Platelet to erythrocyte transfusion ratio and mortality in massively transfused trauma patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Platelet transfusion during major hemorrhage is important and often embedded in massive transfusion protocols. However, the optimal ratio of platelets to erythrocytes (platelet rich plasma (PLT) :RBC ratio) remains unclear. We hypothesized that high PLT:RBC ratios, as compared to low PLT:RBC ratios, are associated with improved survival in patients requiring massive transfusion. METHODS Four databases (Pubmed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane) were systematically screened for literature published up to January 21, 2021 to determine the effect of PLT:RBC ratio on the primary outcome measure mortality at 1-6 and 24 hours and at 28-30 days. Studies comparing various PLT:RBC ratios were included in meta-analysis. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit length of stay and in-hospital length of stay and total blood component use. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42020165648. RESULTS The search identified a total of 8903 records. After removing duplicates second screening of title, abstract and full text a total of 59 articles were included in the analysis. Of these articles 12 were included in meta-analysis. Mortality at 1-6, 24-hours and 28-30 days was significantly lower for high PLT:RBC ratios as compared to low PLT:RBC ratios. CONCLUSIONS Higher PLT:RBC ratios are associated with significantly lower 1-6 hours, 24 hours, 28-30 days mortality as compared to lower PLT:RBC ratios. The optimal PLT:RBC ratio for massive transfusion in trauma patients is approximately 1:1. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review and meta-analysis, therapeutic level III.
Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma As A Preparative for Resurfacing Burn Wounds with Split Thickness Skin Grafts
World J Plast Surg. 2020;9(1):29-32
BACKGROUND Split thickness skin graft is a widely accepted technique to cover large defects. Shearing, hematoma and infection have often been attributed as major causes for graft loss. Autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been used in various treatment modalities in the field of plastic surgery for its healing, adhesive and hemostatic properties owing to the growth factors that are released. This Study primarily throws light on the usage of PRP over difficult Burn wound beds to augment graft uptake and attenuate complications. METHODS The patients were divided into two groups of those who were subjected to use of autologous PRP as a preparative burn surfacing and the control group who underwent standard method of treatment. RESULTS Patients in PRP group significantly showed a higher graft adherence rate as compared to those with other method. It also reduced pain, and hematoma formation. CONCLUSION Application of PRP is a safe, cost effective, easy method to increase graft adherence rate in patients with burns where graft loss is noticed and there is shortage of donor sites.
Effectiveness of platelet rich plasma in burn wound healing: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The Journal of dermatological treatment. 2020;:1-25
Background: To evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of burn wounds.Methods: A comprehensive literature survey was conducted in electronic medical journal databases to identify studies that examined the effect of PRP treatment to burn wounds and meta-analyses of mean differences (MD) standardized MD, or odds ratios (OR) were performed.Results: The percentage of graft take was not significantly different between PRP-treated and control wound areas. Healing rate was significantly better in PRP-treated wounds. Healing time was also significantly less in PRP-treated wounds. There was no significant difference between PRP-treated and control wound areas in epithelialization, or in the incidence of adverse events. Incidence of infection was also not different between PRP-treated and control wound areas. Scar assessment score was significantly better in PRP-treated than in control wound areas.Conclusion: PRP treatment to burn wounds is found to improve healing. Variations in study design and sample size, types of wounds, PRP preparation protocols, and high risk of bias in some of the included studies may have impact on these outcomes.
Evaluation of the Effect of Platelet-Rich Fibrin on Wound Healing at Split-Thickness Skin Graft Donor Sites: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Triple-Blind Study
The international journal of lower extremity wounds. 2020;:1534734619900432
Split-thickness skin grafting (STSG) is widely used to heal wounds resulting from trauma, burns, and chronic wounds. This study aimed to determine the true effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on patients with burn wounds requiring STSG during treatment of donor wounds. This randomized, triple-blind clinical trial was conducted on patients who referred to the burn ward of Vasei Hospital of Sabzevar, Iran, from May 2017 to May 2018. The donor site was randomly divided into 2 groups: PRF and control (Vaseline petrolatum gauze) using Vaseline gauze. In the intervention group, the PRF gel was applied to the wound and covered with Vaseline gauze and wet dressing. Conversely, only Vaseline gauze and wet dressing were applied to the control group. Outcome evaluation was conducted using paired t test and Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test, as appropriate, on days 8 and 15. The mean age of the patients was 33.10 +/- 2.60 years, and 51.50% were male. The mean wound healing time in the PRF and control groups was 11.80 +/- 3.51 and 16.30 +/- 4.32 days, respectively (P < .001). The PRF group showed significantly higher wound healing rates than the control group at 8 and 15 days dressing (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Moreover, the mean wound healing for all wound healing indices diagnosed by 2 specialists in PRF was higher than control group on days 8 and 15 (P < .001). We found a statistically significant difference on days 8 and 15 regarding the mean pain levels between the 2 groups (P < .001). The findings showed that PRF can significantly increase the time and rate of donor wound healing compared with conventional treatment and also reduce the severity of pain.
The effect of platelet transfusion on functional independence and mortality after antiplatelet therapy associated spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of the neurological sciences. 2020;417:117075
INTRODUCTION The practice of platelet transfusion to mitigate the deleterious effects of antiplatelet agents on spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains common. However, the effect of antiplatelet agents on patients with ICH is still controversial and transfusing platelets is not without risk. We performed a meta-analysis in order to determine the effect of platelet transfusion on antiplatelet agent associated ICH. METHODS We queried PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases to identify cohort studies, case-control studies, and randomized control trials. Study quality was graded by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, as appropriate. Outcomes of interest included functional independence as measured by the modified Rankin Scale and mortality. We compared patients with antiplatelet agent associated ICH who received platelet transfusion to those that did not. RESULTS We identified 625 articles. After reviewing 44 full text articles, 5 were deemed appropriate for meta-analysis, including 4 cohort studies and one randomized control trial. Considerable heterogeneity was present among the studies (I(2) > 81% for all analyses). We did not find a significant effect of platelet transfusions on functional independence (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.3, 95% CI.0.45-3.9) or mortality (OR 0.58, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.12-2.6). CONCLUSION We found no evidence for an effect of platelet transfusions on functional independence or mortality following antiplatelet associated ICH. More randomized trials are needed to evaluate platelet transfusion in patients with ICH and proven reduced platelet activity or those requiring neurosurgical intervention.
The Effectiveness of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma Application in the Wound Bed Prior to Resurfacing with Split Thickness Skin Graft vs. Conventional Mechanical Fixation Using Sutures and Staples
World journal of plastic surgery. 2019;8(2):185-194
BACKGROUND Autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) has significant benefits facilitating improved graft take on wound beds due to hemostasis, adhesive and healing properties. This study aimed at effective use of PRP in wound beds on graft take irrespective of etiology as compared to conventional methods of mechanical fixation using sutures and staples. METHODS Forty cases including 20 in control and 20 in PRP groups admitted to the Department of Plastic Surgery at Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore were enrolled between October 2015 and September 2017. Freshly prepared autologous PRP was applied on wound beds in the treated group, while conventional mechanical fixation methods like staples and sutures were used in the control group for the fixation of the skin grafts. RESULTS Most significant result was the instant graft take to the wound bed irrespective of the etiology besides hemostasis and healing properties in the PRP treated group which resulted in considerable reduction of surgeon's time required for the removal of sutures and staples at the final stages. Also, only 10% with graft edema were noted in the PRP treated patients as compared to 68% in the control group. The inner dressings and skin graft were dry in the PRP group and the post-operative etching, weeping and pain at the graft site reduced. CONCLUSION The cosmetic appearance of this scar was better in the PRP group besides post-operative edema and graft loss. The study recommends use of PRP at the recipient site of split thickness skin graft.
The Role of Platelets in Premature Neonates with Intraventricular Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2019
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) affects up to 22% of extremely low birth weight neonates. Impaired coagulation might contribute to the pathogenesis of IVH. The aims of this study were to summarize the current knowledge on the role of platelet indices in premature neonates with IVH and to provide an overview of secondary hemostasis parameters as well as fibrinolysis in premature neonates with IVH. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The databases PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched on March 7, 2019, without time restrictions. In total, 30 studies were included. Most studies investigated the significance of platelet counts and/or mean platelet volume (MPV). The meta-analysis showed that at day 1 of life, neither platelet count nor MPV differed significantly between neonates with or without IVH (standardized mean difference [SMD]: -0.15 x 10(9)/L, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.37 to 0.07 and SMD: 0.22 fl, 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.51, respectively). However, platelet counts < 100 x 10(9)/L were associated with an increased risk of IVH. Secondary hemostasis parameters did not differ between neonates with and without IVH. Fibrinolysis was only sparsely investigated. In conclusion, platelet counts < 100 x 10(9)/L were associated with an increased risk of IVH in premature neonates. The impact of secondary hemostasis was only sparsely investigated but seemed to be minor, and the role of fibrinolysis in IVH in premature neonates needs further research. Whether reduced platelet function is associated with an increased risk of IVH in premature neonates remains to be investigated.
Extremely low birth weight neonates (30 studies).
Platelet indices in neonates with IVH.
Platelet indices in neonates without IVH.
The meta-analysis showed that at day 1 of life, neither platelet count nor MPV differed significantly between neonates with or without IVH. However, platelet counts < 100 x 10(9)/L were associated with an increased risk of IVH. Secondary hemostasis parameters did not differ between neonates with and without IVH. Fibrinolysis was only sparsely investigated.
Low-dose, Early Fresh frozen plasma Transfusion therapy after severe trauma brain injury: a clinical, prospective, randomized, controlled study (LEFT)
World neurosurgery. 2019
BACKGROUND To investigate the role of Low-dose, Early Fresh frozen plasma Transfusion (LEFT) therapy in preventing peri-operative coagulopathy and improving long-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS A prospected, single-centre, parallel-group, randomized trial was designed. Patients with severe TBI were eligible. We used a computer-generated randomization list, and closed opaque envelopes to randomly allocate patients to treatment with FFP (5mL/kg of body weight) as LEFT treatment or normal saline (5mL/kg of body weight) as no LEFT treatment once admitting to operation room. RESULTS Between 1 January 2018 and 31 November 2018, 63 patients were included and randomly allocated to LEFT (n=28) and NO LEFT (n=35) groups. 20 patients in the LEFT group and 32 patients in the NO LEFT group were included in the final interim analysis. The study was terminated early for futility and safety reasons because of the high proportion of patients (7 of 20, 35.0 %) in the LEFT group developing new delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma (DTICH) after surgery as compared with 3 of 32 in the NO LEFT group (9.4 %) (relative risk, 5.205; 95% CI, 1.159 to 23.384; P=0.023). Demographic characteristics and indexes of severity of brain injury were similar at baseline. CONCLUSION Low-dose, early fresh frozen plasma transfusion therapy was associated with higher incidence of DTICH than normal FFP transfusion in patients with severe TBI. A restricted FFP transfusion protocol, in the right clinical setting, may be more appropriate in patients with TBIs. (Current Controlled Trials number, ChiCTR-INR-17013901).
Elevated Syndecan-1 after Trauma and Risk of Sepsis: A Secondary Analysis of Patients from the Pragmatic, Randomized Optimal Platelet and Plasma Ratios (PROPPR) Trial
Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2018;227((6):):587-595.
BACKGROUND Endotheliopathy of trauma is characterized by breakdown of the endothelial glycocalyx. Elevated biomarkers of endotheliopathy, such as serum syndecan-1 (Synd-1) ≥ 40 ng/mL, have been associated with increased need for transfusions, complications, and mortality. We hypothesized that severely injured trauma patients who exhibit elevated Synd-1 levels shortly after admission have an increased likelihood of developing sepsis. STUDY DESIGN We analyzed a subset of PROPPR patients that survived at least 72 hours after hospital admission and determined elevated Synd-1 levels (≥ 40 ng/mL) 4 hours after hospital arrival. Sepsis was defined a priori as meeting systemic inflammatory response criteria and having a known or suspected infection. Univariate analysis was performed to identify variables associated with elevated Synd-1 levels and sepsis. Significant variables at a p-value <0.2 in the univariate analysis were chosen by purposeful selection and analyzed in a mixed effects multivariate logistic regression model to account for the 12 different study sites. RESULTS We included 512 patients. Of these, 402 (79%) had elevated Synd-1 levels, and 180 (35%) developed sepsis. Median Synd-1 levels at 4 hours after admission were 70 ng/dL (IQR 36 - 157 ng/dL) in patients who did not develop sepsis, and 165 ng/dL (IQR 67 - 336 ng/dL) in those who did (p < 0.001). Adjusting for treatment arm and site, multivariable analyses revealed that elevated Synd-1 status, injury severity score (ISS), and total blood transfused were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of developing sepsis. CONCLUSIONS Elevated Synd-1 levels 4 hours after admission in severely injured adult trauma patients who survived the initial 72 hours after hospital admission is associated with subsequent sepsis.
Randomized Trial of Platelet-Transfusion Thresholds in Neonates
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2018
BACKGROUND Platelet transfusions are commonly used to prevent bleeding in preterm infants with thrombocytopenia. Data are lacking to provide guidance regarding thresholds for prophylactic platelet transfusions in preterm neonates with severe thrombocytopenia. METHODS In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned infants born at less than 34 weeks of gestation in whom severe thrombocytopenia developed to receive a platelet transfusion at platelet-count thresholds of 50,000 per cubic millimeter (high-threshold group) or 25,000 per cubic millimeter (low-threshold group). Bleeding was documented prospectively with the use of a validated bleeding-assessment tool. The primary outcome was death or new major bleeding within 28 days after randomization. RESULTS A total of 660 infants (median birth weight, 740 g; and median gestational age, 26.6 weeks) underwent randomization. In the high-threshold group, 90% of the infants (296 of 328 infants) received at least one platelet transfusion, as compared with 53% (177 of 331 infants) in the low-threshold group. A new major bleeding episode or death occurred in 26% of the infants (85 of 324) in the high-threshold group and in 19% (61 of 329) in the low-threshold group (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.32; P=0.02). There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to rates of serious adverse events (25% in the high-threshold group and 22% in the low-threshold group; odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.67). CONCLUSIONS Among preterm infants with severe thrombocytopenia, those randomly assigned to receive platelet transfusions at a platelet-count threshold of less than 50,000 per cubic millimeter had a significantly higher rate of death or major bleeding within 28 days after randomization than those in the group that received less than 25,000 per cubic millimeter. (Funded by the National Health Service Blood and Transplant Research and Development Committee and others; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN87736839 .).