in clinicaltrials.gov.
Effect of continuous plasma filtration adsorption on treatment of severely burned patients with sepsis
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi = Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Burns. 2018;34((6)):370-373.
Objective: To investigate effect of continuous plasma filtration adsorption on treatment of severely burned patients with sepsis. Methods: In January 2014 to September 2017, 86 severely burned patients with sepsis, conforming to the study criteria, were admitted to our hospital and divided into into routine treatment group and continuous plasma filtration group according to the random number table method, with 43 patients in each group. Patients in routine treatment group were treated with routine treatment after admission. Patients in continuous plasma filtration group were treated with blood filter, blood purification machine, and plasma separator for continuous plasma filtration adsorption on the basis of the routine treatment group on the second day after admission. The course of treatment in the 2 groups was 7 d. The total effective treatment rate, changes of leukocyte count (WBC), usea nitrogen, serum creatinine, neutrophile CD64, procalcitonin, and C reactive protein (CRP) before and after treatment, and mortality on 28 days after treatment of patients in 2 groups were analyzed and compared. Results: (1) The total effective treatment rate of patients in continuous plasma filtration group was 88.37% (38/43), which was significantly higher than that of the routine treatment group [65.12% (28/43), chi(2)=6.515, P=0.018]. (2) After treatment, WBC, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, neutrophils CD64, procalcitonin, and CRP of patients in continuous plasma filtration group were significantly lower those in routine treatment group (t=6.305, 4.420, 18.537, 13.435, 12.975, 14.234, P<0.05). WBC, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, neutrophile CD64, procalcitonin, and CRP of patients in 2 groups after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment (t=9.459, 9.130, 25.438, 35.467, 23.471, 23.601, 3.802, 5.662, 12.067, 25.694, 20.720, 12.437, P<0.05). (3) On 28 days after treatment, mortality of patients in continuous plasma filtration group was 6.98% (3/43), which was significantly lower than that in routine treatment group [25.58% (11/43)], chi(2)=5.460, P=0.023. Conclusions: Continuous plasma filtration adsorption is effective in treating severely burned patients with sepsis, which can alleviate inflammatory reaction mediated by inflammatory cytokine with good prognosis.
Double volume exchange transfusion in severe neonatal sepsis
Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2016;83((2)):107-13.
OBJECTIVES To study the efficacy and safety of double volume exchange transfusion (DVET) in neonates>1000 g birth weight with severe sepsis. METHODS Eighty-three neonates weighing >1000 g with severe sepsis were randomly assigned to DVET or standard therapy (ST) group. Primary outcome was mortality by 14 d from enrollment. RESULTS A 21 % reduction in mortality, albeit non-significant, by 14 d from enrollment was observed in DVET group in comparison to ST group [RR: 0.79 (95 % C.I 0.45-1.3); p 0.4]. A similar trend in mortality reduction was observed with early mortality and mortality by discharge in DVET group. No difference was observed in normalization of dysfunctional organs by 14 d. Cardiovascular and hematological system benefitted the most, followed by renal dysfunction with DVET. A significant improvement in post DVET IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and base deficit was observed. No serious adverse effects occurred following DVET. CONCLUSIONS In neonates >1000 g with severe sepsis, DVET was associated with a trend towards decrease in mortality by 14 d from enrollment. A significant improvement in immunoglobulin and complement C3 levels and acid base status were observed following DVET. DVET is a safe procedure in severely sick and septic neonates.
Efficacy of coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) in patients with septic shock: a multicenter randomised controlled clinical trial
BMJ Open. 2014;4((1)):e003536.
OBJECTIVES Coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA, Bellco, Italy), to remove inflammatory mediators from blood, has been proposed as a novel treatment for septic shock. This multicenter, randomised, non-blinded trial compared CPFA with standard care in the treatment of critically ill patients with septic shock. DESIGN Prospective, multicenter, randomised, open-label, two parallel group and superiority clinical trial. SETTING 18 Italian adult, general, intensive care units (ICUs). PARTICIPANTS Of the planned 330 adult patients with septic shock, 192 were randomised to either have CPFA added to the standard care, or not. The external monitoring committee excluded eight ineligible patients who were erroneously included. INTERVENTIONS CPFA was to be performed daily for 5 days, lasting at least 10 h/day. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES The primary endpoint was mortality at discharge from the hospital at which the patient last stayed. Secondary endpoints were: 90-day mortality, new organ failures and ICU-free days within 30 days. RESULTS There was no statistical difference in hospital mortality (47.3% controls, 45.1% CPFA; p=0.76), nor in secondary endpoints, namely the occurrence of new organ failures (55.9% vs 56.0%; p=0.99) or free-ICU days during the first 30 days (6.8 vs 7.5; p=0.35). The study was terminated on the grounds of futility. Several patients randomised to CPFA were subsequently found to be undertreated. An a priori planned subgroup analysis showed those receiving a CPFA dose >0.18 L/kg/day had a lower mortality compared with controls (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS CPFA did not reduce mortality in patients with septic shock, nor did it positively affect other important clinical outcomes. A subgroup analysis suggested that CPFA could reduce mortality, when a high volume of plasma is treated. Owing to the inherent potential biases of such a subgroup analysis, this result can only be viewed as a hypothesis generator and should be confirmed in future studies. CLINICALTRIALSGOV NCT00332371; ISRCTN24534559.
A randomised controlled trial of plasma filtration in severe paediatric sepsis
Critical Care & Resuscitation. 2013;15((3):):198-204.
OBJECTIVE To determine whether plasma filtration improves 28-day survival in infants and children with severe sepsis. DESIGN A multicentre randomised controlled trial. SETTING Paediatric intensive care units in teaching hospitals. PATIENTS Forty-eight infants and children with severe sepsis. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomly assigned to receive plasma filtration (n = 25) or standard therapy (n = 23) for the treatment of septic shock. The primary outcome measure was 28-day survival. Secondary outcome measures included the number of failed organ systems on Day 7, a requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and the modified Glasgow outcome score (MGOS) at 6 months (where 1 is normal and 6 is dead). RESULTS The trial was stopped early due to poor recruitment. Patients in the plasma filtration group had higher initial disease severity as measured by serum lactate level, inotrope score and MGOS. Ten (40%) children died in the plasma filtration group and 4 (17%) died in the control group. With intention-to-treat analysis and adjustment for lactate level, ventilation index, inotrope score and MGOS at admission using logistic regression, the odds ratio for death with plasma filtration was 1.20 (95% CI, 0.23-6.20; P = 0.82). The median number of failing organ systems at 7 days was 2 (interquartile range [IQR], 1-4) in the plasma filtration group versus 2 (IQR, 1-3) in the control group. Two children in the plasma filtration group required ECMO for 2.5 and 123 hours, and one child in the control group required ECMO for 45 hours. The median MGOS at 6 months was 4 (IQR, 2-6) in the plasma filtration group and 2 (IQR, 1-4) in the control group. CONCLUSIONS Our study did not recruit enough patients to test the hypothesis that addition of plasma filtration to our standard care protocol reduces 28-day mortality in children with severe sepsis. However, mortality in the treatment and control groups was not significantly different after adjustment for severity of illness at the time of randomisation.
The efficacy and safety of therapeutic apheresis in sepsis and septic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Plasmapheresis in severe sepsis and septic shock: a prospective, randomised, controlled trial
Intensive Care Medicine. 2002;28((10):):1434-9.
OBJECTIVE To determine the therapeutic efficacy and safety of plasmapheresis in the treatment of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. DESIGN Prospective, randomised, clinical trial with a planned, midstudy, interim analysis. SETTING Intensive care unit in a university hospital in Archangels, Russia. PATIENTS Consecutive patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. INTERVENTIONS One hundred and six patients were randomised to receive either standard therapy or an add-on treatment with plasmapheresis. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS The primary endpoint was 28-day survival. Septic shock was diagnosed in 57% of the plasmapheresis-treated patients and 54% of the control patients. Mean APACHE III score at entry was 56.4 in the plasmapheresis group and 53.5 in the control group. The 28-day, all-cause mortality rate was 33.3% (18/54) in the plasmapheresis group and 53.8% (28/52) in the control group. This represents a relative risk for fatal outcome in the plasmapheresis group of 0.61, an absolute risk reduction of 20.5% and a number of patients needed to treat of 4.9. Apart from six transient episodes of hypotension and one allergic reaction to fresh frozen plasma, no adverse reactions were attributable to the plasmapheresis treatment in this study. CONCLUSIONS Plasmapheresis may be an important adjuvant to conventional treatment to reduce mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Plasmapheresis is a safe procedure in the treatment of septic patients. A prospective randomised multicentre trial is warranted to confirm our results and to determine which subgroups of septic patients will benefit most from this treatment modality.