Early Deterioration, Hematoma Expansion, and Outcomes in Deep Versus Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The FAST Trial
BACKGROUND In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), it is unclear whether early neurological deterioration, hematoma expansion (HE), and outcome vary by supratentorial ICH location (deep versus lobar). Herein, we assessed these relationships in a clinical trial cohort that underwent brain imaging early after symptom onset. We hypothesized that HE would occur more frequently, and outcome would be worse in patients with deep ICH. METHODS We performed a post hoc analysis of the FAST (Factor-VII-for-Acute-Hemorrhagic-Stroke-Treatment) trial including all patients with supratentorial hemorrhage. Enrolled patients underwent brain imaging within 3 hours of symptom onset and 24 hours after randomization. Multivariable regression was used to test the association between ICH location and 3 outcomes: HE (increase of ≥33% or 6mL), early neurological deterioration (decrease in Glasgow Coma Scale score ≥2 points or increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥4 points within 24 hours of admission), and 90-day outcome (modified Rankin Scale). RESULTS Of 841 FAST trial patients, we included 728 (mean age 64 years, 38% women) with supratentorial hemorrhages (deep n=623, lobar n=105). HE (44 versus 27%, P=0.001) and early neurological deterioration (31 versus 17%, P=0.001) were more common in lobar hemorrhages. Deep hemorrhages were smaller than lobar hemorrhages at baseline (12 versus 35mL, P<0.001) and 24 hours (14 versus 38mL, P<0.001). Unadjusted 90-day outcome was worse in lobar compared with deep ICH (median modified Rankin Scale score 5 versus 4, P=0.03). However, when adjusting for variables included in the ICH score including ICH volume, deep location was associated with worse and lobar location with better outcome (odds ratio lobar location, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.38-0.89]; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this secondary analysis of randomized trial patients, lobar ICH location was associated with larger ICH volume, more HE and early neurological deterioration, and worse outcome than deep ICH. After adjustment for prognostic variables, however, deep ICH was associated with worse outcome, likely due to their proximity to eloquent brain structures.
Final Results of the RHAPSODY trial: A multi-center, Phase 2 trial using a continual reassessment method to determine the safety and tolerability of 3K3A-APC, a Recombinant Variant of Human Activated Protein C, in combination with tissue plasminogen activator, mechanical thrombectomy or both in moderate to severe acute ischemic stroke
Annals of Neurology. 2018
OBJECTIVE Agonism of the protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 by activated protein C (APC) provides neuroprotection and vasculoprotection in experimental neuro-injury models. The pleiotropic PAR1 agonist, 3K3A-APC, reduces neurologic injury and promotes vascular integrity; 3K3A-APC proved safe in human volunteers. We performed a randomized, controlled, blinded, trial to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of 3K3A-APC in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS The NeuroNEXT trial RHAPSODY used a novel continual reassessment method to determine the MTD using tiers of 120, 240, 360 and 540mug/kg 3K3A-APC. After intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, intraarterial mechanical thrombectomy, or both, patients were randomized to one of the four doses or placebo. Vasculoprotection was assessed as microbleed and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) rates. RESULTS Between January 2015 and July 2017 we treated 110 patients. Demographics resembled a typical stroke population. The MTD was the highest dose 3K3A-APC tested, 540mug/kg, with an estimated toxicity rate of 7%. There was no difference in prespecified ICH rates. In exploratory analyses, 3K3A-APC reduced ICH rates compared to placebo from 86.5% to 67.4% in the combined treatment arms (p=0.046), and total hemorrhage volume from an average of 2.1+/-5.8 mL in placebo to 0.8+/-2.1 mL in the combined treatment arms (p=0.066). INTERPRETATION RHAPSODY is the first trial of a neuroprotectant for acute ischemic stroke in a trial design allowing thrombectomy, thrombolysis, or both. The MTD was 540mug/kg for the PAR1 active cytoprotectant 3K3A-APC. A trend toward lower hemorrhage rate in an exploratory analysis requires confirmation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Intraoperative intravenous administration of rFVIIa and hematoma volume after early surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a randomized prospective phase II study
Minerva Anestesiologica. 2012;78((2):):168-75.
BACKGROUND Surgery of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), especially if performed early, can be complicated by rebleeding, a condition that can worsen the outcome. We evaluated the effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) on postoperative rebleeding. METHODS In this randomized, open-label, single-blinded study, 21 patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan were treated with intravenous rFVIIa (100 mcg/Kg b.w., N=13) or placebo (N=8). Hematoma volume was assessed using CT scan immediately, 18-30 hours, and 5-7 days after hematoma evacuation. The primary endpoint was a hematoma volume at 18-30 hours after surgery. All CT scans were evaluated at one center by the same investigator who was unaware of the treatment. Hematoma volume was measured using dedicated software. RESULTS At baseline, the hematoma volume was 59.2+/-27.4 and 71.5+/-32.1 mL in the rFVIIa and placebo group, respectively. Hematoma evacuation resulted in significantly smaller ICH volumes that were similar in the rFVIIa and placebo group at 18-30 hours after surgery (15.9+/-14.2 mL and 18+/-15.1 mL, respectively; mean difference 2.1 mL, 95% confidence interval -12.1 to 16.2, P=0.76 (0.03 mL after adjustment for baseline value)). The frequencies of deep venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, troponin I elevation and cerebral ischemia were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION In this pilot study, intraoperative, intravenous rFVIIa administration did not modify hematoma volume after early ICH surgery. However, the 95% CI was wide, which indicates considerable uncertainty. Therefore, our results do not disprove the potential benefit of rFVIIa administration, which could be shown in a larger study.
A meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage without hemophilia
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. 2010;17((6):):685-93.
Hematoma growth is common in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with a poor outcome for patients. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) used as a hemostatic agent in patients with ICH without hemophilia, we searched Medline, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, Clinicaltrials.gov and the Stroke Trials Directory. Five randomized controlled trials were selected for analysis. Although rFVIIa can reduce the change in ICH volume, there was no significant difference in mortality, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score or extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) score in patients treated with rFVIIa or placebo. There was a significant increase in arterial thromboembolic adverse events (TAE) in patients treated with rFVIIa. There was an increase in deep vein thrombosis in patients with spontaneous ICH and traumatic ICH. In conclusion, the use of rFVIIa reduces the growth of the hematoma but does not improve patient survival or functional outcome after ICH; in addition, rFVIIa increases the incidence of arterial TAE.
Thromboembolic events with recombinant activated factor VII in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: results from the Factor Seven for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke (FAST) trial
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 2010;41((1):):48-53.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage have a high risk of thromboembolic events (TEs) due to advanced age, hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and immobility. Use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) could increase TEs in high-risk patients. Factor Seven for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke (FAST) trial data were reviewed to define the frequency of and risk factors for TE with rFVIIa. METHODS Eight hundred forty-one patients presenting <3 hours after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were randomized to 20 or 80 microg/kg of rFVIIa or placebo. Those with Glasgow Coma Scale score <5, planned early surgery, coagulopathy, or recent TE were excluded. Myocardial, cerebral, or venous TEs were subject to detailed reporting and expedited local review. Additionally, a blinded Data Monitoring Committee reviewed all electrocardiograms, centrally analyzed troponin I values, and CT scans. RESULTS There were 178 arterial and 47 venous TEs. Venous events were similar across groups. There were 49 (27%) arterial events in the placebo group, 47 (26%) in the 20-microg/kg group, and 82 (46%) in the 80 microg/kg group (P=0. 04). Of the myocardial events, 38 were investigator-reported and 103 identified by the Data Monitoring Committee. They occurred in 17 (6. 3%) placebo and 57 (9. 9%) rFVIIa patients (P=0. 09). Arterial TEs were associated with: receiving 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (OR=2. 14; P=0. 031), signs of cardiac or cerebral ischemia at presentation (OR=4. 19; P=0. 010), age (OR=1. 14/5 years; P=0. 0123), and prior use of antiplatelet agents (OR=1. 83; P=0. 035). Ischemic strokes possibly related to study drug occurred in 7, 5, and 8 patients in the placebo, 20 microg/kg, and 80-microg/kg groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Higher doses of rFVIIa in a high-risk population are associated with a small increased risk of what are usually minor cardiac events. Demonstration of the ability of rFVIIa to improve outcome in future studies should be driven by its effectiveness in slowing bleeding outweighting the risk of a small increase in arterial TEs.
Recombinant factor VIIA in traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage: results of a dose-escalation clinical trial
Neurosurgery. 2008;62((4):):776-86; discussion 786-8.
OBJECTIVE Intracerebral hemorrhages, whether spontaneous or traumatic (tICH), often expand, and an association has been described between hemorrhage expansion and worse clinical outcomes. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is a hemostatic agent that has been shown to limit hemorrhage expansion and which, therefore, could potentially reduce morbidity and mortality in tICH. This first prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study evaluated the safety and preliminary effectiveness of rFVIIa to limit tICH progression. METHODS Patients were enrolled if they had tICH lesions of at least 2 ml on a baseline computed tomographic scan obtained within 6 hours of injury. rFVIIa or placebo was administered within 2. 5 hours of the baseline computed tomographic scan but no later than 7 hours after injury. Computed tomographic scans were repeated at 24 and 72 hours. Five escalating dose tiers were evaluated (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 microg/kg rFVIIa). Clinical evaluations and adverse events were recorded until Day 15. RESULTS No significant differences were detected in mortality rate or number and type of adverse events among treatment groups. Asymptomatic deep vein thrombosis, detected on routinely performed ultrasound at Day 3, was observed more frequently in the combined rFVIIa treatment group (placebo, 3%; rFVIIa, 8%; not significant). A nonsignificant trend for rFVIIa dose-response to limit tICH volume increase was observed (placebo, 21. 0 ml; rFVIIa, 10. 1 ml). CONCLUSION In this first prospective study of rFVIIa in tICH, there appeared to be less hematoma progression in rFVIIa-treated patients (80-200 microg/kg) compared with that seen in placebo treated patients. The potential significance of this biological effect on clinical outcomes and the significance of the somewhat higher incidence of ultrasound-detected deep vein thromboses in the rFVIIa-treated group need to be examined in a larger prospective randomized clinical trial.
Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2008;358((20):):2127-37.
BACKGROUND Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke. We performed this phase 3 trial to confirm a previous study in which recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) reduced growth of the hematoma and improved survival and functional outcomes. METHODS We randomly assigned 841 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage to receive placebo (268 patients), 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram of body weight (276 patients), or 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram (297 patients) within 4 hours after the onset of stroke. The primary end point was poor outcome, defined as severe disability or death according to the modified Rankin scale 90 days after the stroke. RESULTS Treatment with 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram resulted in a significant reduction in growth in volume of the hemorrhage. The mean estimated increase in volume of the intracerebral hemorrhage at 24 hours was 26% in the placebo group, as compared with 18% in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram (P=0. 09) and 11% in the group receiving 80 microg (P<0. 001). The growth in volume of intracerebral hemorrhage was reduced by 2. 6 ml (95% confidence interval [CI], -0. 3 to 5. 5; P=0. 08) in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram and by 3. 8 ml (95% CI, 0. 9 to 6. 7; P=0. 009) in the group receiving 80 microg, as compared with the placebo group. Despite this reduction in bleeding, there was no significant difference among the three groups in the proportion of patients with poor clinical outcome (24% in the placebo group, 26% in the group receiving 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram, and 29% in the group receiving 80 microg). The overall frequency of thromboembolic serious adverse events was similar in the three groups; however, arterial events were more frequent in the group receiving 80 microg of rFVIIa than in the placebo group (9% vs. 4%, P=0. 04). CONCLUSIONS Hemostatic therapy with rFVIIa reduced growth of the hematoma but did not improve survival or functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage. (ClinicalTrials. gov number, NCT00127283 [ClinicalTrials. gov]. ).
Determinants of intracerebral hemorrhage growth: an exploratory analysis
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. 2007;38((3):):1072-5.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We report an exploratory analysis from a randomized study of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) examining potential factors associated with hemorrhage growth. METHODS We explored the relationship between 5 different measures of change in hemorrhage volume between baseline and 24-hour CTs (absolute and percent change in ICH volume, ICH growth-categoric [no growth if change <33% and <12. 5 mL], absolute and percent change in ICH plus intraventricular hemorrhage [IVH] volume) and 31 demographic, clinical, imaging, historic, and baseline laboratory variables. Variables with a probability value of < or =0. 10 were included in the final multivariable models. RESULTS Treatment with rFVIIa and a longer time-from-onset-to-baseline CT were related to a decrease in hemorrhage growth in all 5 models. ICH volume on baseline CT was consistently associated with ICH growth in the various models. Other variables significantly related to growth of ICH or ICH+IVH in at least 1 of the 5 models include serum glucose (increased levels associated with increased growth), body mass index (heavier people have less growth), prior use of antiplatelet agent (prior use associated with increased growth), serum cholesterol (higher level associated with less hemorrhage growth), and serum creatinine (higher level associated with more hemorrhage growth). CONCLUSIONS Our exploratory analyses confirm that treatment with rFVIIa limits ICH growth in subjects with spontaneous ICH who met the criteria for this study. Most hematoma growth occurs early after onset of ICH. Larger hematomas on the baseline CT were associated with increased absolute ICH growth. The relationship of other factors to hemorrhage growth warrants further study.
Dynamics of intraventricular hemorrhage in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: risk factors, clinical impact, and effect of hemostatic therapy with recombinant activated factor VII
Neurosurgery. 2006;59((4):):767-73; discussion 773-4.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate predictors of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and IVH growth, impact of IVH growth on outcome, and impact of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS We analyzed 374 patients out of 399 who were randomized to rFVIIa (40, 80, or 160 mug/kg) or placebo for ICH (diagnosed within 3 h of symptoms). Risk factors for IVH growth (>2 ml increase in IVH volume at 24 h), and death or severe disability (modified Rankin scale score 4-6) at 3 months were identified (logistic regression). RESULTS IVH was present in 38% (n = 141) of patients at baseline and 45% (n = 169) by 24 hours. IVH growth, by 24 hours, occurred in 17 and 10% of placebo- and rFVIIa-treated patients, respectively (P = 0. 037). Risk factors for IVH growth included baseline mean arterial pressure greater than 120 mmHg, larger baseline ICH volume, IVH present at baseline, shorter time from symptom onset to baseline computed tomographic scan, and treatment (rFVIIa versus placebo) (all, P < or = 0. 037). Predictors of death or severe disability included older age, lower baseline Glasgow Coma Score, larger baseline ICH volume, IVH growth greater than 2 ml, IVH present at baseline or 24 hours, and treatment (rFVIIa versus placebo) (all, P < or = 0. 0405). CONCLUSION Presence of IVH at any time and early IVH growth worsen clinical outcome and increase mortality. Elevated mean arterial pressure at baseline may be a modifiable risk factor for IVH growth. Beneficial effects of rFVIIa on ICH outcome may be mediated, at least in part, by reducing IVH growth.
Recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2005;352((8):):777-85.
BACKGROUND Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke and is associated with high mortality. Among patients who undergo computed tomography (CT) within three hours after the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage, one third have an increase in the volume of the hematoma related to subsequent bleeding. We sought to determine whether recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) can reduce hematoma growth after intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS We randomly assigned 399 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage diagnosed by CT within three hours after onset to receive placebo (96 patients) or 40 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram of body weight (108 patients), 80 microg per kilogram (92 patients), or 160 microg per kilogram (103 patients) within one hour after the baseline scan. The primary outcome measure was the percent change in the volume of the intracerebral hemorrhage at 24 hours. Clinical outcomes were assessed at 90 days. RESULTS Hematoma volume increased more in the placebo group than in the rFVIIa groups. The mean increase was 29 percent in the placebo group, as compared with 16 percent, 14 percent, and 11 percent in the groups given 40 microg, 80 microg, and 160 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram, respectively (P=0. 01 for the comparison of the three rFVIIa groups with the placebo group). Growth in the volume of intracerebral hemorrhage was reduced by 3. 3 ml, 4. 5 ml, and 5. 8 ml in the three treatment groups, as compared with that in the placebo group (P=0. 01). Sixty-nine percent of placebo-treated patients died or were severely disabled (as defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 4 to 6), as compared with 55 percent, 49 percent, and 54 percent of the patients who were given 40, 80, and 160 microg of rFVIIa, respectively (P=0. 004 for the comparison of the three rFVIIa groups with the placebo group). Mortality at 90 days was 29 percent for patients who received placebo, as compared with 18 percent in the three rFVIIa groups combined (P=0. 02). Serious thromboembolic adverse events, mainly myocardial or cerebral infarction, occurred in 7 percent of rFVIIa-treated patients, as compared with 2 percent of those given placebo (P=0. 12). CONCLUSIONS Treatment with rFVIIa within four hours after the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage limits the growth of the hematoma, reduces mortality, and improves functional outcomes at 90 days, despite a small increase in the frequency of thromboembolic adverse events.