Parental support needs during pediatric resuscitation: A systematic review
International emergency nursing. 2022;63:101173
BACKGROUND Resuscitation of a child is one of the most critical times that parents need support, and parental support is fundamental to providing family-centered care in high acuity settings. The aim of this systematic review was to appraise and synthesize studies conducted to examine the support needs of parents during resuscitation of their child from their own perspective. METHOD The PRISMA model guided the systematic literature search of Google Scholar, PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, and Ovid for studies published until the end of 2020. Keywords used were: family support, family-centered care, family needs, resuscitation, CPR, children, neonatal, pediatric, family presence, family-witnessed, and parents. RESULTS There were 787 articles located. After reviewing for relevancy, 21 articles met criteria and were included in this review. Findings indicate the needs of parents during resuscitation of their child include: Spiritual and cultural support; Communication with the child before and after resuscitation; Professional behavior from staff; Receiving information; Presence at resuscitation; Trust in the resuscitation team; and Having physical and mental needs met. CONCLUSION Parents have differing support needs when their child is resuscitated in the hospital, and meeting these needs is critical for providing family-centered care.
A New Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients After Intravenous Thrombolysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:774654
BACKGROUND We aimed to develop and validate a new nomogram for predicting the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). METHODS A retrospective study enrolled 553 patients with AIS treated with IVT. The patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the training set (70%, n = 387) and the testing set (30%, n = 166). The factors in the predictive nomogram were filtered using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the nomogram was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS After multivariable logistic regression analysis, certain factors, such as smoking, National Institutes of Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), were found to be independent predictors of ICH and were used to construct a nomogram. The AUC-ROC values of the nomogram were 0.887 (95% CI: 0.842-0.933) and 0.776 (95% CI: 0.681-0.872) in the training and testing sets, respectively. The AUC-ROC of the nomogram was higher than that of the Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS), Glucose, Race, Age, Sex, Systolic blood Pressure, and Severity of stroke (GRASPS), and stroke prognostication using age and NIH Stroke Scale-100 positive index (SPAN-100) scores for predicting ICH in both the training and testing sets (p < 0.05). The calibration plot demonstrated good agreement in both the training and testing sets. DCA indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS The new nomogram, which included smoking, NIHSS, BUN/Cr, and NLR as variables, had the potential for predicting the risk of ICH in patients with AIS after IVT.
Perihematomal Edema and Clinical Outcome After Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Neurocritical care. 2022
BACKGROUND Perihematomal edema (PHE) has been proposed as a radiological marker of secondary injury and therapeutic target in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prognostic impact of PHE on functional outcome and mortality in patients with ICH. METHODS We searched major databases through December 2020 using predefined keywords. Any study using logistic regression to examine the association between PHE or its growth and functional outcome was included. We examined the overall pooled effect and conducted secondary analyses to explore the impact of individual PHE measures on various outcomes separately. Study quality was assessed by three independent raters using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Odds ratios (per 1-unit increase in PHE) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were log transformed and entered into a DerSimonian-Laird random-effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled estimates of the effect. RESULTS Twenty studies (n = 6633 patients) were included in the analysis. The pooled effect size for overall outcome was 1.05 (95% CI 1.02-1.08; p < 0.00). For the following secondary analyses, the effect size was weak: mortality (1.01; 95% CI 0.90-1.14), functional outcome (1.04; 95% CI 1.02-1.07), both 90-day (1.06; 95% CI 1.02-1.11), and in-hospital assessments (1.04; 95% CI 1.00-1.08). The effect sizes for PHE volume and PHE growth were 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.07) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.04-1.25), respectively. Heterogeneity across studies was substantial except for PHE growth. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis demonstrates that PHE volume within the first 72 h after ictus has a weak effect on functional outcome and mortality after ICH, whereas PHE growth might have a slightly larger impact during this time frame. Definitive conclusions are limited by the large variability of PHE measures, heterogeneity, and different evaluation time points between studies.
Clinical and biochemical endpoints and predictors of response to plasma exchange in septic shock: results from a randomized controlled trial
Critical care (London, England). 2022;26(1):134
BACKGROUND Recently, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated rapid but individually variable hemodynamic improvement with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in patients with septic shock. Prediction of clinical efficacy in specific sepsis treatments is fundamental for individualized sepsis therapy. METHODS In the original RCT, patients with septic shock of < 24 h duration and norepinephrine (NE) requirement ≥ 0.4 μg/kg/min received standard of care (SOC) or SOC + one single TPE. Here, we report all clinical and biological endpoints of this study. Multivariate mixed-effects modeling of NE reduction was performed to investigate characteristics that could be associated with clinical response to TPE. RESULTS A continuous effect of TPE on the reduction in NE doses over the initial 24 h was observed (SOC group: estimated NE dose reduction of 0.005 µg/kg/min per hour; TPE group: 0.018 µg/kg/min per hour, p = 0.004). Similarly, under TPE, serum lactate levels, continuously decreased over the initial 24 h in the TPE group, whereas lactate levels increased under SOC (p = 0.001). A reduction in biomarkers and disease mediators (such as PCT (p = 0.037), vWF:Ag (p < 0.001), Angpt-2 (p = 0.009), sTie-2 (p = 0.005)) along with a repletion of exhausted protective factors (such as AT-III (p = 0.026), Protein C (p = 0.012), ADAMTS-13 (p = 0.008)) could be observed in the TPE but not in the SOC group. In a multivariate mixed effects model, increasing baseline lactate levels led to greater NE dose reduction effects with TPE as opposed to SOC (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS Adjunctive TPE is associated with the removal of injurious mediators and repletion of consumed protective factors altogether leading to preserved hemodynamic stabilization in refractory septic shock. We identified that baseline lactate concentration as a potential response predictor might guide future designing of large RCTs that will further evaluate TPE with regard to hard endpoints. Trial registration Retrospectively registered 18th January 2020 at clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04231994 ).
Comparison of Risk Scores for Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA network open. 2022;5(5):e2214253
IMPORTANCE Clinical prediction models, or risk scores, can be used to risk stratify patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB), although the most discriminative score is unknown. OBJECTIVE To identify all LGIB risk scores available and compare their prognostic performance. DATA SOURCES A systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1, 1990, through August 31, 2021, was conducted. Non-English-language articles were excluded. STUDY SELECTION Observational and interventional studies deriving or validating an LGIB risk score for the prediction of a clinical outcome were included. Studies including patients younger than 16 years or limited to a specific patient population or a specific cause of bleeding were excluded. Two investigators independently screened the studies, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Data were abstracted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guideline independently by 2 investigators and pooled using random-effects models. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Summary diagnostic performance measures (sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC]) determined a priori were calculated for each risk score and outcome combination. RESULTS A total of 3268 citations were identified, of which 9 studies encompassing 12 independent cohorts and 4 risk scores (Oakland, Strate, NOBLADS [nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, no diarrhea, no abdominal tenderness, blood pressure ≤100 mm Hg, antiplatelet drug use (nonaspirin), albumin <3.0 g/dL, disease score ≥2 (according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index), and syncope], and BLEED [ongoing bleeding, low systolic blood pressure, elevated prothrombin time, erratic mental status, and unstable comorbid disease]) were included in the meta-analysis. For the prediction of safe discharge, the AUROC for the Oakland score was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.82-0.88). For major bleeding, the AUROC was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90-0.95) for the Oakland score, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.69-0.77) for the Strate score, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.53-0.62) for the NOBLADS score, and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.61-0.69) for the BLEED score. For transfusion, the AUROC was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.98-1.00) for the Oakland score and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.85-0.90) for the NOBLADS score. For hemostasis, the AUROC was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.32-0.40) for the Oakland score, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.79-0.85) for the Strate score, and 0.24 (95% CI, 0.20-0.28) for the NOBLADS score. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The Oakland score was the most discriminative LGIB risk score for predicting safe discharge, major bleeding, and need for transfusion, whereas the Strate score was best for predicting need for hemostasis. This study suggests that these scores can be used to predict outcomes from LGIB and guide clinical care accordingly.
Patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB), (9 studies).
Systematic review and meta-analysis to identify all LGIB risk scores available and to compare their prognostic performance.
Four risk scores were identified: Oakland, Strate, NOBLADS, and BLEED. Summary diagnostic performance measures (sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC]) determined a priori were calculated for each risk score and outcome combination. For the prediction of safe discharge, the AUROC for the Oakland score was 0.86. For major bleeding, the AUROC was 0.93 for the Oakland score, 0.73 for the Strate score, 0.58 for the NOBLADS score, and 0.65 for the BLEED score. For transfusion, the AUROC was 0.99 for the Oakland score and 0.88 for the NOBLADS score. For haemostasis, the AUROC was 0.36 for the Oakland score, 0.82 for the Strate score, and 0.24 for the NOBLADS score.
Robotically applied hemostatic clamping for care-under-fire: harnessing bomb robots for hemorrhage control
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 2022;65(2):E242-e249
BACKGROUND Early hemorrhage control after interpersonal violence is the most urgent requirement to preserve life and is now recognized as a responsibility of law enforcement. Although earlier entry of first responders is advocated, many shooting scenes remain unsafe for humans, necessitating first responses conducted by robots. Thus, robotic hemorrhage control warrants study as a care-under-fire treatment option. METHODS Two bomb disposal robots (Wolverine and Dragon Runner) were retrofitted with hemostatic wound clamps. The robots' ability to apply a wound clamp to a simulated extremity exsanguination while controlled by 4 experienced operators was tested. The operators were randomly assigned to perform 10 trials using 1 robot each. A third surveillance robot (Stair Climber) provided further visualization for the operators. We assessed the success rate of the application of the wound clamp to the simulated wound, the time to application of the wound clamp and the amount of fluid loss. We also assessed the operators' efforts to apply the wound clamp after an initial attempt was unsuccessful or after the wound clamp was dropped. RESULTS Remote robotic application of a wound clamp was demonstrated to be feasible, with complete cessation of simulated bleeding in 60% of applications. This finding was consistent across all operators and both robots. There was no difference in the success rates with the 2 robots (p = 1.00). However, there were differences in fluid loss (p = 0.004) and application time (p < 0.001), with the larger (Wolverine) robot being faster and losing less fluid. CONCLUSION Law enforcement tactical robots were consistently able to provide partial to complete hemorrhage control in a simulated extremity exsanguination. Consideration should be given to using this approach in care-under-fire and care-behind-the-barricade scenarios as well as further developing the technology and doctrine for robotic hemorrhage control.
Public safety bomb technicians (n= 4).
Application of wound clamps with the heavy-duty bomb disposal Wolverine robot (n= 2).
Application of wound clamps with the lightweight bomb disposal Dragon Runner robot (n= 2).
There was complete cessation of simulated bleeding in 60% of applications consistently across all technicians and both robots. There was no difference in success rates with the two robots. However, there were differences in fluid loss and application time, with the Wolverine robot being faster and losing less fluid.
A randomized controlled pilot trial of video-modelling versus telementoring for improved hemorrhage control wound packing
American journal of surgery. 2022
INTRODUCTION Exsanguination is the most preventable cause of death. Paradigms such as STOP THE BLEED recognize increased responsibility among the less experienced with Wound Packing (WP) being a critical skill. As even trained providers may perform poorly, we compared Video-modelling (VM), a form of behavioural modelling involving video demonstration prior to intervention against remote telementoring (RTM) involving remote real-time expert-guidance. METHODS Search and Rescue (SAR-Techs), trained in WP were asked to pack a wound on a standardized simulator randomized to RMT, VM, or control. RESULTS 24 SAR-Techs (median age 37, median 16.5 years experience) participated. Controls were consistently faster than RTM (p = 0.005) and VM (p = 0.000), with no difference between RTM and VM. However, 50% (n = 4) Controls failed to pack properly, compared to 100% success in both VM and RTM, despite all SAR-Techs feeling the task was "easy". DISCUSSION Performance of a life-saving technique was improved through either VM or RTM, suggesting that both techniques are beneficial and complementary to each other. Further work should be extended to law enforcement/lay public to examine logistical challenges.
Adding non-contrast and delayed phases increases the diagnostic performance of arterial CTA for suspected active lower gastrointestinal bleeding
European radiology. 2022
OBJECTIVES When assessing for lower gastrointestinal bleed (LGIB) using CTA, many advocate for acquiring non-contrast and delayed phases in addition to an arterial phase to improve diagnostic performance though the potential benefit of this approach has not been fully characterized. We evaluate diagnostic accuracy among radiologists when using single-phase, biphasic, and triphasic CTA in active LGIB detection. METHOD AND MATERIALS A random experimental block design was used where 3 blinded radiologists specialty trained in interventional radiology retrospectively interpreted 96 CTA examinations completed between Oct 2012 and Oct 2017 using (1) arterial only, (2) arterial/non-contrast, and (3) arterial/non-contrast/delayed phase configurations. Confirmed positive and negative LGIB studies were matched, balanced, and randomly ordered. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, positive and negative predictive values, and time to identify the presence/absence of active bleeding were examined using generalized estimating equations (GEE) with sandwich estimation assuming a binary distribution to estimate relative benefit of diagnostic performance between phase configurations. RESULTS Specificity increased with additional contrast phases (arterial 72.2; arterial/non-contrast 86.1; arterial/non-contrast/delayed 95.1; p < 0.001) without changes in sensitivity (arterial 77.1; arterial/non-contrast 70.2; arterial/non-contrast/delayed 73.1; p = 0.11) or mean time required to identify bleeding per study (s, arterial 34.8; arterial/non-contrast 33.1; arterial/non-contrast/delayed 36.0; p = 0.99). Overall agreement among readers (Kappa) similarly increased (arterial 0.47; arterial/non-contrast 0.65; arterial/non-contrast/delayed 0.79). CONCLUSION The addition of non-contrast and delayed phases to arterial phase CTA increased specificity and inter-reader agreement for the detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding without increasing reading times. KEY POINTS • A triphasic CTA including non-contrast, arterial, and delayed phase has higher specificity for the detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding than arterial-phase-only protocols. • Inter-reader agreement increases with additional contrast phases relative to single-phase CTA. • Increasing the number of contrast phases did not increase reading times.
Coagulation in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A systematic review of studies shows lack of standardized reporting
Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis. 2022;6(2):e12687
OBJECTIVES Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) involves complex coagulation management and frequent hemostatic complications. ECMO practice between centers is variable. To compare results between coagulation studies, standardized definitions and clear documentation of ECMO practice is essential. We assessed how study population, outcome definitions, and ECMO-, coagulation-, and transfusion-related parameters were described in pediatric ECMO studies. DATA SOURCES Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. STUDY SELECTION English original studies of pediatric ECMO patients describing hemostatic tests or outcome. DATA EXTRACTION Eligibility was assessed following PRISMA guidelines. Study population, outcome and ECMO-, coagulation, and transfusion parameters were summarized. DATA SYNTHESIS A total of 107 of 1312 records were included. Study population parameters most frequently included (gestational) age (79%), gender (60%), and (birth) weight (59%). Outcomes, including definitions of bleeding (29%), thrombosis (15%), and survival (43%), were described using various definitions. Description of pump type, oxygenator and cannulation mode occurred in 49%, 45%, and 36% of studies, respectively. The main coagulation test (53%), its reference ranges (49%), and frequency of testing (24%) were the most prevalent reported coagulation parameters. The transfusion thresholds for platelets, red blood cells, and fibrinogen were described in 27%, 18%, and 18% of studies, respectively. CONCLUSIONS This systematic review demonstrates a widespread lack of detail or standardization of several parameters in coagulation research of pediatric ECMO patients. We suggest several parameters that might be included in future coagulation studies. We encourage the ECMO community to adopt and refine this list of parameters and to use standardized definitions in future research.
Recommendations for Improving Stop the Bleed: A Systematic Review
Military medicine. 2022
INTRODUCTION In response to mass casualty events, The Hartford Consensus brought together subject matter experts across multiple disciplines in health care and public safety to create guidelines and publications intended to improve survivability in active shooter events. Among the recommendations was the earlier recognition and treatment application of life-threatening hemorrhage control. These recommendations culminated in efforts to create the Stop the Bleed Campaign, which aims to empower the layperson to render aid in a life-threatening bleeding emergency. As of February 2020, the program has held over 86,000 courses, trained over 1.4 million attendees, and over 77,000 instructors since its inception. In addition to spreading within the United States, American College of Surgeons (ACS) Stop the Bleed (StB) classes have been held in 118 different countries. This systematic narrative review aims to answer the following research question: What does the ACS StB Initiative do well, and where can it improve? MATERIALS AND METHODS The following search terms were utilized: "Stop the Bleed," "American College of Surgeons," "bleeding control," "first-aid," tourniquet, "wound pack," "direct pressure" hemorrhage, and bystander. The inclusion criteria were that the article needed to speak to the program or some aspect of bystander first aid, the article needed to be in a civilian setting, the article needed to be more than a case study or overview, and the first aid tools needed to be in the StB curriculum. 4 databases were searched, which produced 138 articles for screening. One hundred four full-text articles were able to be retrieved, and 56 articles were determined to meet the inclusion criteria once the full text was reviewed. RESULTS Fifty-six articles were included in the final review and were placed into the following categories: Needs Within the Community, Confidence and Knowledge, Training Modalities, Barriers and Gaps in Training, Instructor Selection, Skill Retention, and Patient Outcomes. The articles were then organized into each outcome for synthesis and reporting of the results. The program overwhelmingly improves short-term confidence, but gaps in skill retention, data collection on patient outcomes, and settings that would benefit were identified. CONCLUSION StB is an effective tool in building confidence in laypersons, which is its biggest strength. A review of the literature shows several areas where the curriculum and materials could be better developed. Research can also be further refined to better quantify the program's impact.