Factors that influence the administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) to trauma patients in prehospital settings: a systematic review
BMJ open. 2023;13(5):e073075
OBJECTIVE In the UK there are around 5400 deaths annually from injury. Tranexamic acid (TXA) prevents bleeding and has been shown to reduce trauma mortality. However, only 5% of UK major trauma patients who are at risk of haemorrhage receive prehospital TXA. This review aims to examine the evidence regarding factors influencing the prehospital administration of TXA to trauma patients. DESIGN Systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES AMED, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, Embase and MEDLINE were searched from January 2010 to 2020; searches were updated in June 2022. CLINICALTRIALS gov and OpenGrey were also searched and forward and backwards citation chasing performed. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA All primary research reporting factors influencing TXA administration to trauma patients in the prehospital setting was included. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two independent reviewers performed the selection process, quality assessment and data extraction. Data were tabulated, grouped by setting and influencing factor and synthesised narratively. RESULTS Twenty papers (278 249 participants in total) were included in the final synthesis; 13 papers from civilian and 7 from military settings. Thirteen studies were rated as 'moderate' using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Several common factors were identified: knowledge and skills; consequences and social influences; injury type (severity, injury site and mechanism); protocols; resources; priorities; patient age; patient sex. CONCLUSIONS This review highlights an absence of high-quality research. Preliminary evidence suggests a host of system and individual-level factors that may be important in determining whether TXA is administered to trauma patients in the prehospital setting. FUNDING AND REGISTRATION This review was supported by Research Capability Funding from the South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust and the National Institute for Health Research Applied Research Collaboration South West Peninsula. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER CRD42020162943.
Any trauma patients in prehospital settings (20 studies, n= 278,249).
Exposure: Factors influencing the decision to administer tranexamic acid (TXA).
This systematic review included 13 studies from civilian settings and 7 studies from military settings. This review highlighted a lack of high-quality research addressing the factors that influence prehospital TXA administration, particularly in children or patients with isolated head injuries. Common factors identified suggested a host of system and individual-level factors including: knowledge and skills, consequences and social influences, injury type (including severity, injury site and mechanism of injury), protocols, resources, priorities, patient age, and patient sex.
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Sample Size Methodology for Traumatic Hemorrhage Trials
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2023
BACKGROUND Trauma hemorrhage remains the most common cause of preventable mortality in trauma. In order to guide clinical practice, RCTs provide high-quality evidence to inform clinical decision making. The clinical relevance and inferences made by RCTs are dependent on assumptions made during sample size calculation. METHODS To describe the quality of methodology for sample size determination, we conducted a systemic review RCTs evaluating interventions that aim to improve survival in adults with trauma related hemorrhage. Estimated and actual outcome data is compared, including components of sample size determination. RESULTS A total of 13 RCTs were included. We noted a high rate of negative trial results (11 of 13 studies). Most studies were multi-center and conducted in North America, evaluating patients with blunt and penetrating injuries. The criteria for hemorrhagic shock varied across studies. All studies did not accurately estimate the mortality rate during sample size calculation. All but one study overestimated the mortality reduction during sample size calculation; the median absolute mortality reduction was 3%, compared to a target of 10%. Only the CRASH-2 study used a minimal clinically important different for treatment effect target. No RCTs employed prognostic enrichment. Most studies were terminated (8 of 13), mainly for futility. CONCLUSIONS Taken together, this review highlights that current clinical trial methodology is limited by imprecise control group risk estimates, overly optimistic treatment effect estimates and lack of transparent justification for such targets. These limitations result in studies at high risk for futility and potentially premature abandonment of promising therapies. Given the high morbidity and mortality of trauma-related hemorrhage, we recommend that future conduct of trauma RCTs incorporate 1) prognostic enrichment to inform baseline risk, (2) justify target treatment differences based on clinical importance and realistic estimates of feasibility, and (3) be transparent and provide justification for the assumptions made. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic Review/Meta Analysis; Level II.
The Efficacy of Tranexamic Acid for the Treatment of Traumatic Hip Fractures: A Network Meta-Analysis
Journal of orthopaedic trauma. 2023
OBJECTIVES Network meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of different dosages of intravenous(IV) acid(TXA) in the treatment of traumatic hip fractures against the control group of no TXA. DATA SOURCES This study utilized the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to perform a network meta-analysis on the use of TXA for the treatment of hip fractures. The study team utilized Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane Reviews, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases to perform the search. Studies were selected that were published in English between the years 2010 and 2020. STUDY SELECTION/DATA EXTRACTION For inclusion in this study, selected manuscripts were required to be randomized controlled trials with at least one control group had no anti-fibrinolytic intervention to serve as a control, IV formulations of TXA were utilized as part of the treatment group. Furthermore, all study participants must have undergone surgical intervention for traumatic hip fractures. Studies that did not immediately meet criteria for inclusion were saved for review by the full investigating team and were included based on consensus. DATA SYNTHESIS All statistical analyses conducted for this study were performed using R (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). Network meta-analyses were conducted with a frequentist approach with a random effects model using the netmeta package version 0.9-6 in R. The frequentist equivalent to surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities, termed "P-Score" was used to rank different treatments. CONCLUSION The use of TXA in the surgical management of traumatic hip fractures reduces the number of transfusions and perioperative blood loss, with minimal to no increased incidence of thrombotic events when compared to control. When comparing formulations, no route of administration is clearly superior in reducing perioperative blood loss.
Efficacy of high dose tranexamic acid (TXA) for hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Standard dose (≤ 1 g) tranexamic acid (TXA) has established mortality benefit in trauma patients. The role of high dose IV TXA (≥2 g or ≥30 mg/kg as a single bolus) has been evaluated in the surgical setting, however, it has not been studied in trauma. We reviewed the available evidence of high dose IV TXA in any setting with the goal of informing its use in the adult trauma population. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and unpublished sources from inception until July 27, 2022 for studies that compared standard dose with high dose IV TXA in adults (≥ 16 years of age) with hemorrhage. Screening and data abstraction was done independently and in duplicate. We pooled trial data using a random effects model and considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational cohort studies separately. We assessed the individual study risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias for RCTs and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational cohort studies. The overall certainty of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). RESULTS We included 20 studies with a combined total of 12,523 patients. Based on pooled RCT data, and as compared to standard dose TXA, high dose IV TXA probably decreases transfusion requirements (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to 0.97, moderate certainty) but with possibly no effect on blood loss (mean difference [MD] 43.31 ml less, 95% CI 135.53 to 48.90 ml less, low certainty), and an uncertain effect on thromboembolic events (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.04, very low certainty) and mortality (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.32, very low certainty). CONCLUSION When compared to standard dose, high dose IV TXA probably reduces transfusion requirements with an uncertain effect on thromboembolic events and mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review and meta-analysis, level IV.
Association of Tranexamic Acid Administration With Mortality and Thromboembolic Events in Patients With Traumatic Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA network open. 2022;5(3):e220625
IMPORTANCE Tranexamic acid is widely available and used off-label in patients with bleeding traumatic injury, although the literature does not consistently agree on its efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVE To examine the association of tranexamic acid administration with mortality and thromboembolic events compared with no treatment or with placebo in patients with traumatic injury in the literature. DATA SOURCES On March 23, 2021, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies published between 1986 and 2021. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials and observational studies investigating tranexamic acid administration compared with no treatment or placebo among patients with traumatic injury and traumatic brain injury who were 15 years or older were included. Included studies were published in English or German. The electronic search yielded 1546 records, of which 71 were considered for full-text screening. The selection process was performed independently by 2 reviewers. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS The study followed the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers and pooled using the inverse-variance random-effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes were formulated before data collection and included mortality at 24 hours and 28 and 30 days (1 month) as well as the incidence of thromboembolic events and the amount of blood products administered. Owing to missing data, overall mortality was added and the amount of blood products administered was discarded. RESULTS Thirty-one studies with a total of 43 473 patients were included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis demonstrated that administration of tranexamic acid was associated with a significant decrease in 1-month mortality compared with the control cohort (risk ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.71-0.97]; I2 = 35%). The results of meta-analyses for 24-hour and overall mortality and thromboembolic events were heterogeneous and could not be pooled. Further investigations on clinical heterogeneity showed that populations with trauma and trial conditions differed markedly. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that tranexamic acid may be beneficial in various patient populations with trauma. However, reasonable concerns about potential thromboembolic events with tranexamic acid remain.
Systemic hemostatic agents initiated in trauma patients in the pre-hospital setting: a systematic review
European journal of trauma and emergency surgery : official publication of the European Trauma Society. 2022
PURPOSE The effect of systemic hemostatic agents initiated during pre-hospital care of severely injured patients with ongoing bleeding or traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. A systematic review and meta-analysis was therefore conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of systemic hemostatic agents as an adjunctive therapy in people with major trauma and hemorrhage or TBI in the context of developing the Italian National Institute of Health guidelines on major trauma integrated management. METHODS PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to October 2021 for studies that investigated pre-hospital initiated treatment with systemic hemostatic agents. The certainty of evidence was evaluated with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, and the quality of each study was determined with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The primary outcome was overall mortality, and secondary outcomes included cause-specific mortality, health-related quality of life, any adverse effects and blood product use, hemorrhage expansion, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS Five trials of tranexamic acid (TXA) met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. With a high certainty of evidence, when compared to placebo TXA reduced mortality at 24 h (relative risk = 0.83, 95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.94) and at 1 month among trauma patients (0.91, 0.85-0.97). These results depend on the subgroup of patients with significant hemorrhage because in the subgroup of TBI there are no difference between TXA and placebo. TXA also reduced bleeding death and multiple organ failure whereas no difference in health-related quality of life. CONCLUSION Balancing benefits and harms, TXA initiated in the pre-hospital setting can be used for patients experiencing major trauma with significant hemorrhage since it reduces the risk of mortality at 24 h and one month with no difference in terms of adverse effects when compared to placebo. Considering the subgroup of severe TBI, no difference in mortality rate was found at 24 h and one month. These results highlight the need to conduct future studies to investigate the role of other systemic hemostatic agents in the pre-hospital settings.
A Systematic Review of Tranexamic Acid-Associated Venous Thromboembolic Events in Combat Casualties and Considerations for Prolonged Field Care
Military medicine. 2022
INTRODUCTION Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a standard component of Tactical Combat Casualty Care. Recent retrospective studies have shown that TXA use is associated with a higher rate of venous thromboembolic (VTE) events in combat-injured patients. We aim to determine if selective administration should be considered in the prolonged field care environment. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a systematic review using the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Clinical trials and observational studies of combat casualties published between January 1, 1960, and June 20, 2022, were included. We analyzed survival and VTE outcomes in TXA recipients and non-recipients. We discussed the findings of each paper in the context of current and future combat environments. RESULTS Six articles met criteria for inclusion. Only one study was powered to report mortality data, and it demonstrated a 7-fold increase in survival in severely injured TXA recipients. All studies reported an increased risk of VTE in TXA recipients, which exceeded rates in civilian literature. However, five of the six studies used overlapping data from the same registry and were limited by a high rate of missingness in pertinent variables. No VTE-related deaths were identified. CONCLUSIONS There may be an increased risk of VTE in combat casualties that receive TXA; however, this risk must be considered in the context of improved survival and an absence of VTE-associated deaths. To optimize combat casualty care during prolonged field care, it will be essential to ensure the timely administration of VTE chemoprophylaxis as soon as the risk of significant hemorrhage permits.
Effects of tranexamic acid treatment in severely and non-severely injured trauma patients
BACKGROUND Urgent treatment with tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces bleeding deaths but there is disagreement about which patients should be treated. We examine the effects of TXA treatment in severely and non-severely injured trauma patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We did an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomized trials with over 1000 trauma patients that assessed the effects of TXA on survival. We defined the severity of injury according to characteristics at first assessment: systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg and a heart rate greater than 120 beats per minute or Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than nine or any GCS with one or more fixed dilated pupils. The primary measure was survival on the day of the injury. We examined the effect of TXA on survival in severely and non-severely injured patients and how these effects vary with the time from injury to treatment. RESULTS We obtained data for 32,944 patients from two randomized trials. Tranexamic acid significantly increased survival on the day of the injury (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34; p < .01). The effect of tranexamic acid on survival in non-severely injured patients (OR = 1.25, 1.03-1.50) was similar to that in severely injured patients (OR = 1.22, 1.09-1.37) with no significant heterogeneity (p = .87). In severely and non-severely injured pateints, treatment within the first hour after injury was the most effective. DISCUSSION Early tranexamic acid treatment improves survival in both severely and non-severely injured trauma patients. Its use should not be restricted to the severely injured.
Severely and non-severely injured trauma patients enrolled in the two large randomised controlled trials: CRASH-2 and CRASH-3 (n= 32,944).
Tranexamic acid (n= 16,499).
Placebo (n= 16,445).
Tranexamic acid significantly increased survival on the day of the injury (odd ratio (OR)= 1.22). The effect of tranexamic acid on survival in non-severely injured patients (OR= 1.25) was similar to that in severely injured patients (OR= 1.22) with no significant heterogeneity. In severely and non-severely injured patients, treatment within the first hour after injury was the most effective.
Effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in pediatric trauma: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2022;55:103-110
OBJECTIVE Trauma is the leading cause of childhood death in the United States. Our goal was to determine the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) in improving survival in pediatric trauma. METHODS MEDLINE (OVID), Embase (OVID), Cochrane Central Register databases, CINAHL (EBSCO), Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics), and grey literature sources were searched for publications reporting survival and safety outcomes in children receiving TXA in acute trauma, with no language restrictions, published until February 11, 2021. Two independent researchers assessed studies for eligibility, bias, and quality. Data on the study setting, injury type, participants, design, interventions, TXA dosing and outcomes were extracted. The primary outcome was survival in children who received TXA following trauma. Forest plots of effect estimates were constructed for each study. Heterogeneity was assessed and data were pooled by meta-analysis using a random-effects model. RESULTS Fourteen articles met inclusion criteria - six single-institution and eight multicentre retrospective cohort studies. Overall, TXA use was not associated with increased survival in pediatric trauma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.30-1.22) after adjustment for patient-level variables, such as injury severity. Increased survival was documented in the subset of children experiencing trauma in combat settings (aOR for mortality: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.14-0.68). There were no differences in the odds of thromboembolic events (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.46-2.87) in children who received TXA versus not. CONCLUSIONS The utility of TXA in children with trauma is unclear. Guidelines supporting TXA use in pediatric trauma may not be based on the available evidence of its use in this context. Rigorous trials measuring survival and other meaningful outcomes and exploring optimal TXA dosing are urgently needed. Study Registration (PROSPERO): CRD42020157683.
The efficacy of tranexamic acid treatment with different time and doses for traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Thrombosis journal. 2022;20(1):79
OBJECTIVE Tranexamic acid (TXA) plays a significant role in the treatment of traumatic diseases. However, its effectiveness in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) seems to be contradictory, according to the recent publication of several meta-analyses. We aimed to determine the efficacy of TXA treatment at different times and doses for TBI treatment. METHODS PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched for randomized controlled trials that compared TXA and a placebo in adults and adolescents (≥ 15 years of age) with TBI up to January 31, 2022. Two authors independently abstracted the data and assessed the quality of evidence. RESULTS Of the identified 673 studies, 13 involving 18,675 patients met our inclusion criteria. TXA had no effect on mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.06), adverse events (RR 0.93, 95% Cl 0.76-1.14), severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score from 3 to 8) (RR 0.99, 95% Cl 0.94-1.05), unfavorable Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS < 4) (RR 0.96, 95% Cl 0.82-1.11), neurosurgical intervention (RR 1.11, 95% Cl 0.89-1.38), or rebleeding (RR 0.97, 95% Cl 0.82-1.16). TXA might reduce the mean hemorrhage volume on subsequent imaging (standardized mean difference, -0.35; 95% CI [-0.62, -0.08]). CONCLUSION TXA at different times and doses was associated with reduced mean bleeding but not with mortality, adverse events, neurosurgical intervention, and rebleeding. More research data is needed on different detection indexes and levels of TXA in patients with TBI, as compared to those not receiving TXA; although the prognostic outcome for all harm outcomes was not affected, the potential for harm was not ruled out. TRIAL REGISTRATION The review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42022300484).