Effects of emergency treatment mode of damage-control orthopedics in pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(6):6817-6826
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to observe the application effect of emergency treatment mode of damage-control orthopedics (DCO) in pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures. METHODS Ninety-four patients with pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures in our hospital were recruited and divided into two groups according to the random number table method, with 47 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received traditional methods for emergency treatment (early complete treatment), and patients in the research group received DCO for emergency treatment (treatment performed in stages according to patient's physiological tolerance, with simplified initial surgery, followed by ICU resuscitation, and finally definitive surgery). The two groups were compared in terms of mortality, the incidence of acidosis and hypothermia three days after the first surgery, surgery-related indexes (time of the first surgery, blood transfusion volume, intraoperative blood loss, recovery time of temperature, and length of hospital stay), coagulation function indexes (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen (FIB)), postoperative reduction of fracture, complication rate, and quality of life. RESULTS The incidences of acidosis, hypothermia, and mortality three days after the first surgery in the research group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the research group experienced shorter time of the first surgery, less intraoperative blood transfusion volume, less intraoperative blood loss, shorter recovery time of body temperature, and shorter length of hospital stay (P<0.05). Seven days after surgery, PT, TT and APTT decreased and FIB increased in both groups (P<0.05), PT, TT and APTT in the research group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), while FIB was higher (P<0.05). The good rate of reduction in the research group was higher than that in the control group (P=0.025). The incidence of complications in the research group was lower than that in the control group (P=0.049). Six months after surgery, the scores of physiological function (PF), body pain (BP), role physical (RP), emotional function (EF), social function (SF), vitality, and general health (GH) of the research group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in mental health (MH) between the two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION The emergency treatment mode of DCO is effective in pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures, which can effectively improve postoperative reduction of patients, improve the coagulation function, reduce complications, and improve the quality of life.
To Analyze the Role of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid in Hip Fracture surgeries in Orthopedic Trauma
International journal of applied & basic medical research. 2021;11(3):139-142
INTRODUCTION Hip fractures in orthopedic trauma cases are increasing. Majority of such patients undergoing surgery require blood transfusion of one or more units. Intravenous (I. V.) Tranexamic acid (TXA) may decrease loss of blood, decrease need of blood transfusion, and improve postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) along with lesser adverse effects. Risk of thromboembolic phenomena remains a concern. A study was done to analyze the role of I. V. TXA in hip fracture surgeries in trauma cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty patients were included in the study; in two groups (37 males and 23 females), Group A in which two doses of I. V. TXA 15 mg/kg were given and Group B in which two doses of I. V. placebo were given. RESULTS Total number of randomized hip arthroplasty cases was 22 (11 in Group A and 11 in Group B) whereas randomized osteosynthesis cases were 38 (19 in Group A and 19 in Group B). Mean preoperative Hb value in Group A was 10.8 gm% and in Group B was 10.7 gm% (P > 0.005. Mean postoperative Hb value in Group A was Hb 9.8 gm% and in Group B 9.5 gm% (difference of 3.061%). Mean duration of surgery in Group A was 64.2 min and in Group B was 66.3 min. Mean total blood loss (intraoperative and postoperative) in Group A was 384.6 ml and in Group B was 448.7 ml (14.29% less in Group A). A total of 14 patients in Group A (17 red blood cells [RBCs] units) and 17 patients (21 RBC units) in Group B required RBC transfusion. No major vascular event, severe bacterial infections, symptomatic deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, limb ischemia, acute coronary syndrome, or immediate postoperative mortality was noted in either group. CONCLUSION I. V. TXA has the potential to decrease risk of blood transfusion, decrease total blood loss, and to maintain a higher postoperative Hb value with no significant adverse reactions. As the number of cases of hip fractures continues to increase along with increase in age, so the use of TXA in such cases may improve clinical outcomes, lessen number of inpatient days and hence decrease overall cost.
Tranexamic acid and reduction of blood transfusion in lower limb trauma surgery: a randomized controlled study
INTRODUCTION Post-operative blood loss in lower limb trauma fractures increases morbidity. Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of Tranexamic Acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss and the consequent requirement of blood transfusion in the Indian population. METHODS This was a randomized controlled study of 100 patients with lower limb trauma. Fifty patients were given 1 g of TXA before surgery, and 50 patients were not given TXA. The requirement of blood transfusion, fall in Hb, the number of days admitted in the hospital after surgery were recorded, and evidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was monitored. RESULTS Baseline demographics between the groups were comparable. The required blood transfusion and fall in Hb in patients receiving intra-operative TXA were significantly lower than those not given TXA (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay between the two groups (p = 0.6). There was no significant difference in the incidence of DVT in both groups. DISCUSSION TXA helps reduce the morbidity of trauma patients by reducing the requirement for blood transfusion. Its use is safe in lower limb trauma surgery and lowers the cost of therapy to the patient.
Minimal tactical impact and maximal donor safety after a buddy transfusion: A study on elite soldier performances in both laboratory and field environments
Transfusion. 2021;61 Suppl 1:S32-s42
BACKGROUND The major causes of death of combat casualties in austere environments are related to hemorrhage and occur early after injury. The implementation of a walking blood bank may overcome the logistical issues raised using blood component therapy. Nonetheless, it is important to ensure that this buddy transfusion is not going to compromise the mission success by altering the donor's performance. The results available so far cannot rule out this issue with certainty. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the immediate effect of a 450-ml blood donation on the performances of elite soldiers in laboratory and field environments. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This double-blind, randomized controlled study included two experiments. For both experiments, subjects were randomly assigned either to a control group (n(1) = n(2) = 7) or to a 450-ml-blood-bag donation group (n(1) = 7 and n(2) = 8). All participants underwent before and after a potential blood donation a multifactorial assessment including adapted physical tasks, hematological variables, vigilance parameters, and subjective assessments. RESULTS No significant results were evidenced in this study. There was no impact of blood donation on the participants' performances in both the hospital and the combat-like environments. CONCLUSION From a donor's point of view, a 450-ml blood donation has no impact on the required abilities of our elite soldiers to fulfill a demanding tactical mission. Thus, the results of this study support the fact that buddy transfusions could be part of the operational clinical armamentarium in austere environments for elite soldiers when no blood components are available.
Tranexamic acid to reduce head injury death in people with traumatic brain injury: the CRASH-3 international RCT
Health technology assessment (Winchester, England). 2021;25(26):1-76
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid safely reduces mortality in traumatic extracranial bleeding. Intracranial bleeding is common after traumatic brain injury and can cause brain herniation and death. We assessed the effects of tranexamic acid in traumatic brain injury patients. OBJECTIVE To assess the effects of tranexamic acid on death, disability and vascular occlusive events in traumatic brain injury patients. We also assessed cost-effectiveness. DESIGN Randomised trial and economic evaluation. Patients were assigned by selecting a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Patients, caregivers and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. All analyses were by intention to treat. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of tranexamic acid versus no treatment from a UK NHS perspective using the trial results and a Markov model. SETTING 175 hospitals in 29 countries. PARTICIPANTS Adults with traumatic brain injury within 3 hours of injury with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of ≤ 12 or any intracranial bleeding on computerised tomography scan, and no major extracranial bleeding, were eligible. INTERVENTION Tranexamic acid (loading dose 1 g over 10 minutes then infusion of 1 g over 8 hours) or matching placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Head injury death in hospital within 28 days of injury in patients treated within 3 hours of injury. Secondary outcomes were early head injury deaths, all-cause and cause-specific mortality, disability, vascular occlusive events, seizures, complications and adverse events. RESULTS Among patients treated within 3 hours of injury (n = 9127), the risk of head injury death was 18.5% in the tranexamic acid group versus 19.8% in the placebo group (855/4613 vs. 892/4514; risk ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 1.02). In a prespecified analysis excluding patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 or bilateral unreactive pupils at baseline, the results were 12.5% in the tranexamic acid group versus 14.0% in the placebo group (485/3880 vs. 525/3757; risk ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.00). There was a reduction in the risk of head injury death with tranexamic acid in those with mild to moderate head injury (166/2846 vs. 207/2769; risk ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.95), but in those with severe head injury (689/1739 vs. 685/1710; risk ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.07) there was no apparent reduction (p-value for heterogeneity = 0.030). Early treatment was more effective in mild and moderate head injury (p = 0.005), but there was no obvious impact of time to treatment in cases of severe head injury (p = 0.73). The risk of disability, vascular occlusive events and seizures was similar in both groups. Tranexamic acid is highly cost-effective for mild and moderate traumatic brain injury (base case of £4288 per quality-adjusted life-year gained). CONCLUSION Early tranexamic acid treatment reduces head injury deaths. Treatment is cost-effective for patients with mild or moderate traumatic brain injury, or those with both pupils reactive. FUTURE WORK Further trials should examine early tranexamic acid treatment in mild head injury. Research on alternative routes of administration is needed. LIMITATIONS Time to treatment may have been underestimated. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15088122, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01402882, EudraCT 2011-003669-14, Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR20121000441277. FUNDING The project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 26. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. In addition, funding was provided by JP Moulton Charitable Trust, Joint Global Health Trials (Medical Research Council, Department for International Development and the Wellcome Trust). This project was funded by the NIHR Global Health Trials programme.
Adults with traumatic brain injury enrolled in the CRASH-3 trial (n=9127).
Tranexamic acid (TXA), (n= 4613).
Matching placebo (n= 4514).
The risk of head injury death was 18.5% in the TXA group versus 19.8% in the placebo group. In a pre-specified analysis excluding patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3 or bilateral unreactive pupils at baseline, the results were 12.5% in the TXA group versus 14.0% in the placebo group. There was a reduction in the risk of head injury death with tranexamic acid in those with mild to moderate head injury, but in those with severe head injury there was no apparent reduction. Early treatment was more effective in mild and moderate head injury, but there was no obvious impact of time to treatment in cases of severe head injury. The risk of disability, vascular occlusive events and seizures was similar in both groups.
A Post Hoc Analysis of Osmotherapy Use in the Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury Study-Associations With Acute Kidney Injury and Mortality
Critical care medicine. 2021
OBJECTIVES Mannitol and hypertonic saline are used to treat raised intracerebral pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury, but their possible effects on kidney function and mortality are unknown. DESIGN A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin trial in traumatic brain injury (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987454) including daily data on mannitol and hypertonic saline use. SETTING Twenty-nine university-affiliated teaching hospitals in seven countries. PATIENTS A total of 568 patients treated in the ICU for 48 hours without acute kidney injury of whom 43 (7%) received mannitol and 170 (29%) hypertonic saline. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS We categorized acute kidney injury stage according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome classification and defined acute kidney injury as any Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome stage-based changes from the admission creatinine. We tested associations between early (first 2 d) mannitol and hypertonic saline and time to acute kidney injury up to ICU discharge and death up to 180 days with Cox regression analysis. Subsequently, acute kidney injury developed more often in patients receiving mannitol (35% vs 10%; p < 0.001) and hypertonic saline (23% vs 10%; p < 0.001). On competing risk analysis including factors associated with acute kidney injury, mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.3; p = 0.01), but not hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.8; p = 0.08), was independently associated with time to acute kidney injury. In a Cox model for predicting time to death, both the use of mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1; p = 0.03) and hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02-3.2; p = 0.04) were associated with time to death. CONCLUSIONS In this post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the early use of mannitol, but not hypertonic saline, was independently associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Our findings suggest the need to further evaluate the use and choice of osmotherapy in traumatic brain injury.
Perceived Stress, Personality Traits, and State of Victim's Consciousness: Impact on Tourniquet Application Time and Effectiveness
Military medicine. 2021
INTRODUCTION One of the main avoidable causes of combat-related injury death is extremity hemorrhage. Even with regular training, failure to properly apply a tourniquet is common. In this study, we sought to assess if rescuer's stress and personality traits, along with victim's state of consciousness, had a role to explain tourniquet application failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighty-seven soldiers completed a sociodemographic and personality questionnaire (perceived stress, active altruism, mindfulness, and empathy) during a forward combat casualty care course. Then, they underwent a leg hemorrhage simulation on a randomly conscious or unconscious victim. Tourniquet application time and effectiveness (using popliteal artery Doppler) were recorded. RESULTS Tourniquet application effective rate was 37% and soldiers with higher levels of perceived stress were at greater risk of failure, especially on a conscious victim. Participants who deployed overseas and those who have undergone combat rescue training were significantly quicker to apply a tourniquet. Altruist and empathetic caregivers were slower to apply the tourniquet while mindful ones were faster. CONCLUSIONS Combat-related injuries, even simulated, not only involve the rescuer's technical skills but also their ability to deal with stressful external stimuli. Tourniquet application speed seems to be influenced by perceived stress and personality traits of the rescuers. Frequent failures justify repeated training, and one way to pursue improvement could be to develop a personalized pedagogy adapting to the needs of the students according to their current skillset but also their perceived stress and personality determinants. In the pedagogical process (planning, goal setting, teaching, and evaluating), the state of consciousness of the victim seems to be a parameter that needs to be accounted for, but further studies are required to accurately describe its influence.
Early administration of fibrinogen concentrate in patients with polytrauma with thromboelastometry suggestive of hypofibrinogenemia: A randomized feasibility trial
Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2021;76:e3168
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical effects of early administration of fibrinogen concentrate in patients with severe trauma and hypofibrinogenemia. METHODS We conducted an open randomized feasibility trial between December 2015 and January 2017 in patients with severe trauma admitted to the emergency department of a large trauma center. Patients presented with hypotension, tachycardia, and FIBTEM findings suggestive of hypofibrinogenemia. The intervention group received fibrinogen concentrate (50 mg/kg), and the control group did not receive early fibrinogen replacement. The primary outcome was feasibility assessed as the proportion of patients receiving the allocated treatment within 60 min after randomization. The secondary outcomes were transfusion requirements and other exploratory outcomes. Randomization was performed using sequentially numbered and sealed opaque envelopes. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02864875. RESULTS Thirty-two patients were randomized (16 in each group). All patients received the allocated treatment within 60 min after randomization (100%, 95% confidence interval, 86.7%-100%). The median length of intensive care unit stay was shorter in the intervention group (8 days, interquartile range [IQR] 5.75-10.0 vs. 11 days, IQR 8.5-16.0; p=0.02). There was no difference between the groups in other clinical outcomes. No adverse effects related to treatment were recorded in either group. CONCLUSION Early fibrinogen replacement with fibrinogen concentrate was feasible. Larger trials are required to properly evaluate clinical outcomes.
Effect of tranexamic acid on intracranial haemorrhage and infarction in patients with traumatic brain injury: a pre-planned substudy in a sample of CRASH-3 trial patients
Emergency medicine journal : EMJ. 2021;38(4):270-278
BACKGROUND Early tranexamic acid (TXA) treatment reduces head injury deaths after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used brain scans that were acquired as part of the routine clinical practice during the CRASH-3 trial (before unblinding) to examine the mechanism of action of TXA in TBI. Specifically, we explored the potential effects of TXA on intracranial haemorrhage and infarction. METHODS This is a prospective substudy nested within the CRASH-3 trial, a randomised placebo-controlled trial of TXA (loading dose 1 g over 10 min, then 1 g infusion over 8 hours) in patients with isolated head injury. CRASH-3 trial patients were recruited between July 2012 and January 2019. Participants in the current substudy were a subset of trial patients enrolled at 10 hospitals in the UK and 4 in Malaysia, who had at least one CT head scan performed as part of the routine clinical practice within 28 days of randomisation. The primary outcome was the volume of intraparenchymal haemorrhage (ie, contusion) measured on a CT scan done after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were progressive intracranial haemorrhage (post-randomisation CT shows >25% of volume seen on pre-randomisation CT), new intracranial haemorrhage (any haemorrhage seen on post-randomisation CT but not on pre-randomisation CT), cerebral infarction (any infarction seen on any type of brain scan done post-randomisation, excluding infarction seen pre-randomisation) and intracranial haemorrhage volume (intraparenchymal + intraventricular + subdural + epidural) in those who underwent neurosurgical haemorrhage evacuation. We planned to conduct sensitivity analyses excluding patients who were severely injured at baseline. Dichotomous outcomes were analysed using relative risks (RR) or hazard ratios (HR), and continuous outcomes using a linear mixed model. RESULTS 1767 patients were included in this substudy. One-third of the patients had a baseline GCS (Glasgow Coma Score) of 3 (n=579) and 24% had unilateral or bilateral unreactive pupils. 46% of patients were scanned pre-randomisation and post-randomisation (n=812/1767), 19% were scanned only pre-randomisation (n=341/1767) and 35% were scanned only post-randomisation (n=614/1767). In all patients, there was no evidence that TXA prevents intraparenchymal haemorrhage expansion (estimate=1.09, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.45) or intracranial haemorrhage expansion in patients who underwent neurosurgical haemorrhage evacuation (n=363) (estimate=0.79, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.11). In patients scanned pre-randomisation and post-randomisation (n=812), there was no evidence that TXA reduces progressive haemorrhage (adjusted RR=0.91, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.13) and new haemorrhage (adjusted RR=0.85, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.01). When patients with unreactive pupils at baseline were excluded, there was evidence that TXA prevents new haemorrhage (adjusted RR=0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.98). In patients scanned post-randomisation (n=1431), there was no evidence of an increase in infarction with TXA (adjusted HR=1.28, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.76). A larger proportion of patients without (vs with) a post-randomisation scan died from head injury (38% vs 19%: RR=1.97, 95% CI 1.66 to 2.34, p<0.0001). CONCLUSION TXA may prevent new haemorrhage in patients with reactive pupils at baseline. This is consistent with the results of the CRASH-3 trial which found that TXA reduced head injury death in patients with at least one reactive pupil at baseline. However, the large number of patients without post-randomisation scans and the possibility that the availability of scan data depends on whether a patient received TXA, challenges the validity of inferences made using routinely collected scan data. This study highlights the limitations of using routinely collected scan data to examine the effects of TBI treatments. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ISRCTN15088122.
Patients with traumatic brain injury from 10 hospitals in the UK and 4 in Malaysia, enrolled in the CRASH-3 trial (n= 1,767).
Tranexamic acid (TXA).
One-third of the patients had a baseline Glasgow Coma Score of 3 (n= 579) and 24% had unilateral or bilateral unreactive pupils. 46% of patients were scanned pre-randomisation and post-randomisation (n= 812/1767), 19% were scanned only pre-randomisation (n= 341/1767) and 35% were scanned only post-randomisation (n= 614/1767). In all patients, there was no evidence that TXA prevents intraparenchymal haemorrhage expansion (estimate= 1.09) or intracranial haemorrhage expansion in patients who underwent neurosurgical haemorrhage evacuation (n= 363), (estimate= 0.79). In patients scanned pre-randomisation and post-randomisation (n= 812), there was no evidence that TXA reduces progressive haemorrhage and new haemorrhage. When patients with unreactive pupils at baseline were excluded, there was evidence that TXA prevents new haemorrhage. In patients scanned post-randomisation (n= 1431), there was no evidence of an increase in infarction with TXA. A larger proportion of patients without (vs. with) a post-randomisation scan died from head injury (38% vs 19%).
Efficacy and safety of the second in-hospital dose of tranexamic acid after receiving the prehospital dose: double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial in a level 1 trauma center
European journal of trauma and emergency surgery : official publication of the European Trauma Society. 2021
BACKGROUND Prehospital administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) to injured patients is increasing worldwide. However, optimal TXA dose and need of a second infusion on hospital arrival remain undetermined. We investigated the efficacy and safety of the second in-hospital dose of TXA in injured patients receiving 1 g of TXA in the prehospital setting. We hypothesized that a second in-hospital dose of TXA improves survival of trauma patients. METHODS A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized, clinical trial included adult trauma patients receiving 1 g of TXA in the prehospital settings. Patients were then blindly randomized to Group I (second 1-g TXA) and Group II (placebo) on hospital arrival. The primary outcome was 24-h (early) and 28-day (late) mortality. Secondary outcomes were thromboembolic events, blood transfusions, hospital length of stay (HLOS) and organs failure (MOF). RESULTS A total of 220 patients were enrolled, 110 in each group. The TXA and placebo groups had a similar early [OR 1.000 (0.062-16.192); p = 0.47] and late mortality [OR 0.476 (95% CI 0.157-1.442), p = 0.18].The cause of death (n = 15) was traumatic brain injury (TBI) in 12 patients and MOF in 3 patients. The need for blood transfusions in the first 24 h, number of transfused blood units, HLOS, thromboembolic events and multiorgan failure were comparable in the TXA and placebo groups. In seriously injured patients (injury severity score > 24), the MTP activation was higher in the placebo group (31.3% vs 11.10%, p = 0.13), whereas pulmonary embolism (6.9% vs 2.9%, p = 0.44) and late mortality (27.6% vs 14.3%, p = 0.17) were higher in the TXA group but did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION The second TXA dose did not change the mortality rate, need for blood transfusion, thromboembolic complications, organ failure and HLOS compared to a single prehospital dose and thus its routine administration should be revisited in larger and multicenter studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03846973.