The effect of exchange transfusion on mortality in neonatal sepsis: a meta-analysis
European journal of pediatrics. 2021
Although antimicrobials are the cornerstone of neonatal sepsis management, adjunctive therapies are required to improve outcomes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of exchange transfusion (ET) on mortality (primary outcome) in neonatal sepsis, as well as on immunoglobulin, complement and neutrophil levels and assess its complications (secondary outcomes). Databases searched include PubMed, NCBI, Google Scholar, CINHAL, Ovid and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled observational studies (COSs) and uncontrolled observational studies (UOSs) reporting mortality data from using ET in neonatal sepsis were included. Studies with additional interventions, non-septic ET indications and populations aged > 28 days were excluded. Data extracted include demographics, features of study, sepsis and ET, as well as mortality rates, immunological and laboratory changes and complications. Data was meta-analysed and displayed using forest plots. The meta-analysis of 14 studies (3 RCTs, 11 COSs) revealed a mortality benefit in septic neonates who underwent ET-RR 0.72 (CI 0.61-0.86, p = 0.01) and a significant increase in pooled immunological parameters (immunoglobulin, complement levels) (SMD 1.13, [0.25, 2.02], p = 0.02) and neutrophil levels (SMD 1.07 [0.04, 2.11], p = 0.03) compared to controls. The descriptive analysis of 9 UOSs revealed thrombocytopenia as the most frequently reported complication (n = 48). Moderate-high risk of bias was largely due to inadequate sample sizes and follow-up durations.Conclusion: Currently, the use of ET in neonatal sepsis is not directly recommended due to low certainty of evidence, inadequate power and moderate-high risk of bias and heterogeneity.Trial registration: PROSPERO (CRD42020176629) ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=176629 ) What is Known: • Exchange transfusion is one of the adjunctive methods for treatment of neonatal sepsis. What is New: • The pooled analysis of all studies shows that exchange transfusion has a low certainty of evidence in the context of neonatal mortality. However, at this point, this intervention cannot be refuted or recommended due to heterogeneity of studies and inadequate power.
Double volume exchange transfusion in severe neonatal sepsis
Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 2016;83((2)):107-13.
OBJECTIVES To study the efficacy and safety of double volume exchange transfusion (DVET) in neonates>1000 g birth weight with severe sepsis. METHODS Eighty-three neonates weighing >1000 g with severe sepsis were randomly assigned to DVET or standard therapy (ST) group. Primary outcome was mortality by 14 d from enrollment. RESULTS A 21 % reduction in mortality, albeit non-significant, by 14 d from enrollment was observed in DVET group in comparison to ST group [RR: 0.79 (95 % C.I 0.45-1.3); p 0.4]. A similar trend in mortality reduction was observed with early mortality and mortality by discharge in DVET group. No difference was observed in normalization of dysfunctional organs by 14 d. Cardiovascular and hematological system benefitted the most, followed by renal dysfunction with DVET. A significant improvement in post DVET IgG, IgA, IgM, C3 and base deficit was observed. No serious adverse effects occurred following DVET. CONCLUSIONS In neonates >1000 g with severe sepsis, DVET was associated with a trend towards decrease in mortality by 14 d from enrollment. A significant improvement in immunoglobulin and complement C3 levels and acid base status were observed following DVET. DVET is a safe procedure in severely sick and septic neonates.
Exchange transfusion in septic neonates with sclerema: effect on immunoglobulin and complement levels
Indian Pediatrics. 1997;34((1):):20-5.
OBJECTIVE To study the effect of exchange transfusion (ET) on the levels of immunoglobulins (Ig) and C3 in neonatal sepsis with sclerema. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial in a referral neonatal unit of a teaching hospital. SUBJECTS Consecutive culture positive septic neonates with sclerema were enrolled and were randomized to undergo ET (study group, n = 20) or no ET (controls, n = 20). RESULTS Mortality was 50% in the study group and 95% in controls. Gram negative organisms accounted for 85% in study group and 90% in controls. IgG, IgA and IgM levels rose significantly while C3 levels did not show significant rise 12-24 hours after ET. Ig and C3 levels did not change significantly in the controls. CONCLUSION ET with fresh whole blood in septicemic newborns with sclerema improves survival, particularly in the more premature group and significantly enhances, IgG, IgA and IgM levels.
Exchange transfusion in neutropenic septicemic neonates: effect on granulocyte functions
Acta Paediatrica. 1993;82((11):):939-43.
Depletion neutropenia caused by overwhelming bacterial infection is associated with fatal outcome and is an objective indicator of the severity of sepsis. Studies on controlled evaluation of exchange transfusion in the management of severe neonatal sepsis have not considered neutropenia as an inclusion criterion, and randomized, controlled trials on evaluation of neutrophil functions after exchange transfusion are scarce. This prompted us to carry out the present study. Septicemic neonates were enrolled if they had neutropenia and were randomized to undergo exchange transfusion (study group, n = 20) or not (controls, n = 10). Granulocyte functions were assessed using the nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test and the staphylococcidal index. Blood was drawn for granulocyte function tests once from controls and donors, and before, immediately after and 6 h after exchange transfusion in the study group. Mortality was 35% in the study group and 70% in controls. Gram-negative organisms accounted for 80% in the study group and 90% in controls. Mean total leukocyte count and neutrophil count increased significantly immediately after exchange transfusion and 6 h later. Absolute band count decreased significantly immediately after exchange transfusion and increased 6 h later. NBT reduction in septicemic neonates in the study group, as well as in controls, was significantly decreased as compared to donor cells. NBT reduction improved significantly immediately after exchange transfusion and 6 h later. The values of the percentage of viable staphylococci recovered from neutrophils also improved significantly immediately after exchange transfusion and 6 h later.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)