Comparison of 3-factor versus 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for emergent warfarin reversal: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC emergency medicine. 2022;22(1):14
BACKGROUND Patients requiring emergent warfarin reversal (EWR) have been prescribed three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC3) and four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC4) to reverse the anticoagulant effects of warfarin. There is no existing systematic review and meta-analysis of studies directly comparing PCC3 and PCC4. METHODS The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of achieving study defined target INR goal after PCC3 or PCC4 administration. Secondary objectives were to determine the difference in safety endpoints, thromboembolic events (TE), and survival during the patients' hospital stay. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR), and heterogeneity associated with the outcomes. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. RESULTS Ten full-text manuscripts and five abstracts provided data for the primary and secondary outcomes. Patients requiring EWR had more than three times the odds of reversal to goal INR when they were given PCC4 compared to PCC3 (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.97-6.60, p < 0.001). There was no meaningful clinical association or statistically significant result between PCC4 and PCC3 groups in TE (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.83-2.91, p = 0.17), or survival during hospital stay (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.81-2.23, p = 0.25). CONCLUSION PCC4 is more effective than PCC3 in meeting specific predefined INR goals and has similar safety profiles in patients requiring emergent reversal of the anticoagulant effects of warfarin.
International guidelines regarding the role of IVIG in the management of Rh- and ABO-mediated haemolytic disease of the newborn
British journal of haematology. 2022
Haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can be associated with significant morbidity. Prompt treatment with intensive phototherapy (PT) and exchange transfusions (ETs) can dramatically improve outcomes. ET is invasive and associated with risks. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be an alternative therapy to prevent use of ET. An international panel of experts was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of IVIG to reduce the need for ETs, improve neurocognitive outcomes, reduce bilirubin level, reduce the frequency of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and severity of anaemia, and/or reduce duration of hospitalization for neonates with Rh or ABO-mediated HDN. We used a systematic approach to search and review the literature and then develop recommendations from published data. These recommendations conclude that IVIG should not be routinely used to treat Rh or ABO antibody-mediated HDN. In situations where hyperbilirubinaemia is severe (and ET is imminent), or when ET is not readily available, the role of IVIG is unclear. High-quality studies are urgently needed to assess the optimal use of IVIG in patients with HDN.
The effect of cryoprecipitate on prevention of intra cerebral hemorrhage and brain contusion expansion in traumatic patients
Journal of injury & violence research. 2022;14(3)
BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a general and socioeconomic complication and is one of the important causes of mortality and disability among young people in the world. Falling and violence and sports injuries are the other cause. It causes for about ten million new patients, accounting for 9% of all deaths. This interventional study aims to investigate the effects of early administration of cryoprecipitate to prevent expansion of intracranial hemorrhage. METHODS This randomized clinical trial recruited 54 non-pregnant patients. 27 patients in the control group and 27patients in the interventional group. For all patients, common and accepted procedures in scientific centers, including anticonvulsant drugs, normal saline and the other routine management was done and only for patients in the intervention group, 4 units of cryoprecipitate were added to their routine treatments; computed tomography scan (CT) scan was performed 48 hours later in both groups and finally the contusion size was compared in both groups. RESULTS It was observed in the intervention group that by adding 4 units of cryoprecipitate to their treatments; they had no increased size of the brain parenchymal contusion according to the criteria defined in the study compared to the control group (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.0102_0.6303). CONCLUSIONS According to a clinical trial, it seems that cryoprecipitate can prevent of cerebral parenchymal hemorrhage expansion in traumatic patients.
A randomized-controlled trial comparing 20% albumin to plasmalyte in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension [ALPS trial]
Journal of hepatology. 2022
BACKGROUND AND AIM The choice of resuscitation fluid in cirrhosis patients with sepsis-induced hypotension (SIH) is unclear. 5% albumin has been superior to normal saline in the FRISC study. We compared the efficacy and safety of 20% albumin, which has greater oncotic properties with plasmalyte in reversing SIH. METHODS Critically-ill cirrhosis(CIC) patients underwent open-label randomization to receive either 20% albumin [0.5-1.0gm/kg over 3 hours; n=50] or plasmalyte (30ml/kg over 3 hours, n=50). The primary end-point of the study was the attainment of mean arterial pressure (MAP) above 65 mmHg at three hours. RESULTS Baseline characteristics were comparable in albumin and plasmalyte groups; arterial lactate(mmol/L) [6.16±3.18 vs. 6.38±4.77; p=0.78), MAP (mmHg) [51.4±6.52 vs. 49.9±4.45; p=0.17] and SOFA score [10.8±2.96 vs. 11.1±4.2; p=0.68] respectively. Most patients were alcoholics (39%) and had pneumonia (40%). In the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, albumin was superior to plasmalyte in achieving the primary end-point (62% vs. 22%; p<0.001). A rapid decline in arterial lactate (P=0.03), a lesser proportion of dialysis [48% vs. 62%; p=0.16], and a higher time to initiation of dialysis (in hours) [68.13±47.79 vs. 99.7± 63.4; p=0.06] was seen with albumin. However, the 28-day mortality was not different (58% vs. 62%, p=0.57). Patients in the albumin group required discontinuation of therapy in 11 (22%) patients due to adverse effects compared to none in plasmalyte group. CONCLUSION In patients with cirrhosis and SIH, 20% albumin transiently improves the hemodynamics with early lactate clearance than plasmalyte but needs monitoring as it is more often attended with pulmonary complications. Both fluids provide comparable 28 days survival. NCT02721238 LAY SUMMARY The current randomized controlled trial performed in critically ill patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension highlights that 20% albumin restores hemodynamics but causes more pulmonary complications than plasmalyte. The impact on renal functions was also modest. These effects did not result in improvement in deaths at 28-days. Plasmalyte is safer and well-tolerated and can be considered for volume resuscitation in patients with cirrhosis and sepsis-induced hypotension.
Efficacy and safety of fibrinogen administration in acute post-traumatic hypofibrinogenemia in isolated severe traumatic brain injury: A randomized clinical trial
Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. 2022;101:204-211
AIM: This study was conducted to evaluate clinical outcomes after fibrinogen administration in hypofibrinogenemia following severe traumatic brain injury. BACKGROUND Post traumatic coagulopathy (PTC) is a common but devastating medical condition in patients with severe head injury. Hypofibrinogenemia is considered as an indicator for poor clinical outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS In this randomized clinical trial (RCT), primarily 137 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow coma scale score: GCS < 9) were enrolled. Thereafter, their plasma fibrinogen level was measured. The patients with primary hypofibrinogenemia (<200 mg/dL) with no concurrent coagulopathy were randomly allocated into fibrinogen-receiving (n = 50) and control (n = 54) groups. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS Seventy-one patients were analyzed in the final step of the study. The mean value for age in fibrinogen and control groups was 25.64 ± 10.71 and 28.91 ± 12.25 years old, respectively. Male - female patients in both groups were equally distributed. In the fibrinogen receiving group, GCS scores were significantly higher after 24, 48, and 72 h compared to the control group (p = 0.000). Hematoma expansion was better controlled in the fibrinogen receiving group (p = 0.000). Notably, the number needed to treat (NNT) for fibrinogen infusion and hematoma expansion control was 2.3. Glasgow outcome scale-extended (GOSE) was significantly better in the fibrinogen group (p = 0.25). Multiple regression tests showed intracerebral hematoma (ICH) and severe brain edema had the most detrimental effect on GOSE outcomes. The need for cranial surgery, hospital stay duration, mechanical ventilator dependency, in hospital and 90-day post discharge mortality rates were similar in both study groups. CONCLUSION In severe TBI, hypofibrinogenemia correction (>200 mg/dL) could improve GOSE, GCS score progression within 3 days after primary head injury and hematoma expansion controllability.
Patients with hypofibrinogenemia following severe traumatic brain injury (n= 104).
Fibrinogen (fibrinogen group, n= 50).
No fibrinogen (control group, n= 54).
In the fibrinogen receiving group, Glasgow coma scale score scores were significantly higher after 24, 48, and 72 hours compared to the control group. Haematoma expansion was better controlled in the fibrinogen receiving group. The number needed to treat for fibrinogen infusion and haematoma expansion control was 2.3. Glasgow outcome scale-extended (GOSE) was significantly better in the fibrinogen group. Multiple regression tests showed intracerebral haematoma and severe brain oedema had the most detrimental effect on GOSE outcomes. The need for cranial surgery, hospital stay duration, mechanical ventilator dependency, in hospital and 90-day post discharge mortality rates were similar in both study groups.
Prothrombin complex concentrate in major bleeding associated with DOACs; an updated systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis. 2021
BACKGROUND Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) is frequently used as a reversal agent for major bleeding in patients on factor Xa inhibitors. Piran et al. reviewed its safety and efficacy for the first time in 2018. However, more studies have been published on the matter since then. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of this use and update this review. METHODS We systematically searched in Medline, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library from 1/1/2018 to 6/19/2020. A random effects model meta-analysis of proportions was used to study the efficacy of PCC on major bleeding control, mortality and thrombosis incidence. RESULTS 33 studies (n = 2568 patients), with the majority of studies being uncontrolled retrospective cohort studies, were included; atrial fibrillation was the main factor Xa inhibitors indication and approximately 62% of patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage. We estimated the pooled proportion outcomes for hemostasis (80%, CI 0.75-0.84), mortality (15%, CI 0.11-0.19) and thromboembolic adverse events (3%, CI 0.02-0.05). High versus low dose PCC did not affect hemostasis or thrombosis. Patients with ICH had higher mortality rates (22%, CI 0.13-0.32). Heterogeneity was significant (Ι(2) > 50% with p < 0.05) for all pooled proportional outcomes. The quality of evidence was low given that included studies were not randomized or controlled. CONCLUSION Our study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of the off label use of 4F PCC in major bleeding associated with factor Xa inhibitors. Our data require further validation with future randomized clinical trials.
Early administration of fibrinogen concentrate in patients with polytrauma with thromboelastometry suggestive of hypofibrinogenemia: A randomized feasibility trial
Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2021;76:e3168
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical effects of early administration of fibrinogen concentrate in patients with severe trauma and hypofibrinogenemia. METHODS We conducted an open randomized feasibility trial between December 2015 and January 2017 in patients with severe trauma admitted to the emergency department of a large trauma center. Patients presented with hypotension, tachycardia, and FIBTEM findings suggestive of hypofibrinogenemia. The intervention group received fibrinogen concentrate (50 mg/kg), and the control group did not receive early fibrinogen replacement. The primary outcome was feasibility assessed as the proportion of patients receiving the allocated treatment within 60 min after randomization. The secondary outcomes were transfusion requirements and other exploratory outcomes. Randomization was performed using sequentially numbered and sealed opaque envelopes. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02864875. RESULTS Thirty-two patients were randomized (16 in each group). All patients received the allocated treatment within 60 min after randomization (100%, 95% confidence interval, 86.7%-100%). The median length of intensive care unit stay was shorter in the intervention group (8 days, interquartile range [IQR] 5.75-10.0 vs. 11 days, IQR 8.5-16.0; p=0.02). There was no difference between the groups in other clinical outcomes. No adverse effects related to treatment were recorded in either group. CONCLUSION Early fibrinogen replacement with fibrinogen concentrate was feasible. Larger trials are required to properly evaluate clinical outcomes.
Pentaglobin (immunoglobulin M-enriched immunoglobulin) as adjuvant therapy for premature and very low-birth-weight neonates with sepsis
Indian journal of pharmacology. 2021;53(5):364-370
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of Pentaglobin® as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of sepsis in preterm newborns. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a prospective, observational, randomized study for 272 premature neonates and very low birth weight (VLBW) that were diagnosed with sepsis carried at neonatal intensive care units. The patients randomized into control group who received standard sepsis antibiotic treatments, and an intervention group who received Pentaglobin® 5 ml/kg daily for 3 consecutive days as an adjunct therapy to a standard sepsis antibiotic treatment. RESULTS Multiple organisms that isolated from culture specimens were Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive, and candida (56.25%, 42.28%, and 1.47%, respectively). The disease duration was distinctively longer in patients who were treated by the standard antibiotic protocol (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 30.76 ± 3.97, odds ratio [OR]: 30.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.051, 31.473) comparing to the patients who received Pentaglobin adjuvant therapy (mean ± SD: 26.48 ± 5.55, OR: 26.48, 95% CI: 25.489, 27.477) (P < 0.000). Patients treated by standard antibiotic protocol were associated to a substantially increased risk of death (11.76%, hazard ratio 4.400, 95% CI: 1.432, 13.529, P = 0.009). CONCLUSION Neonatal sepsis is more common in premature and VLBW newborns, and Pentaglobin® management of newborn nosocomial sepsis might be used in addition to other therapies.
Efficacy of human immunoglobulin injection and effects on serum inflammatory cytokines in neonates with acute lung injury
Experimental and therapeutic medicine. 2021;22(3):931
The present study aimed to explore the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) injection in neonates with acute lung injury (ALI) and assess its effects on serum inflammatory cytokine levels. The research subjects were 140 neonates with ALI who were evenly distributed into a control group (COG) and a study group (STG). The COG patients were treated routinely, whereas patients in the STG were administered IVIG in addition to the standard treatment received by the COG. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)), PaO(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO(2)), mechanical ventilation time and hospitalization time were compared between the two groups. ELISA was used to determine the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the patients before treatment and at 12, 24 and 36 h after treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the survival of the patients, including their survival for 30 days after treatment. The patients were divided into high and low cytokine expression groups based on their mean expression levels of serum IL-6 and TNF-α before treatment. After treatment, PaO(2) and PaO(2)/FiO2 were significantly higher and mechanical ventilation and hospitalization time were reduced in the STG in comparison with the COG (all P<0.001). At 12, 24 and 36 h after treatment, serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the STG were lower than those in the COG (both P<0.05). The 30-day survival rate after treatment was not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). The 30-day survival rate in the high IL-6 and high TNF-α expression COG was lower than that in the low IL-6 and low TNF-α expression COG (both P<0.05). The results of the present study indicate that IVIG may improve pulmonary gas exchange, shorten the course of disease and reduce the inflammatory response in neonates with ALI.
[Randomized controlled multicenter study of albumin replacement therapy in septic shock (ARISS)]
Der Anaesthesist. 2021