A New Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients After Intravenous Thrombolysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:774654
BACKGROUND We aimed to develop and validate a new nomogram for predicting the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). METHODS A retrospective study enrolled 553 patients with AIS treated with IVT. The patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the training set (70%, n = 387) and the testing set (30%, n = 166). The factors in the predictive nomogram were filtered using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the nomogram was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS After multivariable logistic regression analysis, certain factors, such as smoking, National Institutes of Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), were found to be independent predictors of ICH and were used to construct a nomogram. The AUC-ROC values of the nomogram were 0.887 (95% CI: 0.842-0.933) and 0.776 (95% CI: 0.681-0.872) in the training and testing sets, respectively. The AUC-ROC of the nomogram was higher than that of the Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS), Glucose, Race, Age, Sex, Systolic blood Pressure, and Severity of stroke (GRASPS), and stroke prognostication using age and NIH Stroke Scale-100 positive index (SPAN-100) scores for predicting ICH in both the training and testing sets (p < 0.05). The calibration plot demonstrated good agreement in both the training and testing sets. DCA indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS The new nomogram, which included smoking, NIHSS, BUN/Cr, and NLR as variables, had the potential for predicting the risk of ICH in patients with AIS after IVT.
Effect of Tranexamic Acid Administration on Remote Cerebral Ischemic Lesions in Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Substudy of a Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA neurology. 2022
IMPORTANCE Hyperintense foci on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) that are spatially remote from the acute hematoma occur in 20% of people with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Tranexamic acid, a hemostatic agent that is under investigation for treating acute ICH, might increase DWI hyperintense lesions (DWIHLs). OBJECTIVE To establish whether tranexamic acid compared with placebo increased the prevalence or number of remote cerebral DWIHLs within 2 weeks of ICH onset. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective nested magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) recruited participants from the multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 RCT (Tranexamic Acid for Hyperacute Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage [TICH-2]) from July 1, 2015, to September 30, 2017, and conducted follow-up to 90 days after participants were randomized to either the tranexamic acid or placebo group. Participants had acute spontaneous ICH and included TICH-2 participants who provided consent to undergo additional MRI scans for the MRI substudy and those who had clinical MRI data that were compatible with the brain MRI protocol of the substudy. Data analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis on January 20, 2020. INTERVENTIONS The tranexamic acid group received 1 g in 100-mL intravenous bolus loading dose, followed by 1 g in 250-mL infusion within 8 hours of ICH onset. The placebo group received 0.9% saline within 8 hours of ICH onset. Brain MRI scans, including DWI, were performed within 2 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence and number of remote DWIHLs were compared between the treatment groups using binary logistic regression adjusted for baseline covariates. RESULTS A total of 219 participants (mean [SD] age, 65.1 [13.8] years; 126 men [57.5%]) who had brain MRI data were included. Of these participants, 96 (43.8%) were randomized to receive tranexamic acid and 123 (56.2%) were randomized to receive placebo. No baseline differences in demographic characteristics and clinical or imaging features were found between the groups. There was no increase for the tranexamic acid group compared with the placebo group in DWIHL prevalence (20 of 96 [20.8%] vs 28 of 123 [22.8%]; odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.33-1.53; P = .39) or mean (SD) number of DWIHLs (1.75 [1.45] vs 1.81 [1.71]; mean difference [MD], -0.08; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.20; P = .59). In an exploratory analysis, participants who were randomized within 3 hours of ICH onset or those with chronic infarcts appeared less likely to have DWIHLs if they received tranexamic acid. Participants with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy appeared more likely to have DWIHLs if they received tranexamic acid. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This substudy of an RCT found no evidence of increased prevalence or number of remote DWIHLs after tranexamic acid treatment in acute ICH. These findings provide reassurance for ongoing and future trials that tranexamic acid for acute ICH is unlikely to induce cerebral ischemic events. TRIAL REGISTRATION isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN93732214.
The effect of cryoprecipitate on prevention of intra cerebral hemorrhage and brain contusion expansion in traumatic patients
Journal of injury & violence research. 2022;14(3)
BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a general and socioeconomic complication and is one of the important causes of mortality and disability among young people in the world. Falling and violence and sports injuries are the other cause. It causes for about ten million new patients, accounting for 9% of all deaths. This interventional study aims to investigate the effects of early administration of cryoprecipitate to prevent expansion of intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS This randomized clinical trial recruited 54 non-pregnant patients. 27 patients in the control group and 27patients in the interventional group. For all patients, common and accepted procedures in scientific centers, including anticonvulsant drugs, normal saline and the other routine management was done and only for patients in the intervention group, 4 units of cryoprecipitate were added to their routine treatments; computed tomography scan (CT) scan was performed 48 hours later in both groups and finally the contusion size was compared in both groups. RESULTS It was observed in the intervention group that by adding 4 units of cryoprecipitate to their treatments; they had no increased size of the brain parenchymal contusion according to the criteria defined in the study compared to the control group (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.0102_0.6303). CONCLUSIONS According to a clinical trial, it seems that cryoprecipitate can prevent of cerebral parenchymal hemorrhage expansion in traumatic patients.
The Prognostic Roles of Perihematomal Edema and Ventricular Size in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Neurocritical care. 2022
BACKGROUND Conflicting data exist regarding the association of perihematomal edema (PHE) with outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We performed a post hoc analysis of the ICH Deferoxamine trial to examine whether an early change in ventricular size (VS), as a composite measure of PHE growth and mass effect, intraventricular hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus, is a more accurate predictor of outcome than PHE measures alone. METHODS Computerized tomography scans were performed at baseline and after 72-96 h. We evaluated measures of PHE and change in VS as predictors of outcome, assessed by a dichotomized modified Rankin Scale score (0-2 versus 3-6), primarily at 90 days and secondarily at 30 days. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted for each predictor, with adjustment for the same confounders. RESULTS A total of 248 participants were included after we excluded those requiring external ventricular drains. On univariate analyses, older age, female sex, lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and baseline temperature, greater ICH volume, absolute PHE volume, edema extension distance at presentation, lesser changes in relative PHE volume and edema extension distance, and an increase in VS were associated with poor outcome. In multivariable analyses, only the increase in VS was associated with lower odds of modified Rankin Scale scores 0-2 at 90 days (odds ratio 0.927, 95% confidence interval 0.866-0.970, p = 0.001) and 30 days (odds ratio 0.931, 95% confidence interval 0.888-0.975, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS Within the context of a randomized controlled trial with standardized imaging and functional assessments, we did not find significant associations between measures of PHE and outcome but documented an independent association between early increase in VS and lower odds of good clinical outcome.
Intraventricular Hemorrhage Expansion in the CLEAR III Trial: A Post Hoc Exploratory Analysis
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) expansion and its association with long-term outcomes. METHODS We performed a post hoc analysis of the international, multi-center CLEAR III trial (Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage) which enrolled IVH patients between September 1, 2009, and January 31, 2015. The exposure was IVH expansion, defined as >1 mL increase in volume between baseline and stability computed tomography scans, before treatment randomization. We assessed factors associated with IVH expansion and secondarily assessed the relationship of IVH expansion with clinical outcomes: composite of death or major disability (modified Rankin Scale score, >3), and mortality alone at 6 months. The relationship of IVH expansion on ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement was additionally explored. Multivariable logistic regression was used for all analyses. RESULTS Of 500 IVH patients analyzed, the mean age was 59 (±11) years old, 44% were female and 135 (27%) had IVH expansion. In multivariable regression models, factors associated with IVH expansion were baseline parenchymal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.04 per 1 mL increase [95% CI, 1.01-1.08]), presence of parenchymal hematoma expansion: >33% (adjusted OR, 6.63 [95% CI, 3.92-11.24]), time to stability head CT (adjusted OR, 0.71 per 1 hour increase [95% CI, 0.54-0.94]), and thalamic hematoma location (adjusted OR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.01-2.79]) while additionally adjusting for age, sex, and race. In secondary analyses, IVH expansion was associated with higher odds of poor 6-month outcomes (adjusted OR, 1.84 [95% CI, 1.12-3.02]) but not mortality (OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 0.78-2.50]) after adjusting for baseline ICH volume, thalamic ICH location, age, anticoagulant use, Glasgow Coma Scale score, any withdrawal of care order, and treatment randomization arm. However, there were no relationships of IVH expansion on subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (adjusted OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.58-1.80]) after adjusting for similar covariates. CONCLUSIONS In a clinical trial cohort of patients with large IVH, acute hematoma characteristics, specifically larger parenchymal volume, hematoma expansion, and thalamic ICH location were associated with IVH expansion. Given that IVH expansion resulted in poor functional outcomes, exploration of treatment approaches to optimize hemostasis and prevent IVH expansion, particularly in patients with thalamic ICH, require further study. REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00784134.
Clinical effect of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(1):95-99
OBJECTIVES To explore the clinical value of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS Seventy-eight patients with cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in the Taian City Central Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University between June 2018 and December 2019 were selected. The patients were randomly numbered and divided into two groups by drawing lots, 39 in each group. The control group was treated with the traditional internal medicine conservative therapy, and the observation group was treated with minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage. The indexes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS The efficacy rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of the observation group was lower than that of the control group after treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the good recovery rate of the observation group was higher compared to the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION In the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage, minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage facilitates the recovery of patients, promotes the improvement of neurological function, and has a high safety profile and an ideal prognostic quality.
Early Deterioration, Hematoma Expansion, and Outcomes in Deep Versus Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The FAST Trial
BACKGROUND In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), it is unclear whether early neurological deterioration, hematoma expansion (HE), and outcome vary by supratentorial ICH location (deep versus lobar). Herein, we assessed these relationships in a clinical trial cohort that underwent brain imaging early after symptom onset. We hypothesized that HE would occur more frequently, and outcome would be worse in patients with deep ICH. METHODS We performed a post hoc analysis of the FAST (Factor-VII-for-Acute-Hemorrhagic-Stroke-Treatment) trial including all patients with supratentorial hemorrhage. Enrolled patients underwent brain imaging within 3 hours of symptom onset and 24 hours after randomization. Multivariable regression was used to test the association between ICH location and 3 outcomes: HE (increase of ≥33% or 6mL), early neurological deterioration (decrease in Glasgow Coma Scale score ≥2 points or increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥4 points within 24 hours of admission), and 90-day outcome (modified Rankin Scale). RESULTS Of 841 FAST trial patients, we included 728 (mean age 64 years, 38% women) with supratentorial hemorrhages (deep n=623, lobar n=105). HE (44 versus 27%, P=0.001) and early neurological deterioration (31 versus 17%, P=0.001) were more common in lobar hemorrhages. Deep hemorrhages were smaller than lobar hemorrhages at baseline (12 versus 35mL, P<0.001) and 24 hours (14 versus 38mL, P<0.001). Unadjusted 90-day outcome was worse in lobar compared with deep ICH (median modified Rankin Scale score 5 versus 4, P=0.03). However, when adjusting for variables included in the ICH score including ICH volume, deep location was associated with worse and lobar location with better outcome (odds ratio lobar location, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.38-0.89]; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this secondary analysis of randomized trial patients, lobar ICH location was associated with larger ICH volume, more HE and early neurological deterioration, and worse outcome than deep ICH. After adjustment for prognostic variables, however, deep ICH was associated with worse outcome, likely due to their proximity to eloquent brain structures.
Hypertension management in elderly with severe intracerebral hemorrhage
Annals of clinical and translational neurology. 2021
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of individualized blood pressure (BP)-lowering treatment on the outcomes of elderly patients with severe intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS We performed an exploratory analysis of Controlling Hypertension After Severe Cerebrovascular Event (CHASE) trial, which was a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients with severe ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (defined as GCS ≤ 12 or NIHSS ≥ 11) were randomized into individualized versus standard BP-lowering treatment in CHASE trial. In this exploratory analysis, patients with severe ICH were included. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients with 90-day functional independence defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤2. RESULTS We included 242 patients with severe ICH in the present analysis, consisting of 142 patients aged <65 years and 100 patients aged ≥65 years. There were significant differences between patients aged ≥65 years and <65 years in the proportion of functional independence (47.9% vs. 15.0%, P < 0.001) and good outcome (73.9% vs. 50.0%, P < 0.001) at day 90. In patients aged ≥65 years, the adjusted individualized BP-lowering treatment had an unequivocal effect on the functional independence at day 90 (21.6% vs. 8.2%, odds ratio [OR]: 4.309, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.040-17.859, P = 0.044) and improved the neurological deficits at discharge (∆ NIHSS ≥ 4: 64.7% vs. 34.7%, OR: 4.300, 95% CI: 1.599-11.563, P = 0.004). INTERPRETATION Compared with the younger counterparts, the elderly patients (≥65 years) with acute severe ICH might benefit more from individualized BP-lowering treatment.
Effects of mild hypothermia therapy combined with minimally invasive debridement in patients with hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage: a randomized controlled study
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(7):7997-8003
OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical effect of mild hypothermia therapy (MHT) combined with minimally invasive debridement (MID) in patients with severe hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage (HICH). METHODS A total of 120 patients with severe HICH who received clinical intervention in our hospital were enrolled as study subjects. In this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, they were divided into a study group (SG, n=70) and a control group (CNG, n=50). The CNG was treated with MID, and the SG was treated with MID combined with MHT. The general surgical indices, short-term postoperative outcomes, postoperative neurological and recovery in activities of daily living, and complications were compared between the two groups. Patients' Glasgow prognosis (Glasgow Outcome Scale, GOS) scores at 1 year after surgery were analyzed. RESULTS The operative time, intraoperative blood loss and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were shorter/lower in the SG than in the CNG (P<0.05). The SG had higher hematoma clearance rate at 1 d and 3 d postoperatively, and lower residual hematoma volume at 3 d and 7 d postoperatively than the CNG (P<0.05). Patients in the SG had higher Barthel scores and lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores than the CNG at 1-12 months after intervention (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the SG was lower than that in the CNG (P<0.05). The percentage of GOS grade IV and V was significantly higher in the SG than in the CNG 1 year after surgery (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The combination of MID and MHT in patients with severe HICH has better clinical results in the short and long term, and improves the postoperative outcomes and quality of life. It can also reduce the incidence of perioperative complications.
Intracranial Pressure and Cerebral Perfusion Pressure in Large Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage and Impact of Minimally Invasive Surgery
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:729831
Introduction: We investigated the effect of hematoma volume reduction with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in patients with large spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: Post-hoc analysis of the Minimally Invasive Surgery Plus Alteplase for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Evacuation (MISTIE III) study, a clinical trial with blinded outcome assessments. The primary outcome was the proportion of ICP readings ≥20 and 30 mmHg, and CPP readings <70 and 60 mm Hg. Secondary outcomes included major disability (modified Rankin scale >3) and mortality at 30 and 365 days. We assessed the relationship between proportion of high ICP and low CPP events and MIS using binomial generalized linear models, and outcomes using multiple logistic regression. Results: Of 499 patients enrolled in MISTIE III, 72 patients had guideline based ICP monitors placed, 34 in the MIS group and 38 in control (no surgery) group. Threshold ICP and CPP events ≥20/ <70 mmHg occurred in 31 (43.1%) and 52 (72.2%) patients respectively. On adjusted analyses, proportion of ICP readings ≥20 and 30 mmHg were significantly lower in the MIS group vs. control group [Odds Ratio (OR) 0.27, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.11-0.63 (p = 0.002); OR = 0.18, 0.04-0.75, p = 0.02], respectively. Proportion of CPP readings <70 and 60 mm Hg were also significantly lower in MIS patients [OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.63 (p = 0.001); OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.83 (p = 0.02)], respectively. Higher proportions of CPP readings <70 and 60 mm were significantly associated with short term mortality (p = 0.04), and (p = 0.006), respectively. Long term mortality was significantly associated with higher proportion of time with ICP ≥ 20 (p = 0.04), ICP ≥ 30 (p = 0.04), and CPP <70 mmHg (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that surgical reduction of ICH volume decreases proportion of high ICP and low CPP events and that these variables are associated with short- and long-term mortality.