Safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients with a history of intracranial hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2022;215:107205
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a fatal and debilitating condition killing 2.7 million people each year worldwide. The most commonly used treatment modality for AIS is intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with alteplase which is indicated for those presenting within 4.5 h of onset. Due to a lack of reliable evidence on harm or benefit, the 2019 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guidelines consider a history of previous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) as potentially harmful and no longer an absolute contraindication for IVT in patients with AIS, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed chronic ICH as a specific contraindication for IVT from the label in 2015. Despite a shift in guidelines, physicians frequently face the dilemmatic choice whether to administer IVT in this subset of patients due to the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). The benefit of IVT in such patients has not been thoroughly investigated, and there are only a few studies on the subject in the literature to date. We conducted the present meta-analysis in an aim to provide solid evidence on the efficacy and safety of IVT for treating AIS in patients with a history of remote ICH. Our meta-analysis found that IVT improves functional outcomes in AIS patients with prior remote ICH without increasing SICH or all-cause mortality. These findings may contribute to the decision-making process for IVT administration in AIS patients.
Early Deterioration, Hematoma Expansion, and Outcomes in Deep Versus Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The FAST Trial
BACKGROUND In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), it is unclear whether early neurological deterioration, hematoma expansion (HE), and outcome vary by supratentorial ICH location (deep versus lobar). Herein, we assessed these relationships in a clinical trial cohort that underwent brain imaging early after symptom onset. We hypothesized that HE would occur more frequently, and outcome would be worse in patients with deep ICH. METHODS We performed a post hoc analysis of the FAST (Factor-VII-for-Acute-Hemorrhagic-Stroke-Treatment) trial including all patients with supratentorial hemorrhage. Enrolled patients underwent brain imaging within 3 hours of symptom onset and 24 hours after randomization. Multivariable regression was used to test the association between ICH location and 3 outcomes: HE (increase of ≥33% or 6mL), early neurological deterioration (decrease in Glasgow Coma Scale score ≥2 points or increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≥4 points within 24 hours of admission), and 90-day outcome (modified Rankin Scale). RESULTS Of 841 FAST trial patients, we included 728 (mean age 64 years, 38% women) with supratentorial hemorrhages (deep n=623, lobar n=105). HE (44 versus 27%, P=0.001) and early neurological deterioration (31 versus 17%, P=0.001) were more common in lobar hemorrhages. Deep hemorrhages were smaller than lobar hemorrhages at baseline (12 versus 35mL, P<0.001) and 24 hours (14 versus 38mL, P<0.001). Unadjusted 90-day outcome was worse in lobar compared with deep ICH (median modified Rankin Scale score 5 versus 4, P=0.03). However, when adjusting for variables included in the ICH score including ICH volume, deep location was associated with worse and lobar location with better outcome (odds ratio lobar location, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.38-0.89]; P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS In this secondary analysis of randomized trial patients, lobar ICH location was associated with larger ICH volume, more HE and early neurological deterioration, and worse outcome than deep ICH. After adjustment for prognostic variables, however, deep ICH was associated with worse outcome, likely due to their proximity to eloquent brain structures.
Therapeutic Strategies in Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage and Outcomes
Journal of neurological surgery. Part A, Central European neurosurgery. 2022
BACKGROUND Traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (TICH) and its progression have historically resulted in poor prognosis and functional disability. Such outcomes can impact the daily lives and financial condition of patients' families as well as add burden to the health care system. This review examines the diverse therapeutic intervention that were observed in randomized clinical trials (RCT) on various outcomes. Many demographic and clinical risk factors have been identified for poor prognosis after a TICH. Among the many therapeutic strategies studied, few found to have some beneficial effect in minimizing the progression of hemorrhage and reducing the overall mortality. METHODS A literature review was conducted of all relevant sources using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to include articles that were RCTs for patients aged 18 years and above to include a total of 19 articles. RESULTS Across studies, many therapies have been assessed; however, only few findings including infusion of tranexamic acid (TXA), use of β-blocker, and early operative evacuation of TICH yielded favorable results. Use of steroid and blood transfusion to target higher hemoglobin levels showed evidence of adversely impacting the outcome. CONCLUSION Of the many therapeutic strategies available for TICH, very few therapies have proven to be beneficial.
Outcomes after Flow Diverter Treatment in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis and Development of a Clinical Prediction Model (OUTFLOW)
Brain sciences. 2022;12(3)
BACKGROUND patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) might need a flow diverter (FD) placement for complex acutely ruptured intracranial aneurysms (IAs). We conducted a meta-analysis and developed a prediction model to estimate the favorable clinical outcome after the FD treatment in acutely ruptured IAs. METHODS a systematic literature search was performed from 2010 to January 2021 in PubMed and Embase databases. Studies with more than five patients treated with FDs within fifteen days were included. In total, 1157 studies were identified. The primary outcome measure was the favorable clinical outcome (mRS 0-2). Secondary outcome measures were complete occlusion rates, aneurysm rebleeding, permanent neurologic deficit caused by procedure-related complications, and all-cause mortality. A prediction model was constructed using individual patient-level data. RESULTS 26 retrospective studies with 357 patients and 368 aneurysms were included. The pooled rates of the favorable clinical outcome, mortality, and complete aneurysm occlusion were 73.7% (95% CI 64.7-81.0), 17.1% (95% CI 13.3-21.8), and 85.6% (95% CI 80.4-89.6), respectively. Rebleeding occurred in 3% of aneurysms (11/368). The c-statistic of the final model was 0.83 (95% CI 0.76-0.89). All the studies provided a very low quality of evidence. CONCLUSIONS FD treatment can be considered for complex ruptured IAs. Despite high complication rates, the pooled clinical outcomes seem favorable. The prediction model needs to be validated by larger prospective studies before clinical application.
Intraventricular Hemorrhage Expansion in the CLEAR III Trial: A Post Hoc Exploratory Analysis
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) expansion and its association with long-term outcomes. METHODS We performed a post hoc analysis of the international, multi-center CLEAR III trial (Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage) which enrolled IVH patients between September 1, 2009, and January 31, 2015. The exposure was IVH expansion, defined as >1 mL increase in volume between baseline and stability computed tomography scans, before treatment randomization. We assessed factors associated with IVH expansion and secondarily assessed the relationship of IVH expansion with clinical outcomes: composite of death or major disability (modified Rankin Scale score, >3), and mortality alone at 6 months. The relationship of IVH expansion on ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement was additionally explored. Multivariable logistic regression was used for all analyses. RESULTS Of 500 IVH patients analyzed, the mean age was 59 (±11) years old, 44% were female and 135 (27%) had IVH expansion. In multivariable regression models, factors associated with IVH expansion were baseline parenchymal intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.04 per 1 mL increase [95% CI, 1.01-1.08]), presence of parenchymal hematoma expansion: >33% (adjusted OR, 6.63 [95% CI, 3.92-11.24]), time to stability head CT (adjusted OR, 0.71 per 1 hour increase [95% CI, 0.54-0.94]), and thalamic hematoma location (adjusted OR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.01-2.79]) while additionally adjusting for age, sex, and race. In secondary analyses, IVH expansion was associated with higher odds of poor 6-month outcomes (adjusted OR, 1.84 [95% CI, 1.12-3.02]) but not mortality (OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 0.78-2.50]) after adjusting for baseline ICH volume, thalamic ICH location, age, anticoagulant use, Glasgow Coma Scale score, any withdrawal of care order, and treatment randomization arm. However, there were no relationships of IVH expansion on subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement (adjusted OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.58-1.80]) after adjusting for similar covariates. CONCLUSIONS In a clinical trial cohort of patients with large IVH, acute hematoma characteristics, specifically larger parenchymal volume, hematoma expansion, and thalamic ICH location were associated with IVH expansion. Given that IVH expansion resulted in poor functional outcomes, exploration of treatment approaches to optimize hemostasis and prevent IVH expansion, particularly in patients with thalamic ICH, require further study. REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00784134.
A New Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients After Intravenous Thrombolysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:774654
BACKGROUND We aimed to develop and validate a new nomogram for predicting the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). METHODS A retrospective study enrolled 553 patients with AIS treated with IVT. The patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the training set (70%, n = 387) and the testing set (30%, n = 166). The factors in the predictive nomogram were filtered using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the nomogram was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS After multivariable logistic regression analysis, certain factors, such as smoking, National Institutes of Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), were found to be independent predictors of ICH and were used to construct a nomogram. The AUC-ROC values of the nomogram were 0.887 (95% CI: 0.842-0.933) and 0.776 (95% CI: 0.681-0.872) in the training and testing sets, respectively. The AUC-ROC of the nomogram was higher than that of the Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS), Glucose, Race, Age, Sex, Systolic blood Pressure, and Severity of stroke (GRASPS), and stroke prognostication using age and NIH Stroke Scale-100 positive index (SPAN-100) scores for predicting ICH in both the training and testing sets (p < 0.05). The calibration plot demonstrated good agreement in both the training and testing sets. DCA indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS The new nomogram, which included smoking, NIHSS, BUN/Cr, and NLR as variables, had the potential for predicting the risk of ICH in patients with AIS after IVT.
Clinical effect of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(1):95-99
OBJECTIVES To explore the clinical value of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS Seventy-eight patients with cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in the Taian City Central Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University between June 2018 and December 2019 were selected. The patients were randomly numbered and divided into two groups by drawing lots, 39 in each group. The control group was treated with the traditional internal medicine conservative therapy, and the observation group was treated with minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage. The indexes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS The efficacy rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of the observation group was lower than that of the control group after treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the good recovery rate of the observation group was higher compared to the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION In the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage, minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage facilitates the recovery of patients, promotes the improvement of neurological function, and has a high safety profile and an ideal prognostic quality.
Endovascular treatment and neurosurgical clipping in subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review of economic evaluations
Journal of neurosurgical sciences. 2022
INTRODUCTION There are two treatment modalities for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: endovascular treatment and neurosurgical clipping. Results of economic evaluations are needed to gain insight into the relationship between clinical effectiveness and costs of these treatment modalities. This important information can inform both clinical decision-making processes and policymakers in facilitating Value-Based Healthcare. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION Databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, EBSCO, and Web of Science) were searched for studies published until October 2020 that had performed economic evaluations in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients by comparing endovascular treatment with neurosurgical clipping. The quality of reporting and methodology of these evaluations was assessed using the associated instruments (i.e. CHEERS statement and CHEC-list, respectively). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS A total of six studies met the inclusion criteria. All included studies reported both effects and costs, however five did not relate effects to costs. Only one study related effects directly to costs, thus conducted a full economic evaluation. The reporting quality scored 81% and the methodological quality scored 30%. CONCLUSIONS The quality of published cost-effectiveness studies on the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is poor. Six studies reported both outcomes and costs, however only one study performed a full economic evaluation comparing endovascular treatment to neurosurgical clipping. Although the reporting quality was sufficient, the methodological quality was poor. Further research that relates health-related quality of life measures to costs of endovascular treatment and neurosurgical clipping is required-specifically focusing on both reporting and methodological quality. Different subgroup analyses and modeling could also enhance the findings.
Hypertensive primary intraventricular hemorrhage: a systematic review
Neurosurgical review. 2022
Primary intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) is a special subtype of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) without a hemorrhagic parenchymal component. Different conditions may cause this uncommon hemorrhage including trauma, vascular anomalies, coagulation disorders, and others. Frequently, PIVH is associated with structural vascular anomalies such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and dural fistulas. Traditionally, hypertension has been considered a predisposing factor for PIVH. A wide variety of studies have been published describing patients with PIVH; however, studies describing exclusively patients with hypertensive PIVH are lacking in the literature. For this reason, the features of PIVH secondary to hypertension are not well described. The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe the characteristics of hypertensive PIVH. A PubMed and Scopus search adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was performed to include studies reporting patients with hypertensive PIVH. The search yielded 19 articles reporting retrospective case series. The diagnosis of hypertensive PIVH should be established in patients meeting the following criteria: (a) elevation of blood pressure is observed at admission, (b) a cerebral angiography is negative for vascular anomalies, and (c) other causes of intracranial hemorrhage are ruled out. The prognosis is poorer in patients who present with low Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), old age, hydrocephalus, or more extensive intraventricular bleeding. The results of this study show that hypertension is the most common cause of PIVH, followed by hemorrhage caused by vascular anomalies. Hypertension may be a direct cause of PIVH, but also it may be a predisposing factor for bleeding in cases of an associated vascular anomaly.
The role of blood product removal in intraventricular hemorrhage of prematurity: a meta-analysis of the clinical evidence
Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. 2022
INTRODUCTION Premature neonates have a high risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) at birth, the blood products of which activate inflammatory cascades that can cause hydrocephalus and long-term neurological morbidities and sequelae. However, there is no consensus for one treatment strategy. While the mainstay of treatment involves CSF diversion to reduce intracranial pressure, a number of interventions focus on blood product removal at various stages including extraventricular drains (EVD), intra-ventricular thrombolytics, drainage-irrigation-fibrinolytic therapy (DRIFT), and neuroendoscopic lavage (NEL). METHODS We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the risks and benefits commonly associated with active blood product removal treatment strategies. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases through Dec 2020 for articles reporting on outcomes of EVDs, thrombolytics, DRIFT, and NEL. Outcomes of interest were rate of conversion to ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS), infection, mortality, secondary hemorrhage, and cognitive disability. RESULTS Of the 10,398 articles identified in the search, 23 full-text articles representing 22 cohorts and 530 patients were included for meta-analysis. These articles included retrospective, prospective, and randomized controlled studies on the use of EVDs (n = 7), thrombolytics (n = 8), DRIFT therapy (n = 3), and NEL (n = 5). Pooled rates of reported outcomes for EVD, thrombolytics, DRIFT, and NEL for ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement were 51.1%, 43.3%, 34.3%, and 54.8%; for infection, 15.4%, 12.5%, 4.7%, and 11.0%; for mortality, 20.0%, 11.6%, 6.0%, and 4.9%; for secondary hemorrhage, 5.8%, 7.8%, 20.0%, and 6.9%; for cognitive impairment, 52.6%, 50.0%, 53.7%, and 50.9%. Meta-regression using type of treatment as a categorical covariate showed no effect of treatment modality on rate of VPS conversion or cognitive disability. CONCLUSION There was a significant effect of treatment modality on secondary hemorrhage and mortality; however, mortality was no longer significant after adjusting for year of publication. Re-hemorrhage rate was significantly higher for DRIFT (p < 0.001) but did not differ among the other modalities. NEL also had lower mortality relative to EVD (p < 0.001) and thrombolytics (p = 0.013), which was no longer significant after adjusting for year of publication. Thus, NEL appears to be safer than DRIFT in terms of risk of hemorrhage, and not different than other blood-product removal strategies in terms of mortality. Outcomes-in terms of shunting and cognitive impairment-did not differ. Later year of publication was predictive of lower rates of mortality, but not the other outcome variables. Further prospective and randomized studies will be necessary to directly compare NEL with other temporizing procedures.