Clinical effect of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(1):95-99
OBJECTIVES To explore the clinical value of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS Seventy-eight patients with cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in the Taian City Central Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University between June 2018 and December 2019 were selected. The patients were randomly numbered and divided into two groups by drawing lots, 39 in each group. The control group was treated with the traditional internal medicine conservative therapy, and the observation group was treated with minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage. The indexes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS The efficacy rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of the observation group was lower than that of the control group after treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the good recovery rate of the observation group was higher compared to the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION In the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage, minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage facilitates the recovery of patients, promotes the improvement of neurological function, and has a high safety profile and an ideal prognostic quality.
A New Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients After Intravenous Thrombolysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:774654
BACKGROUND We aimed to develop and validate a new nomogram for predicting the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). METHODS A retrospective study enrolled 553 patients with AIS treated with IVT. The patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the training set (70%, n = 387) and the testing set (30%, n = 166). The factors in the predictive nomogram were filtered using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the nomogram was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS After multivariable logistic regression analysis, certain factors, such as smoking, National Institutes of Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), were found to be independent predictors of ICH and were used to construct a nomogram. The AUC-ROC values of the nomogram were 0.887 (95% CI: 0.842-0.933) and 0.776 (95% CI: 0.681-0.872) in the training and testing sets, respectively. The AUC-ROC of the nomogram was higher than that of the Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS), Glucose, Race, Age, Sex, Systolic blood Pressure, and Severity of stroke (GRASPS), and stroke prognostication using age and NIH Stroke Scale-100 positive index (SPAN-100) scores for predicting ICH in both the training and testing sets (p < 0.05). The calibration plot demonstrated good agreement in both the training and testing sets. DCA indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS The new nomogram, which included smoking, NIHSS, BUN/Cr, and NLR as variables, had the potential for predicting the risk of ICH in patients with AIS after IVT.
The Efficacy of Mannitol Combined with 6-Aminocaproic Acid in the Treatment of Patients with Cerebral Hemorrhage and Its Impact on Immune Function
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2022;2022:7396310
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of Mannitol combined with 6-aminocaproic acid in the treatment of patients with cerebral hemorrhage, as well as its impact on the immune system. METHODS The study subjects consisted of 122 patients with early intracerebral hemorrhage treated in our hospital from April 2019 to April 2022. Based on the different admission times, the participants were randomly divided into the control group and the study group in a ratio of 1:1. 6-Aminocaproic acid was used to treat patients in the control group, while Mannitol along with 6-aminocaproic acid was used to treat patients in the study group. Short form-36 health survey (SF-36) scores, hematoma volume changes, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, clinical efficacy, and changes in the immune function in patients from the two groups were analyzed and compared. RESULTS The total efficacy of treatment in the study group was significantly higher than that in the control group (x (2) = 9,375, P < 0.001). Patients in the study group had significantly higher scores in social function, mental health, physical function, and physiological function compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05). After treatment, there was a significant reduction in NIHSS scores in patients from both groups, but a greater reduction was seen in patients from the study group (P < 0.05). After 2 weeks of treatment, the volume of cerebral edema was significantly smaller in patients from the study group than in those from the control group (P < 0.05). Before treatment, there was no significant difference in the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes between patients in the two groups. However, after treatment, patients in the study group had higher numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes and lower numbers of CD8+ T lymphocytes compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The combination of Mannitol and 6-aminocaproic acid appears to be very efficacious in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. It improves immune function, reduces neurological damage, and minimizes the volume of cerebral edema.
Observation on the clinical efficacy of external ventricular drain combined with intraventricular urokinase injection and intravenous piracetam in the treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(5):1292-1297
OBJECTIVE To observe the clinical efficacy of external ventricular drain combined with intraventricular urokinase injection and intravenous piracetam in the treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage. METHODS A randomized controlled trial was used in this study conducted at Baoding First Central Hospital, China from January 2017 to December 2019. Sixty patients with intraventricular hemorrhage were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the control group were treated with external ventricular drain, while patients in the experimental group were given intraventricular urokinase injection and intravenous piracetam on the basis of the control group. The incidence of adverse drug reactions, hospitalization time, hematoma elimination time, and drainage tube removal time in two groups were compared and analyzed including the cerebrospinal fluid protein content, changes in GCS score, neurological function recovery (ADL score), and Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) of the two groups after treatment. RESULTS The hematoma elimination time, drainage tube removal time and hospitalization time of the experimental group were shorter than those of the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). After treatment, compared with the control group, the protein content of cerebrospinal fluid in the experimental group decreased more significantly (P=0.00), the GCS score was higher (P=0.00), the overall good rate of neurological function was higher (P=0.04), while the rate of good prognosis was higher (P=0.03). Within one month of treatment, the incidence of surgical complications in experimental group was significantly lower than that in control group (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS External ventricular drain combined with intraventricular urokinase injection and intravenous piracetam is an effective method for the treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage, which is worthy of clinical promotion.
Intraventricular Hemorrhage Expansion in the CLEAR III Trial: A Post Hoc Exploratory Analysis
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) expansion and its association with long-term outcomes. METHODS We performed a post hoc analysis of the international, multi-center CLEAR III trial (Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage) which enrolled IVH patients between September 1, 2009, and January 31, 2015. The exposure was IVH expansion, defined as >1 mL increase in volume between baseline and stability computed tomography scans, before treatment randomization. We assessed factors associated with IVH expansion and secondarily assessed the relationship of IVH expansion with clinical outcomes: composite of death or major disability (modified Rankin Scale score, >3), and mortality alone at 6 months. The relationship of IVH expansion on ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement was additionally explored. Multivariable logistic regression was used for all analyses. RESULTS Of 500 IVH patients analyzed, the mean age was 59 (±11) years old, 44% were female and 135 (27%) had IVH expansion. In multivariable regression models, factors associated with IVH expansion were baseline parenchymal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.04 per 1 mL increase [95% CI, 1.01-1.08]), presence of parenchymal hematoma expansion: >33% (adjusted OR, 6.63 [95% CI, 3.92-11.24]), time to stability head CT (adjusted OR, 0.71 per 1 hour increase [95% CI, 0.54-0.94]), and thalamic hematoma location (adjusted OR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.01-2.79]) while additionally adjusting for age, sex, and race. In secondary analyses, IVH expansion was associated with higher odds of poor 6-month outcomes (adjusted OR, 1.84 [95% CI, 1.12-3.02]) but not mortality (OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 0.78-2.50]) after adjusting for baseline ICH volume, thalamic ICH location, age, anticoagulant use, Glasgow Coma Scale score, any withdrawal of care order, and treatment randomization arm. However, there were no relationships of IVH expansion on subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (adjusted OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.58-1.80]) after adjusting for similar covariates. CONCLUSIONS In a clinical trial cohort of patients with large IVH, acute hematoma characteristics, specifically larger parenchymal volume, hematoma expansion, and thalamic ICH location were associated with IVH expansion. Given that IVH expansion resulted in poor functional outcomes, exploration of treatment approaches to optimize hemostasis and prevent IVH expansion, particularly in patients with thalamic ICH, require further study. REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00784134.
Effect of Tranexamic Acid Administration on Remote Cerebral Ischemic Lesions in Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Substudy of a Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA neurology. 2022
IMPORTANCE Hyperintense foci on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) that are spatially remote from the acute hematoma occur in 20% of people with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Tranexamic acid, a hemostatic agent that is under investigation for treating acute ICH, might increase DWI hyperintense lesions (DWIHLs). OBJECTIVE To establish whether tranexamic acid compared with placebo increased the prevalence or number of remote cerebral DWIHLs within 2 weeks of ICH onset. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective nested magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) recruited participants from the multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 RCT (Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage [TICH-2]) from July 1, 2015, to September 30, 2017, and conducted follow-up to 90 days after participants were randomized to either the tranexamic acid or placebo group. Participants had acute spontaneous ICH and included TICH-2 participants who provided consent to undergo additional MRI scans for the MRI substudy and those who had clinical MRI data that were compatible with the brain MRI protocol of the substudy. Data analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis on January 20, 2020. INTERVENTIONS The tranexamic acid group received 1 g in 100-mL intravenous bolus loading dose, followed by 1 g in 250-mL infusion within 8 hours of ICH onset. The placebo group received 0.9% saline within 8 hours of ICH onset. Brain MRI scans, including DWI, were performed within 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence and number of remote DWIHLs were compared between the treatment groups using binary logistic regression adjusted for baseline covariates. RESULTS A total of 219 participants (mean [SD] age, 65.1 [13.8] years; 126 men [57.5%]) who had brain MRI data were included. Of these participants, 96 (43.8%) were randomized to receive tranexamic acid and 123 (56.2%) were randomized to receive placebo. No baseline differences in demographic characteristics and clinical or imaging features were found between the groups. There was no increase for the tranexamic acid group compared with the placebo group in DWIHL prevalence (20 of 96 [20.8%] vs 28 of 123 [22.8%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.33-1.53; P = .39) or mean (SD) number of DWIHLs (1.75 [1.45] vs 1.81 [1.71]; mean difference [MD], -0.08; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.20; P = .59). In an exploratory analysis, participants who were randomized within 3 hours of ICH onset or those with chronic infarcts appeared less likely to have DWIHLs if they received tranexamic acid. Participants with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy appeared more likely to have DWIHLs if they received tranexamic acid. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This substudy of an RCT found no evidence of increased prevalence or number of remote DWIHLs after tranexamic acid treatment in acute ICH. These findings provide reassurance for ongoing and future trials that tranexamic acid for acute ICH is unlikely to induce cerebral ischemic events. TRIAL REGISTRATION isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
The Prognostic Roles of Perihematomal Edema and Ventricular Size in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Neurocritical care. 2022
BACKGROUND Conflicting data exist regarding the association of perihematomal edema (PHE) with outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We performed a post hoc analysis of the ICH Deferoxamine trial to examine whether an early change in ventricular size (VS), as a composite measure of PHE growth and mass effect, intraventricular hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus, is a more accurate predictor of outcome than PHE measures alone. METHODS Computerized tomography scans were performed at baseline and after 72-96 h. We evaluated measures of PHE and change in VS as predictors of outcome, assessed by a dichotomized modified Rankin Scale score (0-2 versus 3-6), primarily at 90 days and secondarily at 30 days. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted for each predictor, with adjustment for the same confounders. RESULTS A total of 248 participants were included after we excluded those requiring external ventricular drains. On univariate analyses, older age, female sex, lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and baseline temperature, greater ICH volume, absolute PHE volume, edema extension distance at presentation, lesser changes in relative PHE volume and edema extension distance, and an increase in VS were associated with poor outcome. In multivariable analyses, only the increase in VS was associated with lower odds of modified Rankin Scale scores 0-2 at 90 days (odds ratio 0.927, 95% confidence interval 0.866-0.970, p = 0.001) and 30 days (odds ratio 0.931, 95% confidence interval 0.888-0.975, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS Within the context of a randomized controlled trial with standardized imaging and functional assessments, we did not find significant associations between measures of PHE and outcome but documented an independent association between early increase in VS and lower odds of good clinical outcome.
Early Deterioration, Hematoma Expansion, and Outcomes in Deep Versus Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The FAST Trial
BACKGROUND In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), it is unclear whether early neurological deterioration, hematoma expansion (HE), and outcome vary by supratentorial ICH location (deep versus lobar). Herein, we assessed these relationships in a clinical trial cohort that underwent brain imaging early after symptom onset. We hypothesized that HE would occur more frequently, and outcome would be worse in patients with deep ICH. METHODS We performed a post hoc analysis of the FAST (Factor-VII-for-Acute-Hemorrhagic-Stroke-Treatment) trial including all patients with supratentorial hemorrhage. Enrolled patients underwent brain imaging within 3 hours of symptom onset and 24 hours after randomization. Multivariable regression was used to test the association between ICH location and 3 outcomes: HE (increase of ≥33% or 6mL), early neurological deterioration (decrease in Glasgow Coma Scale score ≥2 points or increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥4 points within 24 hours of admission), and 90-day outcome (modified Rankin Scale). RESULTS Of 841 FAST trial patients, we included 728 (mean age 64 years, 38% women) with supratentorial hemorrhages (deep n=623, lobar n=105). HE (44 versus 27%, P=0.001) and early neurological deterioration (31 versus 17%, P=0.001) were more common in lobar hemorrhages. Deep hemorrhages were smaller than lobar hemorrhages at baseline (12 versus 35mL, P<0.001) and 24 hours (14 versus 38mL, P<0.001). Unadjusted 90-day outcome was worse in lobar compared with deep ICH (median modified Rankin Scale score 5 versus 4, P=0.03). However, when adjusting for variables included in the ICH score including ICH volume, deep location was associated with worse and lobar location with better outcome (odds ratio lobar location, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.38-0.89]; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this secondary analysis of randomized trial patients, lobar ICH location was associated with larger ICH volume, more HE and early neurological deterioration, and worse outcome than deep ICH. After adjustment for prognostic variables, however, deep ICH was associated with worse outcome, likely due to their proximity to eloquent brain structures.
Effects of mild hypothermia therapy combined with minimally invasive debridement in patients with hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage: a randomized controlled study
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(7):7997-8003
OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical effect of mild hypothermia therapy (MHT) combined with minimally invasive debridement (MID) in patients with severe hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage (HICH). METHODS A total of 120 patients with severe HICH who received clinical intervention in our hospital were enrolled as study subjects. In this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, they were divided into a study group (SG, n=70) and a control group (CNG, n=50). The CNG was treated with MID, and the SG was treated with MID combined with MHT. The general surgical indices, short-term postoperative outcomes, postoperative neurological and recovery in activities of daily living, and complications were compared between the two groups. Patients' Glasgow prognosis (Glasgow Outcome Scale, GOS) scores at 1 year after surgery were analyzed. RESULTS The operative time, intraoperative blood loss and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were shorter/lower in the SG than in the CNG (P<0.05). The SG had higher hematoma clearance rate at 1 d and 3 d postoperatively, and lower residual hematoma volume at 3 d and 7 d postoperatively than the CNG (P<0.05). Patients in the SG had higher Barthel scores and lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores than the CNG at 1-12 months after intervention (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the SG was lower than that in the CNG (P<0.05). The percentage of GOS grade IV and V was significantly higher in the SG than in the CNG 1 year after surgery (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The combination of MID and MHT in patients with severe HICH has better clinical results in the short and long term, and improves the postoperative outcomes and quality of life. It can also reduce the incidence of perioperative complications.
EXPRESS: Safety and Efficacy of Remote Ischemic Conditioning for the Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Trial
International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society. 2021;:17474930211006580
Background Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) can promote hematoma resolution, attenuate brain edema, and improve neurological recovery in animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Aims This study aimed to evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of RIC in patients with ICH.Methods In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, 40 subjects with supratentorial ICH presenting within 24-48 hours of onset were randomly assigned to receive medical therapy plus RIC for consecutive 7 days or medical therapy alone. The primary safety outcome was neurological deterioration within 7 days of enrollment, and the primary efficacy outcome was the changes of hematoma volume on CT images. Other outcomes included hematoma resolution rate at 7 d ([hematoma volume at 7 d â hematoma volume at baseline]/hematoma volume at baseline), perihematomal edema (PHE), and functional outcome at 90 days. Results The mean age was 59.3Â±11.7 years and hematoma volume was 13.9Â±4.5 mL. No subjects experienced neurological deterioration within 7 days of enrollment, and no subject died or experienced RIC-associated adverse events during the study period. At baseline, the hematoma volumes were 14.19Â±5.07 mL in the control group and 13.55Â±3.99 mL in the RIC group, and they were 8.54Â±3.99 mL and 6.95Â±2.71 mL at 7 days after enrollment, respectively, not a significant difference (p>0.05 each). The hematoma resolution rate in the RIC group (49.25Â±9.17%) was significantly higher than in the control group (41.92Â±9.14%; MD, 7.3%; 95% CI, 1.51% to 13.16%; p=0.015). The absolute PHE volume was 17.27Â±8.34 mL in the control group and 12.92Â±7.30 mL in the RIC group at 7 days after enrollment, not a significant between-group difference (p=0.087), but the relative PHE in the RIC group (1.77Â±0.39) was significantly lower than in the control group (2.02Â±0.27; MD, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.39-0.47; p=0.023). At 90-day follow-up, 13 subjects (65%) in the RIC group and 12 subjects (60%) in the control group achieved favorable functional outcomes (mRS scoreâ¤3), not a significant between-group difference (p=0.744).Conclusions Repeated daily RIC for consecutive 7 days was safe and well-tolerated in patients with ICH, and it may be able to improve hematoma resolution rate and reduce relative PHE. However, effects RIC on the absolute hematoma and PHE volume and functional outcomes in this patient population need further investigations.Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03930940.