A New Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients After Intravenous Thrombolysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:774654
BACKGROUND We aimed to develop and validate a new nomogram for predicting the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). METHODS A retrospective study enrolled 553 patients with AIS treated with IVT. The patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the training set (70%, n = 387) and the testing set (30%, n = 166). The factors in the predictive nomogram were filtered using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the nomogram was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS After multivariable logistic regression analysis, certain factors, such as smoking, National Institutes of Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), were found to be independent predictors of ICH and were used to construct a nomogram. The AUC-ROC values of the nomogram were 0.887 (95% CI: 0.842-0.933) and 0.776 (95% CI: 0.681-0.872) in the training and testing sets, respectively. The AUC-ROC of the nomogram was higher than that of the Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS), Glucose, Race, Age, Sex, Systolic blood Pressure, and Severity of stroke (GRASPS), and stroke prognostication using age and NIH Stroke Scale-100 positive index (SPAN-100) scores for predicting ICH in both the training and testing sets (p < 0.05). The calibration plot demonstrated good agreement in both the training and testing sets. DCA indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS The new nomogram, which included smoking, NIHSS, BUN/Cr, and NLR as variables, had the potential for predicting the risk of ICH in patients with AIS after IVT.
Clinical effect of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(1):95-99
OBJECTIVES To explore the clinical value of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS Seventy-eight patients with cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in the Taian City Central Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University between June 2018 and December 2019 were selected. The patients were randomly numbered and divided into two groups by drawing lots, 39 in each group. The control group was treated with the traditional internal medicine conservative therapy, and the observation group was treated with minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage. The indexes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS The efficacy rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of the observation group was lower than that of the control group after treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the good recovery rate of the observation group was higher compared to the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION In the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage, minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage facilitates the recovery of patients, promotes the improvement of neurological function, and has a high safety profile and an ideal prognostic quality.
Effects of early mobilization on short-term blood pressure variability in acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients: A protocol for randomized controlled non-inferiority trial
BACKGROUND Early out-of-bed mobilization may improve acute post-intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) outcomes, but hemodynamic instability may be a concern. Some recent studies have showed that an increase in mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and high blood pressure variability (BPV), high standard deviation of SBP, may lead to negative ICH outcomes. Therefore, we investigated the impact of an early mobilization (EM) protocol on mean SBP and BPV during the acute phase. METHODS The study was an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled non-inferiority study. The participants were in An Early Mobilization for Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage trial and were randomly assigned to undergo EM or a standard early rehabilitation (SER) protocol within 24 to 72 hour after ICH onset at the stroke center. The EM and SER groups each had 30 patients. 24-measurement SBP were recorded on days 2 and 3 after onset, and SBP were recorded three times daily and during rehabilitation on days 4 through 7. The two groups' mean SBP and BPV under three different time frames (days 2 and 3 during the acute phase, and days 4 through 7 during the late acute phase) were calculated and compared. RESULTS At baseline, the two groups' results were similar, with the exception being that the mean time to first out-of-bed mobilization after symptom onset was 51.60 hours (SD 14.15) and 135.02 hours (SD 33.05) for the EM group and SER group, respectively (P < .001). There were no significant differences in mean SBP and BPV during the acute and late acute phase between the two groups for the three analyses (days 2, 3, and 4 through 7) (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS It is safe to implement the EM protocol within 24 to 72 hour of onset for mild-moderate ICH patients during the acute phase.
Beneficial Effect of Sodium Nitrite on EEG Ischaemic Markers in Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage
Translational stroke research. 2021
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is associated with long-term disability, serious reduction in quality of life and significant mortality. Early brain injury (EBI) refers to the pathological changes in cerebral metabolism and blood flow that happen in the first few days after ictus and may lead on to delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI). A disruption of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway is hypothesised as a key mechanism underlying EBI. A decrease in the alpha-delta power ratio (ADR) of the electroencephalogram has been related to cerebral ischaemia. In an experimental medicine study, we tested the hypothesis that intravenous sodium nitrite, an NO donor, would lead to increases in ADR. We studied 33 patients with acute aneurysmal SAH in the EBI phase. Participants were randomised to either sodium nitrite or saline infusion for 1 h. EEG measurements were taken before the start of and during the infusion. Twenty-eight patients did not develop DCI and five patients developed DCI. In the patients who did not develop DCI, we found an increase in ADR during sodium nitrite versus saline infusion. In the five patients who developed DCI, we did not observe a consistent pattern of ADR changes. We suggest that ADR power changes in response to nitrite infusion reflect a NO-mediated reduction in cerebral ischaemia and increase in perfusion, adding further evidence to the role of the NO pathway in EBI after SAH. Our findings provide the basis for future clinical trials employing NO donors after SAH.
Clinical efficacy of comprehensive nursing in patients with cerebral hemorrhagic hemiplegia
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(5):5526-5532
OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical efficacy of comprehensive rehabilitation nursing (CRN) intervention in patients with cerebral hemorrhagic hemiplegia (CHH). METHODS A total of 102 patients with CHH admitted to our hospital were selected for the prospective study. The patients were randomly divided into the control group (n=51) and the observation group (n=51) according to the random number table method. Routine nursing was performed in the control group, while CRN was conducted in the observation group. Fugl-Meyer motor function assessment scale, activity of daily living scale (Barthel index), self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), complications and muscle strength improvement (Brunnstrom assessment) were compared between the two groups. RESULTS Compared with those before nursing, Fugl-Meyer score, Barthel index and SAS score in the two groups after nursing were significantly improved (P<0.01). Fugl-Meyer score and Barthel index of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group after nursing, while SAS score showed the opposite change (P<0.001). The incidence of complications in the control group was 49.02%, and that in the observation group was 29.41% (P<0.05). The rate of muscle strength improvement in the observation group was 80.39% after nursing, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (60.78%; P<0.05). CONCLUSION CRN intervention has a positive clinical efficacy in patients with CHH. It can enhance motor ability, improve the ability of daily life, amend psychological mood and reduce the incidence of complications.
Intracranial Pressure and Cerebral Perfusion Pressure in Large Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage and Impact of Minimally Invasive Surgery
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:729831
Introduction: We investigated the effect of hematoma volume reduction with minimally invasive surgery (MIS) on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in patients with large spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: Post-hoc analysis of the Minimally Invasive Surgery Plus Alteplase for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Evacuation (MISTIE III) study, a clinical trial with blinded outcome assessments. The primary outcome was the proportion of ICP readings ≥20 and 30 mmHg, and CPP readings <70 and 60 mm Hg. Secondary outcomes included major disability (modified Rankin scale >3) and mortality at 30 and 365 days. We assessed the relationship between proportion of high ICP and low CPP events and MIS using binomial generalized linear models, and outcomes using multiple logistic regression. Results: Of 499 patients enrolled in MISTIE III, 72 patients had guideline based ICP monitors placed, 34 in the MIS group and 38 in control (no surgery) group. Threshold ICP and CPP events ≥20/ <70 mmHg occurred in 31 (43.1%) and 52 (72.2%) patients respectively. On adjusted analyses, proportion of ICP readings ≥20 and 30 mmHg were significantly lower in the MIS group vs. control group [Odds Ratio (OR) 0.27, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.11-0.63 (p = 0.002); OR = 0.18, 0.04-0.75, p = 0.02], respectively. Proportion of CPP readings <70 and 60 mm Hg were also significantly lower in MIS patients [OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.63 (p = 0.001); OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.83 (p = 0.02)], respectively. Higher proportions of CPP readings <70 and 60 mm were significantly associated with short term mortality (p = 0.04), and (p = 0.006), respectively. Long term mortality was significantly associated with higher proportion of time with ICP ≥ 20 (p = 0.04), ICP ≥ 30 (p = 0.04), and CPP <70 mmHg (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that surgical reduction of ICH volume decreases proportion of high ICP and low CPP events and that these variables are associated with short- and long-term mortality.
Effects of mild hypothermia therapy combined with minimally invasive debridement in patients with hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage: a randomized controlled study
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(7):7997-8003
OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical effect of mild hypothermia therapy (MHT) combined with minimally invasive debridement (MID) in patients with severe hypertensive intracranial hemorrhage (HICH). METHODS A total of 120 patients with severe HICH who received clinical intervention in our hospital were enrolled as study subjects. In this randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, they were divided into a study group (SG, n=70) and a control group (CNG, n=50). The CNG was treated with MID, and the SG was treated with MID combined with MHT. The general surgical indices, short-term postoperative outcomes, postoperative neurological and recovery in activities of daily living, and complications were compared between the two groups. Patients' Glasgow prognosis (Glasgow Outcome Scale, GOS) scores at 1 year after surgery were analyzed. RESULTS The operative time, intraoperative blood loss and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were shorter/lower in the SG than in the CNG (P<0.05). The SG had higher hematoma clearance rate at 1 d and 3 d postoperatively, and lower residual hematoma volume at 3 d and 7 d postoperatively than the CNG (P<0.05). Patients in the SG had higher Barthel scores and lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores than the CNG at 1-12 months after intervention (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the SG was lower than that in the CNG (P<0.05). The percentage of GOS grade IV and V was significantly higher in the SG than in the CNG 1 year after surgery (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The combination of MID and MHT in patients with severe HICH has better clinical results in the short and long term, and improves the postoperative outcomes and quality of life. It can also reduce the incidence of perioperative complications.
The effect of butylphthalide injection on the cognitive function and the TLRs/NF-κB pathway in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(8):9578-9585
OBJECTIVE This study explored and analyzed the effects of butylphthalide injection on the cognitive function and on the TLRs/NF-κB pathway in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage patients. METHODS A total of 115 patients admitted to our hospital with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages were recruited as the study cohort and randomly placed in the observation group (n=60) or the control group (n=55). In addition to the routine treatment administered in both groups, the control group was additionally administered oral nimodipine tablets, and the observation group was administered intravenous butylphthalide injections. Both groups were treated continuously for 14 days. Subsequently, the changes in the clinical efficacy, the NIHSS scores, the extremity motor function, the Fugl-Meyer scores, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the TLR2, TLR9, and the NF-κB mRNA levels in the two groups before and after the treatment were compared, and any adverse reactions were observed. RESULTS The total effective rate in the observation group was significantly superior to the total effective rate in the control group (P<0.05). The post-treatment NIHSS scores in the two groups were dramatically lower (P<0.05), and the post-treatment scores in the observation group were significantly lower than they were in the control group (P<0.05). The post-treatment cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) albumin and BBB indexes in the two groups were decreased significantly compared to their pre-treatment levels (P<0.05), and the post-treatment indexes in the observation group were significantly lower than the post-treatment indexes in the control group (P<0.05). The post-treatment relative TLR2, TLR9, and NF-κB mRNA expressions in the two groups were apparently lower than their in pre-treatment levels (P<0.05), and the relative expressions in the observation group after the treatment were clearly lower than they were in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Butylphthalide injection has a high clinical efficacy in treating hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages. The drug can effectively improve patients' cognitive functions, extremity motor functions, and BBB indexes, and its mechanism may connect with the expressive suppression of the TLRs/NF-κB signaling pathway. The treatment is safe and effective, so it is worthy of clinical promotion.
Targeting Pro-Oxidant Iron with Deferoxamine as a Treatment for Ischemic Stroke: Safety and Optimal Dose Selection in a Randomized Clinical Trial
Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland). 2021;10(8)
A role of iron as a target to prevent stroke-induced neurodegeneration has been recently revisited due to new evidence showing that ferroptosis inhibitors are protective in experimental ischemic stroke and might be therapeutic in other neurodegenerative brain pathologies. Ferroptosis is a new form of programmed cell death attributed to an overwhelming lipidic peroxidation due to excessive free iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study aims to evaluate the safety and tolerability and to explore the therapeutic efficacy of the iron chelator and antioxidant deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) in ischemic stroke patients. Administration of placebo or a single DFO bolus followed by a 72 h continuous infusion of three escalating doses was initiated during the tPA infusion, and the impact on blood transferrin iron was determined. Primary endpoint was safety and tolerability, and secondary endpoint was good clinical outcome (clinicalTrials.gov NCT00777140). DFO was found safe as adverse effects were not different between placebo and DFO arms. DFO (40-60 mg/Kg/day) reduced the iron saturation of blood transferrin. A trend to efficacy was observed in patients with moderate-severe ischemic stroke (NIHSS > 7) treated with DFO 40-60 mg/Kg/day. A good outcome was observed at day 90 in 31% of placebo vs. 50-58% of the 40-60 mg/Kg/day DFO-treated patients.
Effect of different operation time on surgical effect and quality of life in patients with severe hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(8):9538-9545
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of different operation time on the surgery effect and quality of life of patients with severe hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS A total of 98 patients with severe hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage were selected in this prospective study. According to the random number table, 98 patients were divided into group A and group B. About 47 patients in group A received surgical treatment within 6 hours after onset of a cerebral hemorrhage and 51 patients in group B received surgical treatment within 6-24 hours after onset of a cerebral hemorrhage. The effect of the operation, quality of life (the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version, WHOQOL-BREF) score, neuro function (National Institute of Health stroke scale, NIHSS), the ability of daily living (Barthel index), athletic ability (Fugl-Meyer motor function score), complications and prognosis (GOS) were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The total effective rate of operation in group A (91.49%) was higher than that in group B (76.47%), and the incidence of complications (8.70%) was lower than that in group B (27.08%; all P<0.05). NIHSS score of group A was lower than that of group B, and the WHOQOL-BREF score was higher than that of group B three months after the operation (all P<0.05). Barthel Index and Fugl-Meyer motor function scores of group A were higher than those of group B three months after the operation (all P<0.05). The prognosis of group A was better than group B three months after the operation (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Operation performed within 6 hours after the onset of cerebral hemorrhage is useful in the treatment of severe hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. It can effectively improve patients' neurological function, the ability of daily living and motor function without increasing complications and, the quality of life, as well as the prognosis of patients.