Tranexamic Acid in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis
The International journal of neuroscience. 2021;:1-12
Background ：Tranexamic acid（TA） is an antifibrinolytic agent, which has shown an effect on reducing blood loss in many diseases. Tranexamic acid might be beneficial for intracerebral hemorrhage（ICH）. However, whether TA can treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial.Objective: Evidence-based medicine was used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.Methods: Pubmed (MEDLINE), Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from January 2001 to October 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs),cohort studies, and retrospective case series .The Jadad scale and RevMan software version 5.3 were used for literature quality assessment and meta-analysis.Results: In total, 4 randomized controlled trials and 1 retrospective case series with 2808 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control intervention in intracerebral hemorrhage, tranexamic acid could significantly reduce growth of hemorrhagic mass (odds ratio (OR) =0.81; 95% confidence interval（CI）=0.68 to 0.99; p = 0.04) and Modified Rankin Scale score(MRS) at 90 days at 0-3 (OR =1.20; 95% CI =1.00 to 1.43; p = 0.05), mortality by day 90 (OR= 1.03; 95% CI= 0.85-1.25; p = 0.77) and major thromboembolic events (OR= 1.14; 95% CI= 0.73-1.77; p = 0.58) .Conclusions:Treatment with tranexamic acid could reduce hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage,and the treatment was safe with no increase in thromboembolic complications. But showed no notable impact on good functional outcomes and mortality.
Albumin therapy for acute ischemic stroke: a meta-analysis
Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2021
Human serum albumin has shown remarkable efficacy in rodent models of ischemic stroke, while results from relevant clinical research on albumin therapy remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to quantitatively analyze the neurofunctional outcomes of patients with ischemic stroke treated with albumin. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched in July 2020. A total of four studies and 1611 patients were included. The aggregated results indicated that there were 635 patients with good neurological outcomes, among which 321 patients were in the albumin group (39.8%) and 314 patients in the control group (39.1%), showing no statistically significant difference between the albumin and control groups (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.85-1.27). The results suggest that albumin therapy at the acute stage of ischemic stroke has no beneficial effect on the long-term neurological function of patients with ischemic stroke. Considering pulmonary edema and other complications are more likely to occur in such patients after albumin infusion, the administration of albumin therapy for acute ischemic stroke should be done with utmost caution.
The Function of Tranexamic Acid to Prevent Hematoma Expansion After Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis From Randomized Controlled Trials
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:710568
Objectives: The clinical results caused by spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are disastrous to most patient. As tranexamic acid (TXA) has been proved to decrease the influence of ICH, we conducted this research to explore the function of TXA for the prognosis of ICH compared with placebo. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that were performed to evaluate TXA vs. placebo for ICH up to February 2021. The data were assessed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The risk ratio (RR) and mean difference were analyzed using dichotomous outcomes and continuous outcomes, respectively, with a fixed effect model. Results: We collected 2,479 patients from four RCTs. Then, we took the change of hematoma volume, modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and adverse events as evaluation standard of the treatment for ICH. Through statistical analysis, we found that there is no obvious hematoma expansion effect after the application of TXA (RR = 1.05), and we proceeded the quantitative analysis of percentage change in hematoma volume from baseline, indicating that TXA could inhibit the expansion of hematoma volume (RR = -2.02) compared with placebo. However, according to the outcomes of mRS (0-1, RR = 1.04; 0-2, RR = 0.96), TXA cannot improve neurological functional prognosis. As for the security outcomes-mortality (RR = 1.02), thromboembolic events (RR = 0.99), neurological deterioration (RR = 0.92), infection (RR = 0.86), and craniotomy (RR = 0.41), there seems exist no statistical difference between TXA and placebo. Conclusions: TXA has an advantage in the aspect of preventing hematoma expansion compared with placebo for ICH, but cannot illustrate the efficacy of TXA in improving neurological functional prognosis, which still needs more researches with large sample sizes. Moreover, for safety, we did not find obvious statistical difference between TXA and placebo.
Neuroimaging Markers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease on Hemorrhagic Transformation and Functional Outcome After Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in aging neuroscience. 2021;13:692942
Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) on neuroimaging of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), and poor functional outcome (PFO). Methods: A thorough search of several databases was carried out to identify relevant studies up to December 2020. We included studies of patients with AIS and neuroimaging markers of CSVD treated with IVT. The primary outcome was HT, and the secondary outcomes were sICH and 3-month PFO. The quality of the studies involved was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The meta-analysis with the fixed effects model was performed. Results: Twenty-four eligible studies (n = 9,419) were pooled in the meta-analysis. All included studies were regarded as high quality with the NOS scores of at least 6 points. The meta-analysis revealed associations between the presence of CSVD and HT, sICH, and the 3-month PFO after IVT. Compared with no CSVD, the presence of CSVD was associated with an increased risk of HT (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.52-2.16), sICH (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.76-3.33), and 3-month PFO (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.89-2.44). For patients with AIS complicated with CSVD, compared with a CSVD score of 0-1, a CSVD score of 2-4 was associated with an increased risk of HT (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.67-5.77), sICH (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.26-6.49), and 3-month PFO (OR: 4.58, 95% CI: 2.97-7.06). Conclusion: Patients with AIS complicated with neuroimaging markers of CSVD are at increased risk of HT and 3-month PFO after IVT. However, it is still necessary to clarify the exact role of CSVD in the occurrence, development, and prognosis of AIS. Systematic Review Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier CRD4202123 3900.
The truths behind the statistics of surgical treatment for hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage in China: a review
Neurosurgical review. 2021
Hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage (HBSH) is of high morbidity and mortality rate. But many clinical studies were written in Chinese and had not been reviewed. A systemic review of Chinese clinical studies for HBSH was performed. A systemic literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Weipu database and Wanfang database up to March 2020 was performed. Clinical control studies including a surgical evacuation (SE) group and a conservative management (CM) group were included. The clinical outcome and mortality rate were compared. Ten cohort studies were included, involving 944 participants (304 in the SE group and 640 in the CM group). All included patients were comatose, with the average age ranged from 45 to 65 years old. Among five studies using mRS or GOS as outcome score, a total of 16.6% (89/535) of patients achieve self-maintenance with minor disabilities, including 26.8% (34/127) in the SE group and 13.5% (55/408) in the CM group. The overall mortality rate in the SE group was 27.6%, ranged from 9.3 to 60% among different studies. The overall mortality rate in the CM group was 60.6%, ranged from 18.5 to 100.0%. Elder and comatose HBSH patients are not contraindicated for surgery. The review showed that this group of patients obtained a better outcome and lower mortality rate after surgical treatment. The quality of included studies was relatively low, but a high-level clinical study on HBSH is of great difficulty, as both clinicians and patients faced various sociological issues rather than pure medical problems.
Effect of desmopressin on hematoma expansion in antiplatelet-associated intracerebral hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. 2021;86:116-121
The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of desmopressin on hematoma expansion (HE) in antiplatelet-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (AA-ICH). Secondary outcomes examined were the rate of thrombotic complications and neurologic outcome. Three databases were searched (Pubmed, Scopus, and Cochrane) for randomized clinical trials and controlled studies comparing desmopressin versus controls in adult patients with AA-ICH. The Mantel-Haenszel method was applied to calculate an overall effect estimate for each outcome by combining stratum-specific risk ratio (RR). Risk of bias was computed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (42020190234). Three retrospective controlled studies involving 263 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to controls, desmopressin was associated with a non-significant reduction in HE (19.1% vs. 30%; RR:0.61; 95%CI, 0.27-1.39; P = 0.24), a similar rate of thrombotic events (5.5% vs. 9.9%; RR:0.47; 95%CI, 0.17-1.31; P = 0.15), and significantly worse neurologic outcome (mRS ≥ 4) (66.3% vs. 50%; RR:1.36; 95%CI, 1.08-1.7; P = 0.008). Qualitative analysis of included studies for each outcome revealed low to moderate risk of bias. The available literature does not support the routine use of desmopressin in the setting of AA-ICH. Until larger prospective trials are performed, the administration of desmopressin should be judiciously considered on a case-by-case basis.
Noncontrast Computed Tomography Markers of Cerebral Hemorrhage Expansion: Diagnostic Accuracy Meta-Analysis
International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society. 2021;:17474930211061639
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Assess the diagnostic accuracy of noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) markers of hematoma expansion in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS We performed a meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials with available data for calculation of sensitivity and specificity of NCCT markers for hematoma expansion (absolute growth >6 or 12.5 mL and/or relative growth >33%). The following NCCT markers were analyzed: irregular shape, island sign (shape-related features); hypodensity, heterogeneous density, blend sign, black hole sign, and swirl sign (density-related features). Pooled accuracy values for each marker were derived from hierarchical logistic regression models. RESULTS A total of 10,363 subjects from 23 eligible studies were included. Significant risk of bias of included studies was noted. Hematoma expansion frequency ranged from 7% to 40%, mean intracerebral hemorrhage volume from 9 to 27.8 ml, presence of NCCT markers from 9% (island sign) to 82% (irregular shape). Among shape features, sensitivity ranged from 0.32 (95%CI = 0.20-0.47) for island sign to 0.68 (95%CI = 0.57-0.77) for irregular shape, specificity ranged from 0.47 (95%CI = 0.36-0.59) for irregular shape to 0.92 (95%CI = 0.85-0.96) for island sign; among density features sensitivity ranged from 0.28 (95%CI = 0.21-0.35) for black hole sign to 0.63 (95%CI = 0.44-0.78) for hypodensity, specificity ranged from 0.65 (95%CI = 0.56-0.73) for heterogeneous density to 0.89 (95%CI = 0.85-0.92) for blend sign. CONCLUSION Diagnostic accuracy of NCCT markers remains suboptimal for implementation in clinical trials although density features performed better than shape-related features. This analysis may help in better tailoring patients' selection for hematoma expansion targeted trials.
Tranexamic acid for subarachnoid hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The American journal of emergency medicine. 2021;50:748-752
BACKGROUND The efficacy of tranexamic acid for subarachnoid hemorrhage remains controversial. Thus, we conduct this meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of tranexamic acid for subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of tranexamic acid on subarachnoid hemorrhage were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. This meta-analysis was performed using the random-effect model. RESULTS Five RCTs and 2359 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with control intervention for subarachnoid hemorrhage, tranexamic acid was associated with significantly reduced risk of rebleeding (Odd ratio [OR] =0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.41 to 0.93; P = 0.02), but had no influence on mortality (OR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.75 to 1.18; P = 0.61), poor outcome (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.48; P = 0.82), hydrocephalus (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.46; P = 0.17) or delayed cerebral ischemia (OR = 1.26; 95% CI = 0.78 to 2.04; P = 0.34). CONCLUSIONS Tranexamic acid may be effective to reduce the risk of rebleeding in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Tongqiao Huoxue Decoction for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: A Systematic Review and meta-analysis
Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2021;:114693
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongqiao Huoxue Decoction (TQHXT) in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS); Study Design: A total of 17 randomized controlled trials, involving 1489 AIS patients, were included for data analyses. MATERIALS AND METHODS All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TQHXT in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke before September 2020 were retrieved from seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Central, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, and VIP. Data were analyzed by RevMan 5.3 software, and quality was evaluated by GRADEpro; Results: Results showed that, while TQHXT demonstrated undeniable positive effects in clinical effective rate, neurological deficit scores, activities of daily living (ADL) scores, and hemorheology (including HCT; fibrinogen; plasma viscosity and platelet adherence rate), adverse events (AE) require further study; and Conclusions: This study provides evidence that TQHXT is an effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke. However, due to the limited quality of the included studies, the above conclusion needs to be further verified by stricter randomized controlled, double-blind, large-sample, high-quality trials.
Genetic Profiling of Idiopathic Antenatal Intracranial Haemorrhage: What We Know?
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is reported in premature infants and rarely, in prenatal life. Fetal ICH can be accurately identified in utero and categorized by antenatal sonography and/or MRI. Infectious disease, maternal drug exposure, alloimmune thrombocytopenia, maternal trauma, coagulation disorders and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome can cause fetal ICH. However, in many cases, the cause is not identified and a genetic disorder should be taken into consideration. We conducted a review of the literature to investigate what we know about genetic origins of fetal ICH. We conducted targeted research on the databases PubMed and EMBASE, ranging from 1980 to 2020. We found 311 studies and 290 articles were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria, and finally, 21 articles were considered relevant for this review. Hemostatic, protrombotic, collagen and X-linked GATA 1 genes were reported in the literature as causes of fetal ICH. In cases of ICH classified as idiopathic, possible underlying genetic causes should be accounted for and investigated. The identification of ICH genetic causes can guide the counselling process with respect to the recurrence risk, in addition to producing relevant clinical data to the neonatologist for the optimal management and prompt treatment of the newborn.