Efficacy of high dose tranexamic acid (TXA) for hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Hmidan Simsam M, Delorme L, Grimm D, Priestap F, Bohnert S, Descoteaux M, Hilsden R, Laverty C, Mickler J, Parry N, et al
BACKGROUND Standard dose (≤ 1 g) tranexamic acid (TXA) has established mortality benefit in trauma patients. The role of high dose IV TXA (≥2 g or ≥30 mg/kg as a single bolus) has been evaluated in the surgical setting, however, it has not been studied in trauma. We reviewed the available evidence of high dose IV TXA in any setting with the goal of informing its use in the adult trauma population. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and unpublished sources from inception until July 27, 2022 for studies that compared standard dose with high dose IV TXA in adults (≥ 16 years of age) with hemorrhage. Screening and data abstraction was done independently and in duplicate. We pooled trial data using a random effects model and considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational cohort studies separately. We assessed the individual study risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias for RCTs and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational cohort studies. The overall certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). RESULTS We included 20 studies with a combined total of 12,523 patients. Based on pooled RCT data, and as compared to standard dose TXA, high dose IV TXA probably decreases transfusion requirements (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to 0.97, moderate certainty) but with possibly no effect on blood loss (mean difference [MD] 43.31 ml less, 95% CI 135.53 to 48.90 ml less, low certainty), and an uncertain effect on thromboembolic events (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.04, very low certainty) and mortality (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.32, very low certainty). CONCLUSION When compared to standard dose, high dose IV TXA probably reduces transfusion requirements with an uncertain effect on thromboembolic events and mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review and meta-analysis, level IV.
The Efficacy of Tranexamic Acid for the Treatment of Traumatic Hip Fractures: A Network Meta-Analysis
Bloom DA, Lin CC, Manzi JE, Mojica ES, Telgheder ZL, Chapman CB
Journal of orthopaedic trauma. 2023
OBJECTIVES Network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of different dosages of intravenous(IV) acid(TXA) in the treatment of traumatic hip fractures against the control group of no TXA. DATA SOURCES This study utilized the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to perform a network meta-analysis on the use of TXA for the treatment of hip fractures. The study team utilized Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases to perform the search. Studies were selected that were published in English between the years 2010 and 2020. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION For inclusion in this study, selected manuscripts were required to be randomized controlled trials with at least one control group had no anti-fibrinolytic intervention to serve as a control, IV formulations of TXA were utilized as part of the treatment group. Furthermore, all study participants must have undergone surgical intervention for traumatic hip fractures. Studies that did not immediately meet criteria for inclusion were saved for review by the full investigating team and were included based on consensus. DATA SYNTHESIS All statistical analyses conducted for this study were performed using R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). Network meta-analyses were conducted with a frequentist approach with a random effects model using the netmeta package version 0.9-6 in R. The frequentist equivalent to surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities, termed "P-Score" was used to rank different treatments. CONCLUSION The use of TXA in the surgical management of traumatic hip fractures reduces the number of transfusions and perioperative blood loss, with minimal to no increased incidence of thrombotic events when compared to control. When comparing formulations, no route of administration is clearly superior in reducing perioperative blood loss.
The risk of thromboembolic events with early intravenous 2- and 4-g bolus dosing of tranexamic acid compared to placebo in patients with severe traumatic bleeding: A secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center trial
Spinella PC, Bochicchio K, Thomas KA, Staudt A, Shea SM, Pusateri AE, Schuerer D, Levy JH, Cap AP, Bochicchio G
BACKGROUND Screening for the risk of thromboembolism (TE) due to tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients with severe traumatic injury has not been performed in randomized clinical trials. Our objective was to determine if TXA dose was independently-associated with thromboembolism. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This is a secondary analysis of a single-center, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing placebo to a 2-g or 4-g intravenous TXA bolus dose in trauma patients with severe injury. We used multivariable discrete-time Cox regression models to identify associations with risk for thromboembolic events within 30 days post-enrollment. Event curves were created using discrete-time Cox regression. RESULTS There were 50 patients in the placebo group, 49 in the 2-g, and 50 in the 4-g TXA group. In adjusted analyses for thromboembolism, a 2-g dose of TXA had an hazard ratio (HR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) of 3.20 (1.12-9.11) (p = .029), and a 4-g dose of TXA had an HR (95% CI) of 5.33 (1.94-14.63) (p = .001). Event curves demonstrated a higher probability of thromboembolism for both doses of TXA compared to placebo. Other parameters independently associated with thromboembolism include time from injury to TXA administration, body mass index, and total blood products transfused. DISCUSSION In patients with severe traumatic injury, there was a dose-dependent increase in the risk of at least one thromboembolic event with TXA. TXA should not be withheld, but thromboembolism screening should be considered for patients receiving a dose of at least 2-g TXA intravenously for traumatic hemorrhage.
A Systematic Review of Tranexamic Acid-Associated Venous Thromboembolic Events in Combat Casualties and Considerations for Prolonged Field Care
Russo RM, Lozano R, Ruf AC, Ho JW, Strayve D, Zakaluzny SA, Keeney-Bonthrone TP
Military medicine. 2022
INTRODUCTION Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a standard component of Tactical Combat Casualty Care. Recent retrospective studies have shown that TXA use is associated with a higher rate of venous thromboembolic (VTE) events in combat-injured patients. We aim to determine if selective administration should be considered in the prolonged field care environment. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a systematic review using the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Clinical trials and observational studies of combat casualties published between January 1, 1960, and June 20, 2022, were included. We analyzed survival and VTE outcomes in TXA recipients and non-recipients. We discussed the findings of each paper in the context of current and future combat environments. RESULTS Six articles met criteria for inclusion. Only one study was powered to report mortality data, and it demonstrated a 7-fold increase in survival in severely injured TXA recipients. All studies reported an increased risk of VTE in TXA recipients, which exceeded rates in civilian literature. However, five of the six studies used overlapping data from the same registry and were limited by a high rate of missingness in pertinent variables. No VTE-related deaths were identified. CONCLUSIONS There may be an increased risk of VTE in combat casualties that receive TXA; however, this risk must be considered in the context of improved survival and an absence of VTE-associated deaths. To optimize combat casualty care during prolonged field care, it will be essential to ensure the timely administration of VTE chemoprophylaxis as soon as the risk of significant hemorrhage permits.
Association of Tranexamic Acid Administration With Mortality and Thromboembolic Events in Patients With Traumatic Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Karl V, Thorn S, Mathes T, Hess S, Maegele M
JAMA network open. 2022;5(3):e220625
IMPORTANCE Tranexamic acid is widely available and used off-label in patients with bleeding traumatic injury, although the literature does not consistently agree on its efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVE To examine the association of tranexamic acid administration with mortality and thromboembolic events compared with no treatment or with placebo in patients with traumatic injury in the literature. DATA SOURCES On March 23, 2021, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies published between 1986 and 2021. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials and observational studies investigating tranexamic acid administration compared with no treatment or placebo among patients with traumatic injury and traumatic brain injury who were 15 years or older were included. Included studies were published in English or German. The electronic search yielded 1546 records, of which 71 were considered for full-text screening. The selection process was performed independently by 2 reviewers. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS The study followed the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers and pooled using the inverse-variance random-effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes were formulated before data collection and included mortality at 24 hours and 28 and 30 days (1 month) as well as the incidence of thromboembolic events and the amount of blood products administered. Owing to missing data, overall mortality was added and the amount of blood products administered was discarded. RESULTS Thirty-one studies with a total of 43 473 patients were included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis demonstrated that administration of tranexamic acid was associated with a significant decrease in 1-month mortality compared with the control cohort (risk ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.71-0.97]; I2 = 35%). The results of meta-analyses for 24-hour and overall mortality and thromboembolic events were heterogeneous and could not be pooled. Further investigations on clinical heterogeneity showed that populations with trauma and trial conditions differed markedly. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that tranexamic acid may be beneficial in various patient populations with trauma. However, reasonable concerns about potential thromboembolic events with tranexamic acid remain.
Effects of tranexamic acid treatment in severely and non-severely injured trauma patients
Ageron FX, Shakur-Still H, Roberts I
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BACKGROUND Urgent treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces bleeding deaths but there is disagreement about which patients should be treated. We examine the effects of TXA treatment in severely and non-severely injured trauma patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We did an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized trials with over 1000 trauma patients that assessed the effects of TXA on survival. We defined the severity of injury according to characteristics at first assessment: systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg and a heart rate greater than 120 beats per minute or Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than nine or any GCS with one or more fixed dilated pupils. The primary measure was survival on the day of the injury. We examined the effect of TXA on survival in severely and non-severely injured patients and how these effects vary with the time from injury to treatment. RESULTS We obtained data for 32,944 patients from two randomized trials. Tranexamic acid significantly increased survival on the day of the injury (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34; p < .01). The effect of tranexamic acid on survival in non-severely injured patients (OR = 1.25, 1.03-1.50) was similar to that in severely injured patients (OR = 1.22, 1.09-1.37) with no significant heterogeneity (p = .87). In severely and non-severely injured pateints, treatment within the first hour after injury was the most effective. DISCUSSION Early tranexamic acid treatment improves survival in both severely and non-severely injured trauma patients. Its use should not be restricted to the severely injured.
Severely and non-severely injured trauma patients enrolled in the two large randomised controlled trials: CRASH-2 and CRASH-3 (n= 32,944).
Tranexamic acid (n= 16,499).
Placebo (n= 16,445).
Tranexamic acid significantly increased survival on the day of the injury (odd ratio (OR)= 1.22). The effect of tranexamic acid on survival in non-severely injured patients (OR= 1.25) was similar to that in severely injured patients (OR= 1.22) with no significant heterogeneity. In severely and non-severely injured patients, treatment within the first hour after injury was the most effective.
The efficacy of tranexamic acid treatment with different time and doses for traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Huang H, Xin M, Wu X, Liu J, Zhang W, Yang K, Zhang J
Thrombosis journal. 2022;20(1):79
OBJECTIVE Tranexamic acid (TXA) plays a significant role in the treatment of traumatic diseases. However, its effectiveness in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) seems to be contradictory, according to the recent publication of several meta-analyses. We aimed to determine the efficacy of TXA treatment at different times and doses for TBI treatment. METHODS PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared TXA and a placebo in adults and adolescents (≥ 15 years of age) with TBI up to January 31, 2022. Two authors independently abstracted the data and assessed the quality of evidence. RESULTS Of the identified 673 studies, 13 involving 18,675 patients met our inclusion criteria. TXA had no effect on mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.06), adverse events (RR 0.93, 95% Cl 0.76-1.14), severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score from 3 to 8) (RR 0.99, 95% Cl 0.94-1.05), unfavorable Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS < 4) (RR 0.96, 95% Cl 0.82-1.11), neurosurgical intervention (RR 1.11, 95% Cl 0.89-1.38), or rebleeding (RR 0.97, 95% Cl 0.82-1.16). TXA might reduce the mean hemorrhage volume on subsequent imaging (standardized mean difference, -0.35; 95% CI [-0.62, -0.08]). CONCLUSION TXA at different times and doses was associated with reduced mean bleeding but not with mortality, adverse events, neurosurgical intervention, and rebleeding. More research data is needed on different detection indexes and levels of TXA in patients with TBI, as compared to those not receiving TXA; although the prognostic outcome for all harm outcomes was not affected, the potential for harm was not ruled out. TRIAL REGISTRATION The review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42022300484).
Tranexamic acid is not inferior to placebo with respect to adverse events in supected tbi patients not in shock with a normal head ct: A retrospective study of a randomized trial
Harmer J, Dewey EN, Meier EN, Rowell SE, Schreiber MA
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2022
BACKGROUND A 2-gram bolus of tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to reduce 28-day mortality in a RCT. This study investigates whether out-of-hospital TXA use is associated with adverse events or unfavorable outcomes in suspected TBI when intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is absent on initial CT. METHODS This study utilized data from a 2015-2017, multicenter, randomized trial studying the effect of the following TXA doses on moderate to severe TBI: 2-gram bolus, 1-gram bolus plus 1-gram infusion over 8 hours, and a placebo bolus with placebo infusion. Of the 966 participants enrolled, 395 with an initial CT negative for ICH were included in this analysis. Fifteen adverse events (28-day incidence) were studied: MI, DVT, seizure, pulmonary embolism, ARDS, cardiac failure, liver failure, renal failure, CVA, cardiac arrest, cerebral vasospasm, "any thromboembolism", hypernatremia, AKI, and infection. Other unfavorable outcomes analyzed include mortality at 28 days & 6 months, GOSE ≤4 at discharge & 6 months, ICU-free days, ventilator-free days, hospital-free days, and combined unfavorable outcomes. In both study drug groups the incidence of dichotomous outcomes and quantity of ordinal outcomes were compared to placebo. RESULTS No statistically significant increase in adverse events or unfavorable outcomes was found between either TXA dosing regimen and placebo. Demographics and injury scores were not statistically different other than two methods of injury which were overrepresented in the 1-gram TXA bolus +1-gram TXA infusion. CONCLUSIONS Administration of either a 2-gram TXA bolus or a 1-gram TXA bolus plus 1-gram TXA 8-hour infusion in suspected-TBIs without ICH is not associated with increased adverse events or unfavorable outcomes. Because the out-of-hospital 2-gram bolus is associated with a mortality benefit it should be administered in suspected-TBI. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE Level II, Therapeutic.
Systemic hemostatic agents initiated in trauma patients in the pre-hospital setting: a systematic review
Biffi A, Porcu G, Castellini G, Napoletano A, Coclite D, D'Angelo D, Fauci AJ, Iacorossi L, Latina R, Salomone K, et al
European journal of trauma and emergency surgery : official publication of the European Trauma Society. 2022
PURPOSE The effect of systemic hemostatic agents initiated during pre-hospital care of severely injured patients with ongoing bleeding or traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was therefore conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of systemic hemostatic agents as an adjunctive therapy in people with major trauma and hemorrhage or TBI in the context of developing the Italian National Institute of Health guidelines on major trauma integrated management. METHODS PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to October 2021 for studies that investigated pre-hospital initiated treatment with systemic hemostatic agents. The certainty of evidence was evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, and the quality of each study was determined with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The primary outcome was overall mortality, and secondary outcomes included cause-specific mortality, health-related quality of life, any adverse effects and blood product use, hemorrhage expansion, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS Five trials of tranexamic acid (TXA) met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. With a high certainty of evidence, when compared to placebo TXA reduced mortality at 24 h (relative risk = 0.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.94) and at 1 month among trauma patients (0.91, 0.85-0.97). These results depend on the subgroup of patients with significant hemorrhage because in the subgroup of TBI there are no difference between TXA and placebo. TXA also reduced bleeding death and multiple organ failure whereas no difference in health-related quality of life. CONCLUSION Balancing benefits and harms, TXA initiated in the pre-hospital setting can be used for patients experiencing major trauma with significant hemorrhage since it reduces the risk of mortality at 24 h and one month with no difference in terms of adverse effects when compared to placebo. Considering the subgroup of severe TBI, no difference in mortality rate was found at 24 h and one month. These results highlight the need to conduct future studies to investigate the role of other systemic hemostatic agents in the pre-hospital settings.
The Effects of Timing of Prehospital Tranexamic Acid on Outcomes after Traumatic Brain Injury; Sub Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Brito AMP, Schreiber MA, El Haddi J, Meier EN, Rowell SE
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2022
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic that has shown some promise in improving outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI), but only when given early after injury. We examined the association between timing of prehospital TXA administration and outcomes in patients with moderate to severe TBI. METHODS Patients enrolled in the multi-institutional, double-blind randomized Prehospital TXA for TBI Trial with blunt or penetrating injury and suspected TBI (GCS ≤12, SBP ≥90) received either a 2 g TXA bolus or a 1 g bolus plus 1 g 8 h infusion within 2 hours of injury were analyzed. Outcomes were compared between early administration (<45 minutes from injury) and late administration (> 45 minutes from injury) using a Chi Square, Fischers Exact Test, t-test, or Mann Whitney U test as indicated. Logistic regression examined time to drug as an independent variable. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS 649 Patients met inclusion criteria (354 early and 259 late). 28-day and 6-month mortality, 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended (GOSE) and disability rating scale scores were not different between early and late administration. Late administration was associated with higher rates of DVT (0.8 vs 3.4%, p = 0.02), cerebral vasospasm (0% vs 2%, p = 0.01), as well as prolonged EMS transport and need for a prehospital airway (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In patients with moderate or severe TBI who received TXA within two hours of injury, no mortality benefit was observed in those who received treatment within 45 minutes of injury, although lower rates of select complications were seen. These results support protocols that recommend TXA administration within 45 minutes of injury for patients with suspected TBI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level 1, Therapeutic.