Comparison of Risk Scores for Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA network open. 2022;5(5):e2214253
IMPORTANCE Clinical prediction models, or risk scores, can be used to risk stratify patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB), although the most discriminative score is unknown. OBJECTIVE To identify all LGIB risk scores available and compare their prognostic performance. DATA SOURCES A systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1, 1990, through August 31, 2021, was conducted. Non-English-language articles were excluded. STUDY SELECTION Observational and interventional studies deriving or validating an LGIB risk score for the prediction of a clinical outcome were included. Studies including patients younger than 16 years or limited to a specific patient population or a specific cause of bleeding were excluded. Two investigators independently screened the studies, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Data were abstracted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guideline independently by 2 investigators and pooled using random-effects models. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Summary diagnostic performance measures (sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC]) determined a priori were calculated for each risk score and outcome combination. RESULTS A total of 3268 citations were identified, of which 9 studies encompassing 12 independent cohorts and 4 risk scores (Oakland, Strate, NOBLADS [nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, no diarrhea, no abdominal tenderness, blood pressure ≤100 mm Hg, antiplatelet drug use (nonaspirin), albumin <3.0 g/dL, disease score ≥2 (according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index), and syncope], and BLEED [ongoing bleeding, low systolic blood pressure, elevated prothrombin time, erratic mental status, and unstable comorbid disease]) were included in the meta-analysis. For the prediction of safe discharge, the AUROC for the Oakland score was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.82-0.88). For major bleeding, the AUROC was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90-0.95) for the Oakland score, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.69-0.77) for the Strate score, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.53-0.62) for the NOBLADS score, and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.61-0.69) for the BLEED score. For transfusion, the AUROC was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00) for the Oakland score and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.85-0.90) for the NOBLADS score. For hemostasis, the AUROC was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.32-0.40) for the Oakland score, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.79-0.85) for the Strate score, and 0.24 (95% CI, 0.20-0.28) for the NOBLADS score. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The Oakland score was the most discriminative LGIB risk score for predicting safe discharge, major bleeding, and need for transfusion, whereas the Strate score was best for predicting need for hemostasis. This study suggests that these scores can be used to predict outcomes from LGIB and guide clinical care accordingly.
Patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB), (9 studies).
Systematic review and meta-analysis to identify all LGIB risk scores available and to compare their prognostic performance.
Four risk scores were identified: Oakland, Strate, NOBLADS, and BLEED. Summary diagnostic performance measures (sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC]) determined a priori were calculated for each risk score and outcome combination. For the prediction of safe discharge, the AUROC for the Oakland score was 0.86. For major bleeding, the AUROC was 0.93 for the Oakland score, 0.73 for the Strate score, 0.58 for the NOBLADS score, and 0.65 for the BLEED score. For transfusion, the AUROC was 0.99 for the Oakland score and 0.88 for the NOBLADS score. For haemostasis, the AUROC was 0.36 for the Oakland score, 0.82 for the Strate score, and 0.24 for the NOBLADS score.
Prophylactic Perioperative Terlipressin Therapy for Preventing Acute Kidney Injury in Living Donor Liver Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology. 2022;12(2):417-427
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in the perioperative transplant period and is associated with poor outcomes. Few studies reported a reduction in AKI incidence with terlipressin therapy by counteracting the hemodynamic alterations occurring during liver transplantation. However, the effect of terlipressin on posttransplant outcomes has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS A comprehensive search of electronic databases was performed. Studies reporting the use of terlipressin in the perioperative period of living donor liver transplantation were included. We expressed the dichotomous outcomes as risk ratio (RR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) using the random effects model. The primary aim was to assess the posttransplant risk of AKI. The secondary aims were to assess the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), vasopressors, effect on hemodynamics, blood loss during surgery, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS A total of nine studies reporting 711 patients (309 patients in the terlipressin group and 402 in the control group) were included for analysis. Terlipressin was administered for a mean duration of 53.44 ± 28.61 h postsurgery. The risk of AKI was lower with terlipressin (0.6 [95% CI, 0.44-0.8]; P = 0.001). However, on sensitivity analysis including only four randomized controlled trials (I(2) = 0; P = 0.54), the risk of AKI was similar in both the groups (0.7 [0.43-1.09]; P = 0.11). The need for RRT was similar in both the groups (0.75 [0.35-1.56]; P = 0.44). Terlipressin therapy reduced the need for another vasopressor (0.34 [0.25-0.47]; P < 0.001) with a concomitant rise in mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance by 3.2 mm Hg (1.64-4.7; P < 0.001) and 77.64 dyne cm(-1).sec(-5) (21.27-134; P = 0.007), respectively. Blood loss, duration of hospital/ICU stay, and mortality were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS Perioperative terlipressin therapy has no clinically relevant benefit.
Can Artificial Intelligence Be Applied to Diagnose Intracerebral Hemorrhage under the Background of the Fourth Industrial Revolution? A Novel Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis
International journal of clinical practice. 2022;2022:9430097
AIM: We intended to provide the clinical evidence that artificial intelligence (AI) could be used to assist doctors in the diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS Studies published in 2021 were identified after the literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane. Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) was used to perform the quality assessment of studies. Data extraction of diagnosis effect included accuracy (ACC), sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), area under curve (AUC), and Dice scores (Dices). The pooled effect with its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated by the random effects model. I-Square (I (2)) was used to test heterogeneity. To check the stability of the overall results, sensitivity analysis was conducted by recalculating the pooled effect of the remaining studies after omitting the study with the highest quality or the random effects model was switched to the fixed effects model. Funnel plot was used to evaluate publication bias. To reduce heterogeneity, recalculating the pooled effect of the remaining studies after omitting the study with the lowest quality or perform subgroup analysis. RESULTS Twenty-five diagnostic tests of ICH via AI and doctors with overall high quality were included. Pooled ACC, SEN, SPE, PPV, NPV, AUC, and Dices were 0.88 (0.83∼0.93), 0.85 (0.81∼0.89), 0.90 (0.88∼0.92), 0.80 (0.75∼0.85), 0.93 (0.91∼0.95), 0.84 (0.80∼0.89), and 0.90 (0.85∼0.95), respectively. There was no publication bias. All of results were stable as revealed by sensitivity analysis and were accordant as outcomes via subgroups analysis. CONCLUSION Under the background of the fourth industrial revolution, AI might be an effective and efficient tool to assist doctors in the clinical diagnosis of ICH.
Causes and Risk Factors of Pediatric Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage-A Systematic Review
Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;12(6)
Previous studies suggest that the most common cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in children and adolescents is arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, an update containing recently published data on pediatric spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages is lacking. The aim of this study is to systematically analyze the published data on the etiologies and risk factors of pediatric spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. This systematic review was performed in compliance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A search in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library was conducted aiming for articles published in year 2000 and later, containing data on etiology and risk factors of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages in unselected cohorts of patients aged between 1 month and 18 years. As a result, forty studies were eligible for data extraction and final analysis. These included 7931 children and adolescents with 4009 reported etiologies and risk factors. A marked variety of reported etiologies and risk factors among studies was observed. Vascular etiologies were the most frequently reported cause of pediatric spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages (n = 1727, 43.08% of all identified etiologies or risk factors), with AVMs being the most common vascular cause (n = 1226, 70.99% of all vascular causes). Hematological and systemic causes, brain tumors, intracranial infections and cardiac causes were less commonly encountered risk factors and etiologies.
Saline Compared to Balanced Crystalloid in Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Critical care explorations. 2022;4(1):e0613
OBJECTIVES This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the use of saline to balanced crystalloid for fluid resuscitation in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DATA SOURCES We searched databases including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane registry. STUDY SELECTION We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared saline to balanced crystalloid in patients with DKA. DATA EXTRACTION We pooled estimates of effect using relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes, both with 95% CIs. We assessed risk of bias for included RCTs using the modified Cochrane tool and certainty of evidence using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. DATA SYNTHESIS We included eight RCTs (n = 482 patients). Both time to DKA resolution (MD, 3.51 hr longer; 95% CI, 0.90 longer to 6.12 longer; moderate certainty) and length of hospital stay (MD, 0.89 d longer in saline group; 95% CI, 0.34 longer to 1.43 d longer; moderate certainty) are probably longer in the saline group compared with the balanced crystalloid group, although for the latter, the absolute difference (under 1 d) is small. Post-resuscitation serum chloride level may be higher (MD, 1.62 mmol/L higher; 95% CI, 0.40 lower to 3.64 higher; low certainty), and post-resuscitation serum bicarbonate is probably lower (MD, 1.50 mmol/L; 95% CI, 2.33 lower to 0.67 lower; moderate certainty) in those receiving saline. CONCLUSIONS In patients with DKA, the use of saline may be associated with longer time to DKA resolution, higher post-resuscitation serum chloride levels, lower post-resuscitation serum bicarbonate levels, and longer hospital stay compared with balanced crystalloids. Pending further data, low to moderate certainty data support using balanced crystalloid over saline for fluid resuscitation in patients with DKA.
Comparison of 3-factor versus 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for emergent warfarin reversal: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC emergency medicine. 2022;22(1):14
BACKGROUND Patients requiring emergent warfarin reversal (EWR) have been prescribed three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC3) and four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC4) to reverse the anticoagulant effects of warfarin. There is no existing systematic review and meta-analysis of studies directly comparing PCC3 and PCC4. METHODS The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of achieving study defined target INR goal after PCC3 or PCC4 administration. Secondary objectives were to determine the difference in safety endpoints, thromboembolic events (TE), and survival during the patients' hospital stay. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR), and heterogeneity associated with the outcomes. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. RESULTS Ten full-text manuscripts and five abstracts provided data for the primary and secondary outcomes. Patients requiring EWR had more than three times the odds of reversal to goal INR when they were given PCC4 compared to PCC3 (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.97-6.60, p < 0.001). There was no meaningful clinical association or statistically significant result between PCC4 and PCC3 groups in TE (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.83-2.91, p = 0.17), or survival during hospital stay (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.81-2.23, p = 0.25). CONCLUSION PCC4 is more effective than PCC3 in meeting specific predefined INR goals and has similar safety profiles in patients requiring emergent reversal of the anticoagulant effects of warfarin.
Coagulation in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A systematic review of studies shows lack of standardized reporting
Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis. 2022;6(2):e12687
OBJECTIVES Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) involves complex coagulation management and frequent hemostatic complications. ECMO practice between centers is variable. To compare results between coagulation studies, standardized definitions and clear documentation of ECMO practice is essential. We assessed how study population, outcome definitions, and ECMO-, coagulation-, and transfusion-related parameters were described in pediatric ECMO studies. DATA SOURCES Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION English original studies of pediatric ECMO patients describing hemostatic tests or outcome. DATA EXTRACTION Eligibility was assessed following PRISMA guidelines. Study population, outcome and ECMO-, coagulation, and transfusion parameters were summarized. DATA SYNTHESIS A total of 107 of 1312 records were included. Study population parameters most frequently included (gestational) age (79%), gender (60%), and (birth) weight (59%). Outcomes, including definitions of bleeding (29%), thrombosis (15%), and survival (43%), were described using various definitions. Description of pump type, oxygenator and cannulation mode occurred in 49%, 45%, and 36% of studies, respectively. The main coagulation test (53%), its reference ranges (49%), and frequency of testing (24%) were the most prevalent reported coagulation parameters. The transfusion thresholds for platelets, red blood cells, and fibrinogen were described in 27%, 18%, and 18% of studies, respectively. CONCLUSIONS This systematic review demonstrates a widespread lack of detail or standardization of several parameters in coagulation research of pediatric ECMO patients. We suggest several parameters that might be included in future coagulation studies. We encourage the ECMO community to adopt and refine this list of parameters and to use standardized definitions in future research.
Hypertensive primary intraventricular hemorrhage: a systematic review
Neurosurgical review. 2022
Primary intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) is a special subtype of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) without a hemorrhagic parenchymal component. Different conditions may cause this uncommon hemorrhage including trauma, vascular anomalies, coagulation disorders, and others. Frequently, PIVH is associated with structural vascular anomalies such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and dural fistulas. Traditionally, hypertension has been considered a predisposing factor for PIVH. A wide variety of studies have been published describing patients with PIVH; however, studies describing exclusively patients with hypertensive PIVH are lacking in the literature. For this reason, the features of PIVH secondary to hypertension are not well described. The purpose of this study is to analyze and describe the characteristics of hypertensive PIVH. A PubMed and Scopus search adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was performed to include studies reporting patients with hypertensive PIVH. The search yielded 19 articles reporting retrospective case series. The diagnosis of hypertensive PIVH should be established in patients meeting the following criteria: (a) elevation of blood pressure is observed at admission, (b) a cerebral angiography is negative for vascular anomalies, and (c) other causes of intracranial hemorrhage are ruled out. The prognosis is poorer in patients who present with low Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), old age, hydrocephalus, or more extensive intraventricular bleeding. The results of this study show that hypertension is the most common cause of PIVH, followed by hemorrhage caused by vascular anomalies. Hypertension may be a direct cause of PIVH, but also it may be a predisposing factor for bleeding in cases of an associated vascular anomaly.
Plasma and Platelet Transfusion Strategies in Critically Ill Children With Malignancy, Acute Liver Failure and/or Liver Transplantation, or Sepsis: From the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2022;23(Supplement 1 1S):e37-e49
OBJECTIVES To present the consensus statements with supporting literature for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill neonates and children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation from the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding. DESIGN Systematic review and consensus conference of international, multidisciplinary experts in platelet and plasma transfusion management of critically ill children. SETTING Not applicable. PATIENTS Critically ill neonates and children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS A panel of 13 experts developed evidence-based and, when evidence was insufficient, expert-based statements for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill neonates and children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis and/or disseminated intravascular coagulation. These statements were reviewed and ratified by the 29 Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding experts. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, from inception to December 2020. Consensus was obtained using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. Results were summarized using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method. We developed 12 expert consensus statements. CONCLUSIONS In the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding program, the current absence of evidence for use of plasma and/or platelet transfusion in critically ill children with malignancy, acute liver disease and/or following liver transplantation, and sepsis means that only expert consensus statements are possible for these areas of practice.
International guidelines regarding the role of IVIG in the management of Rh- and ABO-mediated haemolytic disease of the newborn
British journal of haematology. 2022
Haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can be associated with significant morbidity. Prompt treatment with intensive phototherapy (PT) and exchange transfusions (ETs) can dramatically improve outcomes. ET is invasive and associated with risks. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be an alternative therapy to prevent use of ET. An international panel of experts was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of IVIG to reduce the need for ETs, improve neurocognitive outcomes, reduce bilirubin level, reduce the frequency of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and severity of anaemia, and/or reduce duration of hospitalization for neonates with Rh or ABO-mediated HDN. We used a systematic approach to search and review the literature and then develop recommendations from published data. These recommendations conclude that IVIG should not be routinely used to treat Rh or ABO antibody-mediated HDN. In situations where hyperbilirubinaemia is severe (and ET is imminent), or when ET is not readily available, the role of IVIG is unclear. High-quality studies are urgently needed to assess the optimal use of IVIG in patients with HDN.