Non-operative management for high-grade splenic injury: a systematic review protocol
JBI evidence synthesis. 2023
OBJECTIVE The objective of this review is to establish whether embolization is more effective than clinical observation for adult patients with grade III-V splenic injuries. Findings will be used to guide future practice and, if necessary, inform future research design and conduct. INTRODUCTION The spleen is one of the most frequently injured intra-abdominal organs, with a reported adult mortality of 7% to 18% following trauma. Non-operative management has become a standard of care for hemodynamically stable patients. In clinical practice, the decision whether to prophylactically embolize or manage high-grade injuries with observation alone remains controversial. INCLUSION CRITERIA Sources including adult patients with grade III-V splenic injuries secondary to blunt trauma will be included in this review. Eligible studies must include comparisons between 2 cohorts of patients undergoing either prophylactic embolization or clinical observation only. Outcomes will include mortality rate, failure of treatment, intensive care unit admission, length-of-hospital stay, blood transfusion requirements, and patient satisfaction. METHODS A systematic review with meta-analysis will be conducted. PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL will be searched for eligible studies, as will trial registries and sources of gray literature. Study selection, quality appraisal, and outcome data extraction will be performed in duplicate. Methodological quality will be evaluated with appropriate JBI critical appraisal tools. Studies will, where possible, be pooled in statistical meta-analysis. A random effects model will be used and statistical analysis will be performed. The certainty of the findings will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. REVIEW REGISTRATION PROSPERO CRD42023420220.
Artificial intelligence and machine learning for hemorrhagic trauma care
Military Medical Research. 2023;10(1):6
Artificial intelligence (AI), a branch of machine learning (ML) has been increasingly employed in the research of trauma in various aspects. Hemorrhage is the most common cause of trauma-related death. To better elucidate the current role of AI and contribute to future development of ML in trauma care, we conducted a review focused on the use of ML in the diagnosis or treatment strategy of traumatic hemorrhage. A literature search was carried out on PubMed and Google scholar. Titles and abstracts were screened and, if deemed appropriate, the full articles were reviewed. We included 89 studies in the review. These studies could be grouped into five areas: (1) prediction of outcomes; (2) risk assessment and injury severity for triage; (3) prediction of transfusions; (4) detection of hemorrhage; and (5) prediction of coagulopathy. Performance analysis of ML in comparison with current standards for trauma care showed that most studies demonstrated the benefits of ML models. However, most studies were retrospective, focused on prediction of mortality, and development of patient outcome scoring systems. Few studies performed model assessment via test datasets obtained from different sources. Prediction models for transfusions and coagulopathy have been developed, but none is in widespread use. AI-enabled ML-driven technology is becoming integral part of the whole course of trauma care. Comparison and application of ML algorithms using different datasets from initial training, testing and validation in prospective and randomized controlled trials are warranted for provision of decision support for individualized patient care as far forward as possible.
Characterization and Analysis of Chitosan-Gelatin Composite-Based Biomaterial Effectivity as Local Hemostatic Agent: A Systematic Review
Chitosan and gelatin were the most widely used natural materials in pharmaceutical and medical fields, especially as local hemostatic agents, independently or as a composite material with the addition of other active substances. Chitosan and gelatin have excellent properties in biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity and water absorption capacity. The objective of this review was to analyze the characteristics of chitosan-gelatin (CG) composite-based biomaterial and its effectivity as a local hemostatic agent. We used PRISMA guidelines and the PICO framework to compile this review. The findings demonstrated that the CG composite-based biomaterial had excellent physical, chemical, mechanical properties and local hemostatic agent activity by adding other active substances such as oxidized fibers (OF), silica nanoparticles (SiNPs), calcium (Ca) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) or by setting the CG composite proportion ratio.
The Impact of the Addition of a Virtual Reality Trainer on Skill Retention of Tourniquet Application for Hemorrhage Control Among Emergency Medical Technician Students: A Pilot Study
INTRODUCTION Trauma is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) often arrive first at the scene of traumatic injuries to perform life-saving skills such as tourniquet placement. While current EMT courses teach and test tourniquet application, studies have shown efficacy and retention of EMT skills such as tourniquet placement decay over time, with educational interventions needed to improve retention of skills. METHODS A prospective randomized pilot study was conducted to determine differences in retention of tourniquet placement among 40 EMT students after initial training. Participants were randomly assigned to either a virtual reality (VR) intervention or a control group. The VR group received instruction from a refresher VR program 35 days after initial training as a supplement to their EMT course. Both the VR and control participants' tourniquet skills were assessed 70 days after initial training by blinded instructors. Results: There was no significant difference in correct tourniquet placement between both groups (Control, 63% vs Intervention, 57%, p = 0.57). It was found that 9/21 participants (43%) in the VR intervention group failed to correctly apply the tourniquet while 7/19 of the control participants (37%) failed in tourniquet application. Additionally, the VR group was more likely to fail the tourniquet application due to improper tightening than the control group during the final assessment (p = 0.04). Conclusion: In this pilot study, using a VR headset in conjunction with in-person training did not improve the efficacy and retention of tourniquet placement skills. Participants who received the VR intervention were more likely to have errors relating to haptics, rather than procedure-related errors.
ECMO in adult patients with severe trauma: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European journal of medical research. 2023;28(1):412
BACKGROUND Severe trauma can result in cardiorespiratory failure, and when conventional treatment is ineffective, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can serve as an adjunctive therapy. However, the indications for ECMO in trauma cases are uncertain and clinical outcomes are variable. This study sought to describe the prognosis of adult trauma patients requiring ECMO, aiming to inform clinical decision-making and future research. METHODS A comprehensive search was conducted on Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus databases until March 13, 2023, encompassing relevant studies involving over 5 trauma patients (aged ≥ 16 years) requiring ECMO support. The primary outcome measure was survival until discharge, with secondary measures including length of stay in the ICU and hospital, ECMO duration, and complications during ECMO. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to analyze these outcomes. The study quality was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist, while the certainty of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. RESULTS The meta-analysis comprised 36 observational studies encompassing 1822 patients. The pooled survival rate was 65.9% (95% CI 61.3-70.5%). Specifically, studies focusing on traumatic brain injury (TBI) (16 studies, 383 patients) reported a survival rate of 66.1% (95% CI 55.4-76.2%), while studies non-TBI (15 studies, 262 patients) reported a survival rate of 68.1% (95% CI 56.9-78.5%). No significant difference was observed between these two survival comparisons (p = 0.623). Notably, studies utilizing venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) (15 studies, 39.0%, 95% CI 23.3-55.6%) demonstrated significantly lower survival rates than those using venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) (23 studies, 72.3%, 95% CI 63.2-80.7%, p < 0.001). The graded assessment of evidence provided a high degree of certainty regarding the pooled survival. CONCLUSIONS ECMO is now considered beneficial for severely traumatized patients, improving prognosis and serving as a valuable tool in managing trauma-related severe cardiorespiratory failure, haemorrhagic shock, and cardiac arrest.
Efficacy of the Military Tactical Emergency Tourniquet for Lower Extremity Arterial Occlusion Compared with the Combat Application Tourniquet: A Randomized Crossover Study
Journal of special operations medicine : a peer reviewed journal for SOF medical professionals. 2023
INTRODUCTION Extremity bleeding and subsequent hemorrhagic shock is one of the main causes of preventable battlefield death, leading to mass-fielding of modern tourniquets, such as the Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT; Composite Resources). Numerous look-alike tourniquets, such as the Military Tactical Emergency Tourniquet (MTET; SZCTKlink), flood commercial markets, offering visually near-identical tourniquets for drastically reduced prices. We examined the performance of the MTET compared with that of the CAT. METHODS We undertook a randomized crossover trial to observe self-applied tourniquets to the lower extremity by combat medics, comparing the CAT to the MTET in application time and success rates, proven by loss of distal pulse assessed by Doppler ultrasound in <1 minute. RESULTS All 50 participants (100%) successfully applied the CAT versus 40 participants (80%) using the MTET (p = .0001). Median application time for the CAT (29.03 seconds; range, 18.63 to 59.50 seconds) was significantly less than those of successful MTET applications (35.27 seconds; range, 17.00 to 58.90 seconds) or failed MTET applications (72.26 seconds; range, 62.84 to 83.96 seconds) (p = .0012). Of 10 MTET failures, three (30%) were from application time >1 minute and seven (70%) from tourniquet mechanical failure. CONCLUSION The MTET performed worse than the CAT did in all observed areas. Despite identical appearance, look-alike tourniquets should not be assumed to be equivalent in quality or functionality to robustly tested tourniquets.
Nonselective versus Selective Angioembolization for Trauma Patients with Pelvic Injuries Accompanied by Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2023;59(8)
Background and Objectives: Angioembolization has emerged as an effective therapeutic approach for pelvic hemorrhages; however, its exact effect size concerning the level of embolized artery remains uncertain. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect size of embolization-related pelvic complications after nonselective angioembolization compared to that after selective angioembolization in patients with pelvic injury accompanying hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: Relevant articles were collected by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases until 24 June 2023. Meta-analyses were conducted using odds ratios (ORs) for binary outcomes. Quality assessment was conducted using the risk of bias tool in non-randomized studies of interventions. Results: Five studies examining 357 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Embolization-related pelvic complications did not significantly differ between patients with nonselective and selective angioembolization (OR 1.581, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.592 to 4.225, I(2) = 0%). However, in-hospital mortality was more likely to be higher in the nonselective group (OR 2.232, 95% CI 1.014 to 4.913, I(2) = 0%) than in the selective group. In the quality assessment, two studies were found to have a moderate risk of bias, whereas two studies exhibited a serious risk of bias. Conclusions: Despite the favorable outcomes observed with nonselective angioembolization concerning embolization-related pelvic complications, determining the exact effect sizes was limited owing to the significant risk of bias and heterogeneity. Nonetheless, the low incidence of ischemic pelvic complications appears to be a promising result.
Emergency Department Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta in Trauma Patients With Exsanguinating Hemorrhage: The UK-REBOA Randomized Clinical Trial
IMPORTANCE Bleeding is the most common cause of preventable death after trauma. OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) when used in the emergency department along with standard care vs standard care alone on mortality in trauma patients with exsanguinating hemorrhage. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Pragmatic, bayesian, randomized clinical trial conducted at 16 major trauma centers in the UK. Patients aged 16 years or older with exsanguinating hemorrhage were enrolled between October 2017 and March 2022 and followed up for 90 days. INTERVENTION Patients were randomly assigned (1:1 allocation) to a strategy that included REBOA and standard care (n = 46) or standard care alone (n = 44). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 90 days. Ten secondary outcomes included mortality at 6 months, while in the hospital, and within 24 hours, 6 hours, or 3 hours; the need for definitive hemorrhage control procedures; time to commencement of definitive hemorrhage control procedures; complications; length of stay; blood product use; and cause of death. RESULTS Of the 90 patients (median age, 41 years [IQR, 31-59 years]; 62 [69%] were male; and the median Injury Severity Score was 41 [IQR, 29-50]) randomized, 89 were included in the primary outcome analysis because 1 patient in the standard care alone group declined to provide consent for continued participation and data collection 4 days after enrollment. At 90 days, 25 of 46 patients (54%) had experienced all-cause mortality in the REBOA and standard care group vs 18 of 43 patients (42%) in the standard care alone group (odds ratio [OR], 1.58 [95% credible interval, 0.72-3.52]; posterior probability of an OR >1 [indicating increased odds of death with REBOA], 86.9%). Among the 10 secondary outcomes, the ORs for mortality and the posterior probabilities of an OR greater than 1 for 6-month, in-hospital, and 24-, 6-, or 3-hour mortality were all increased in the REBOA and standard care group, and the ORs were increased with earlier mortality end points. There were more deaths due to bleeding in the REBOA and standard care group (8 of 25 patients [32%]) than in standard care alone group (3 of 18 patients [17%]), and most occurred within 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In trauma patients with exsanguinating hemorrhage, a strategy of REBOA and standard care in the emergency department does not reduce, and may increase, mortality compared with standard care alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN16184981.
Impact of time and distance on outcomes following tourniquet use in civilian and military settings: A scoping review
BACKGROUND The last two decades have seen the reintroduction of tourniquets into guidelines for the management of acute limb trauma requiring hemorrhage control. Evidence supporting tourniquet application has demonstrated low complication rates in modern military settings involving rapid evacuation timeframes. It is unclear how these findings translate to patients who have prolonged transport times from injury in rural settings. This scoping review investigates the relationship between time and distance on metabolic complications, limb salvage and mortality following tourniquet use in civilian and military settings. METHODS A systematic search strategy was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and SafetyLit databases. Study characteristics, setting, mechanism of injury, prehospital time, tourniquet time, distance, limb salvage, metabolic response, mortality, and tourniquet removal details were extracted from eligible studies. Descriptive statistics were recorded, and studies were grouped by ischemia time (< 2 h, 2-4 h, or > 4 h). RESULTS The search identified 3103 studies, from which 86 studies were included in this scoping review. Of the 86 studies, 55 studies were primarily in civilian environments and 32 were based in military settings. One study included both settings. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury sustained by patients in military settings (72.8% [5968/8200]) followed by penetrating injury (23.5% [1926/8200]). In contrast, in civilian settings penetrating injury was the most common mechanism (47.7% [1633/3426]) followed by blunt injury (36.4% [1246/3426]). Tourniquet time was reported in 66/86 studies. Tourniquet time over four hours was associated with reduced limb salvage rates (57.1%) and higher mortality rates (7.1%) compared with a tourniquet time of less than two hours. The overall limb salvage and mortality rates were 69.6% and 6.7% respectively. Metabolic outcomes were reported in 28/86 studies with smaller sample sizes and inconsistencies in which parameters were reported. CONCLUSION This scoping review presents literature describing comparatively safe tourniquet application when used for less than two hours duration. However, there is limited research describing prolonged tourniquet application or when used for protracted distances, such that the impact of tourniquet release time on metabolic outcomes and complications remains unclear. Prospective studies utilizing the development of an international database to provide this dataset is required.
Patients in civilian and military settings who had a tourniquet applied for the management of acute limb trauma (86 studies).
Scoping review investigating the relationship between time and distance on metabolic complications, limb salvage and mortality following tourniquet use.
Most included studies (55) were based in civilian environments, 32 were based in military settings, and 1 included both settings. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury sustained by patients in military settings (72.8% [5968/8200]) followed by penetrating injury (23.5% [1926/8200]). In civilian settings, penetrating injury was the most common mechanism (47.7% [1633/3426]) followed by blunt injury (36.4% [1246/3426]). Tourniquet time was reported in 66/86 studies. Tourniquet time over four hours was associated with reduced limb salvage rates (57.1%) and higher mortality rates (7.1%) compared with a tourniquet time of less than two hours. The overall limb salvage and mortality rates were 69.6% and 6.7% respectively. Metabolic outcomes were reported in 28/86 studies with smaller sample sizes and inconsistencies in which parameters were reported.
The role of direct peritoneal resuscitation in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock after trauma and in emergency acute care surgery: a systematic review
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery : Official Publication of the European Trauma Society. 2022;48(2):791-797
PURPOSE Direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) has been used to help preserve microcirculation by reversing vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion associated with the pathophysiological process of shock, which can occur despite appropriate intravenous resuscitation. This approach depends on infusing a hyperosmolar solution intraperitoneally via a percutaneous catheter with the tip ending near the pelvis or the root of the mesentery. The abdomen is usually left open with a negative pressure abdominal dressing to continuously evacuate the infused dialysate. Hypertonicity of the solution triggers visceral vasodilation to help maintain blood flow, even during shock, and is also associated with reduced local inflammatory cytokines and other mediators, preservation of endothelial cell function, and mitigation of organ edema and necrosis. It also has a direct effect on liver perfusion and edema, more rapidly corrects electrolyte abnormalities compared to intravenous resuscitation alone, and may requireless intravenous fluid to stabilize blood pressure, all of which shortens the time required to close patients' abdomen. METHODS An online query using the search term "direct peritoneal resuscitation" was carried out in PubMed, MEDLINE and SciELO, limited to publications indexed from January 2014 to June 2020. Of the 20 articles returned, full text was able to be obtained for 19. A manual review of included articles' references was resulted in the addition of 1 article, for a total of 20 included articles. RESULTS The 20 articles were comprised of 15 animal studies, 4 clinical studies,and 1 expert opinion. The benefits include both local and possibly systemic effects on perfusion, hypoxia, acidosis, and inflammation, and are associated with improved outcomes and reduced complications. CONCLUSION DPR shows promise in patients with hemorrhagic shock, septic shock, and other conditions resulting in an open abdomen after damage control laparotomy.