Pilot randomized trial of pre-hospital advanced therapies for the control of hemorrhage (PATCH) using pelvic binders
The American journal of emergency medicine. 2021;42:43-48
BACKGROUND Pelvic fractures represent a small percent of all skeletal injuries but are associated with significant morbidity and mortality secondary to hemodynamic instability from bleeding bone surfaces and disrupted pelvic vasculature. Stabilization of the pelvis prior to arrival at a treatment facility may mitigate the hemodynamic consequences of pelvic ring injuries and improve morbidity and mortality. Whether pelvic compression devices such as pelvic binders or sheets can be safely applied in the prehospital setting has not been well-studied. This study aims to evaluate the safety of applying a pelvic binder to at-risk patients in the field after scalable training and the feasibility of conducting a randomized trial evaluating this practice in the prehospital setting. METHODS A pilot study (prospective randomized trial design) was conducted in the pre-hospital environment in an urban area surrounding a level-one trauma center. Pre-hospital emergency medical (EMS) personnel were trained to identify patients at high-risk for pelvic fracture and properly apply a commercial pelvic binder. Adult patients with a high-energy mechanism, suspected pelvic fracture, and "Priority 1" criteria were prospectively identified by paramedics and randomized to pelvic binder placement or usual care. Medical records were reviewed for safety outcomes. Secondary outcomes were parameters of efficacy including interventions needed to control hemorrhage (such as angioembolization and surgical control of bleeding) and mortality. RESULTS Forty-three patients were randomized to treatment (binder: N=20; nonbinder: N=23). No complications of binder placement were identified. Eight patients (40%) had binders placed correctly at the level of the greater trochanter. Two binders (10%) were placed too proximally and 10 (50%) binders were not visualized on x-ray. Two binder group patients and three nonbinder group patients required angioembolization. None required surgical control of pelvic bleeding. Two nonbinder group patients and one binder group patient were readmitted within 30 days and one nonbinder group patient died within 30 days. CONCLUSION Identification of pelvic fractures in the field remains a challenge. However, a scalable training model for appropriate binder placement was successful without secondary injury to patients. The model for conducting prospective, randomized trials in the prehospital setting was successful.
Accuracy of Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography for Diagnosing Severe Pelvic Hemorrhage in Pelvic Trauma Patients: A Meta-Analysis
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2021;57(1)
Background and objective: The early detection of underlying hemorrhage of pelvic trauma has been a critical issue. The aim of this study was to systematically determine the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) for detecting severe pelvic hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: Relevant articles were obtained by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through 28 November 2020. Diagnostic test accuracy results were reviewed to obtain the sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, and summary receiver operating characteristic curve of CT for the diagnosis in pelvic trauma patients. The positive finding on CT was defined as the contrast extravasation. As the reference standard, severe pelvic hemorrhage was defined as an identification of bleeding at angiography or by direct inspection using laparotomy that required hemostasis by angioembolization or surgery. A subgroup analysis was performed according to the CT modality that is divided by the number of detector rows. Result: Thirteen eligible studies (29 subsets) were included in the present meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity of CT was 0.786 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.574-0.909], and pooled specificity was 0.944 (95% CI, 0.900-0.970). Pooled sensitivity of the 1-4 detector row group and 16-64 detector row group was 0.487 (95% CI, 0.215-0.767) and 0.915 (95% CI, 0.848-0.953), respectively. Pooled specificity of the 1-4 and 16-64 detector row groups was 0.956 (95% CI, 0.876-0.985) and 0.906 (95% CI, 0.828-0.951), respectively. Conclusion: Multi-detector CT with 16 or more detector rows has acceptable high sensitivity and specificity. Extravasation on CT indicates severe hemorrhage in patients with pelvic trauma.
The Impact of Pre-Hospital TXA on Mortality among Bleeding Trauma Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic drug associated with improved survival among trauma patients with haemorrhage. TXA is considered a primary haemostatic intervention in pre-hospital for treatment of bleeding alongside blood product transfusion. METHODS A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of pre-hospital TXA on mortality among trauma patients with bleeding. A systematic search was conducted using the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Healthcare Databases Advanced Search (HDAS) library which contain the following of databases: EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, BNI, EMCARE, and HMIC. Other databases searched included SCOPUS and the Cochrane Central Register for Clinical Trials Library (CENTRAL). Quality assessment tools were applied among included studies; Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) for Randomised Control Trials RCTs and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for cohort observational studies. RESULTS A total of 797 publications were identified from the initial database search. After removing duplicates and applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, Four studies were included in the review and meta-analysis which identified a significant survival benefit in patients who received pre-hospital TXA vs no TXA. Three observational cohort and one RCT were included into the review with a total of 2347 patients (TXA: 1169 vs No TXA: 1178). There was a significant reduction in 24 hours mortality; Odds ratios (OR) 0.60 (95% CI: 0.37-0.99). No Statistical significant differences in 28 to 30 days mortality OR 0.69 (95% CI: 0.47-1.02), or VTE OR 1.49 (95% CI: 0.90 - 2.46) were found. CONCLUSION This review demonstrates that pre-hospital TXA is associated with significant reductions in the early (24 hour) mortality of trauma patients with suspected or confirmed haemorrhage but no increase in the incidence of VTE. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE (I) Systematic review and meta-analysis.
Trauma patients with bleeding (4 studies, n= 2,347).
Prehospital tranexamic acid (TXA, n= 1,169).
No TXA (n= 1,178).
There was a significant reduction in 24 hour mortality with pre-hospital TXA; (Odds ratios (OR) 0.60.) There were no statistically significant differences in 28 to 30 day mortality (OR 0.69), or VTE (OR 1.49).
Tourniquets as a haemorrhage control measure in military and civilian care settings: An integrative review
Journal of clinical nursing. 2021
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim of review was to describe and synthesise the evidence on the use of tourniquets to control haemorrhages, summarising both civilian and military use. BACKGROUND Trauma-related haemorrhage constitutes one of the most preventable deaths among injured patients, particularly in multi-casualty incidents and disasters. In this context, safe instruments such as tourniquets are essential to help healthcare professionals to minimise loss of life and maximise patient recovery. DESIGN AND METHODS An integrative review was conducted in Medline, Nursing & Allied Health Premium, and Health & Medical Collection, using published data until March 2021 and following the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS A total of 25 articles were included. Evidence has been synthesised to understand the use of different types of tourniquets, environment of application, indication for their placement and potential complications associated with tourniquet placement. CONCLUSIONS Commercial tourniquets such as Combat Application Tourniquet or Emergency Tourniquet models are a valuable and safe instrument for haemorrhage control in both military and civilian out-of-hospital care settings. Nurses, as part of emergency teams, and other professionals should be aware that there is a possibility of adverse complications, but they are directly proportional to the time of tourniquet placement and generally temporary. In addition, national and international guidelines ensure the need for all civilian emergency services to be equipped with these devices, as well as for the training of healthcare professionals and first responders in their use. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE Despite the lack of complications in the use of tourniquets in these cases, their use has been a matter of debate for decades. In this sense, this review yields up-to-date guidelines in the use of tourniquets, their recommendations and their significance among professionals to manage complicated situations.
Enrollment with and without Exception from Informed Consent in a Pilot Trial of Tranexamic Acid in Children with Hemorrhagic Injuries
Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. 2021
BACKGROUND Federal exception from informed consent (EFIC) procedures allow studies to enroll patients with time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions when written consent is not feasible. Our objective was to compare enrollment rates with and without EFIC in a trial of tranexamic acid (TXA) for children with hemorrhagic injuries. METHODS We conducted a four-center randomized controlled pilot and feasibility trial evaluating TXA in children with severe hemorrhagic brain and/or torso injuries. We initiated the trial enrolling patients without EFIC. After 3 months of enrollment, we met our a priori futility threshold and paused the trial to incorporate EFIC procedures and obtain regulatory approval. We then restarted the trial allowing EFIC if the guardian was unable to provide timely written consent. We used descriptive statistics to compare characteristics of eligible patients approached with and without EFIC procedures. We also calculated the time delay to restart the trial using EFIC. RESULTS We enrolled 1 of 15 (6.7%) eligible patients (0.17 per site per month) prior to using EFIC procedures. Of the 14 missed eligible patients, 7 (50%) were not enrolled because guardians were not present or were injured and unable to provide written consent. After obtaining approval for EFIC, we enrolled 30 of 48 (62.5%) eligible patients (1.34 per site per month). Of these 30 patients, 22 (73.3%) were enrolled with EFIC. Of the 22, no guardians refused written consent after randomization. There were no significant differences in the eligibility rate and patient characteristics enrolled with and without EFIC procedures. Across all sites, the mean delay to restart the trial using EFIC procedures was 12 months. CONCLUSIONS In a multicenter trial of severely injured children, the use of EFIC procedures greatly increased the enrollment rate and was well accepted by guardians. Initiating the trial without EFIC procedures led to a significant delay in enrollment.
Platelet to erythrocyte transfusion ratio and mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Platelet transfusion during major hemorrhage is important and often embedded in massive transfusion protocols. However, the optimal ratio of platelets to erythrocytes (platelet rich plasma (PLT) :RBC ratio) remains unclear. We hypothesized that high PLT:RBC ratios, as compared to low PLT:RBC ratios, are associated with improved survival in patients requiring massive transfusion. METHODS Four databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane) were systematically screened for literature published up to January 21, 2021 to determine the effect of PLT:RBC ratio on the primary outcome measure mortality at 1-6 and 24 hours and at 28-30 days. Studies comparing various PLT:RBC ratios were included in meta-analysis. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit length of stay and in-hospital length of stay and total blood component use. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42020165648. RESULTS The search identified a total of 8903 records. After removing duplicates second screening of title, abstract and full text a total of 59 articles were included in the analysis. Of these articles 12 were included in meta-analysis. Mortality at 1-6, 24-hours and 28-30 days was significantly lower for high PLT:RBC ratios as compared to low PLT:RBC ratios. CONCLUSIONS Higher PLT:RBC ratios are associated with significantly lower 1-6 hours, 24 hours, 28-30 days mortality as compared to lower PLT:RBC ratios. The optimal PLT:RBC ratio for massive transfusion in trauma patients is approximately 1:1. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review and meta-analysis, therapeutic level III.
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Trauma Induced Coagulopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of acute medicine. 2021;11(3):81-89
BACKGROUND Optimal management for trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a clinical conundrum. In conjunction with the transfusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), additional administration of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) was proposed to bring about further coagulative benefit. However, investigations evaluating the efficacy as well as corresponding side effects were scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to systematically review current literature and to perform a meta-analysis comparing FFP+PCC with FFP alone. METHODS Web search followed by manual interrogation was performed to identify relevant literatures fulfilling the following criteria, subjects as TIC patients taking no baseline anticoagulants, without underlying coagulative disorders, and reported clinical consequences. Those comparing FFP alone with PCC alone were excluded. Comprehensive Meta-analysis software was utilized, and statistical results were delineated with odd ratio (OR), mean difference (MD), and 95% confidence interval (CI). I(2) was calculated to determine heterogeneity. The primary endpoint was set as all-cause mortality, while the secondary endpoint consisted of international normalized ratio (INR) correction, transfusion of blood product, and thrombosis rate. RESULTS One hundred and sixty-four articles were included for preliminary evaluation, 3 of which were qualified for meta-analysis. A total of 840 subjects were pooled for assessment. Minimal heterogeneity was present in the comparisons (I(2) < 25%). In the PCC + FFP cohort, reduced mortality rate was observed (OR: 0.631; 95% CI: 0.450-0.884, p = 0.007) after pooling. Meanwhile, INR correction time was shorter under PCC + FFP (MD: -608.300 mins, p < 0.001), whilst the rate showed no difference (p = 0.230). The PCC + FFP group is less likely to mandate transfusion of packed red blood cells (p < 0.001) and plasma (p < 0.001), but not platelet (p = 0.615). The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.460). CONCLUSIONS Compared with FFP only, PCC + FFP demonstrated better survival rate, favorable clinical recovery and no elevation of thromboembolism events after TIC.
Patients with trauma induced coagulopathy (3 studies, n= 840).
Prothrombin complex concentrate and fresh-frozen plasma (PCC + FFP).
Fresh-frozen plasma (FFP).
In the PCC + FFP cohort, reduced mortality rate was observed (OR: 0.631) after pooling. Meanwhile, international normalized ratio correction time was shorter under PCC + FFP (MD: -608.300 mins), whilst the rate showed no difference. The PCC + FFP group was less likely to mandate transfusion of packed red blood cells and plasma, but not platelet. The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was comparable in the two groups.
Effects of emergency treatment mode of damage-control orthopedics in pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(6):6817-6826
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to observe the application effect of emergency treatment mode of damage-control orthopedics (DCO) in pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures. METHODS Ninety-four patients with pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures in our hospital were recruited and divided into two groups according to the random number table method, with 47 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received traditional methods for emergency treatment (early complete treatment), and patients in the research group received DCO for emergency treatment (treatment performed in stages according to patient's physiological tolerance, with simplified initial surgery, followed by ICU resuscitation, and finally definitive surgery). The two groups were compared in terms of mortality, the incidence of acidosis and hypothermia three days after the first surgery, surgery-related indexes (time of the first surgery, blood transfusion volume, intraoperative blood loss, recovery time of temperature, and length of hospital stay), coagulation function indexes (activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen (FIB)), postoperative reduction of fracture, complication rate, and quality of life. RESULTS The incidences of acidosis, hypothermia, and mortality three days after the first surgery in the research group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the research group experienced shorter time of the first surgery, less intraoperative blood transfusion volume, less intraoperative blood loss, shorter recovery time of body temperature, and shorter length of hospital stay (P<0.05). Seven days after surgery, PT, TT and APTT decreased and FIB increased in both groups (P<0.05), PT, TT and APTT in the research group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), while FIB was higher (P<0.05). The good rate of reduction in the research group was higher than that in the control group (P=0.025). The incidence of complications in the research group was lower than that in the control group (P=0.049). Six months after surgery, the scores of physiological function (PF), body pain (BP), role physical (RP), emotional function (EF), social function (SF), vitality, and general health (GH) of the research group were higher than those of the control group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in mental health (MH) between the two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION The emergency treatment mode of DCO is effective in pelvic fracture complicated with multiple fractures, which can effectively improve postoperative reduction of patients, improve the coagulation function, reduce complications, and improve the quality of life.
A Post Hoc Analysis of Osmotherapy Use in the Erythropoietin in Traumatic Brain Injury Study-Associations With Acute Kidney Injury and Mortality
Critical care medicine. 2021
OBJECTIVES Mannitol and hypertonic saline are used to treat raised intracerebral pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury, but their possible effects on kidney function and mortality are unknown. DESIGN A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin trial in traumatic brain injury (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00987454) including daily data on mannitol and hypertonic saline use. SETTING Twenty-nine university-affiliated teaching hospitals in seven countries. PATIENTS A total of 568 patients treated in the ICU for 48 hours without acute kidney injury of whom 43 (7%) received mannitol and 170 (29%) hypertonic saline. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS We categorized acute kidney injury stage according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome classification and defined acute kidney injury as any Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome stage-based changes from the admission creatinine. We tested associations between early (first 2 d) mannitol and hypertonic saline and time to acute kidney injury up to ICU discharge and death up to 180 days with Cox regression analysis. Subsequently, acute kidney injury developed more often in patients receiving mannitol (35% vs 10%; p < 0.001) and hypertonic saline (23% vs 10%; p < 0.001). On competing risk analysis including factors associated with acute kidney injury, mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.3; p = 0.01), but not hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.8; p = 0.08), was independently associated with time to acute kidney injury. In a Cox model for predicting time to death, both the use of mannitol (hazard ratio, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1; p = 0.03) and hypertonic saline (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02-3.2; p = 0.04) were associated with time to death. CONCLUSIONS In this post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the early use of mannitol, but not hypertonic saline, was independently associated with an increase in acute kidney injury. Our findings suggest the need to further evaluate the use and choice of osmotherapy in traumatic brain injury.
To Analyze the Role of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid in Hip Fracture surgeries in Orthopedic Trauma
International journal of applied & basic medical research. 2021;11(3):139-142
INTRODUCTION Hip fractures in orthopedic trauma cases are increasing. Majority of such patients undergoing surgery require blood transfusion of one or more units. Intravenous (I. V.) Tranexamic acid (TXA) may decrease loss of blood, decrease need of blood transfusion, and improve postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) along with lesser adverse effects. Risk of thromboembolic phenomena remains a concern. A study was done to analyze the role of I. V. TXA in hip fracture surgeries in trauma cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty patients were included in the study; in two groups (37 males and 23 females), Group A in which two doses of I. V. TXA 15 mg/kg were given and Group B in which two doses of I. V. placebo were given. RESULTS Total number of randomized hip arthroplasty cases was 22 (11 in Group A and 11 in Group B) whereas randomized osteosynthesis cases were 38 (19 in Group A and 19 in Group B). Mean preoperative Hb value in Group A was 10.8 gm% and in Group B was 10.7 gm% (P > 0.005. Mean postoperative Hb value in Group A was Hb 9.8 gm% and in Group B 9.5 gm% (difference of 3.061%). Mean duration of surgery in Group A was 64.2 min and in Group B was 66.3 min. Mean total blood loss (intraoperative and postoperative) in Group A was 384.6 ml and in Group B was 448.7 ml (14.29% less in Group A). A total of 14 patients in Group A (17 red blood cells [RBCs] units) and 17 patients (21 RBC units) in Group B required RBC transfusion. No major vascular event, severe bacterial infections, symptomatic deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, limb ischemia, acute coronary syndrome, or immediate postoperative mortality was noted in either group. CONCLUSION I. V. TXA has the potential to decrease risk of blood transfusion, decrease total blood loss, and to maintain a higher postoperative Hb value with no significant adverse reactions. As the number of cases of hip fractures continues to increase along with increase in age, so the use of TXA in such cases may improve clinical outcomes, lessen number of inpatient days and hence decrease overall cost.