Clinical effect of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2022;38(1):95-99
OBJECTIVES To explore the clinical value of minimally invasive aspiration and drainage of intracranial hematoma in the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS Seventy-eight patients with cerebral hemorrhage who were treated in the Taian City Central Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University between June 2018 and December 2019 were selected. The patients were randomly numbered and divided into two groups by drawing lots, 39 in each group. The control group was treated with the traditional internal medicine conservative therapy, and the observation group was treated with minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage. The indexes of the two groups were compared. RESULTS The efficacy rate of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of the observation group was lower than that of the control group after treatment, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the good recovery rate of the observation group was higher compared to the control group, and the difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). The incidence of complications in the observation group was lower than that of the control group, with a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). CONCLUSION In the treatment of cerebral hemorrhage, minimally invasive intracranial hematoma aspiration and drainage facilitates the recovery of patients, promotes the improvement of neurological function, and has a high safety profile and an ideal prognostic quality.
Safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients with a history of intracranial hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2022;215:107205
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a fatal and debilitating condition killing 2.7 million people each year worldwide. The most commonly used treatment modality for AIS is intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with alteplase which is indicated for those presenting within 4.5 h of onset. Due to a lack of reliable evidence on harm or benefit, the 2019 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guidelines consider a history of previous intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) as potentially harmful and no longer an absolute contraindication for IVT in patients with AIS, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed chronic ICH as a specific contraindication for IVT from the label in 2015. Despite a shift in guidelines, physicians frequently face the dilemmatic choice whether to administer IVT in this subset of patients due to the risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). The benefit of IVT in such patients has not been thoroughly investigated, and there are only a few studies on the subject in the literature to date. We conducted the present meta-analysis in an aim to provide solid evidence on the efficacy and safety of IVT for treating AIS in patients with a history of remote ICH. Our meta-analysis found that IVT improves functional outcomes in AIS patients with prior remote ICH without increasing SICH or all-cause mortality. These findings may contribute to the decision-making process for IVT administration in AIS patients.
A Comparison Between Enteral and Intravenous Nimodipine in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Neurocritical care. 2022
Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and enteral nimodipine in preventing poor outcome from delayed cerebral ischemia in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We performed a systematic search and a network meta-analysis using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar. Risk of Bias 2 tool was used to assess risk of bias of included studies. A ranking among methods was performed on the basis of the frequentist analog of the surface under the cumulative ranking curve. Published studies that met the following population, intervention, comparison, outcomes and study (PICOS) criteria were included: patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage aged 15 years or older (P); nimodipine, intravenous and oral formulation (I); placebo or no intervention (C); poor outcome measured at 3 months (defined as death, vegetative state, or severe disability), case fatality at 3 months, delayed cerebral ischemia, delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit, and vasospasm measured with transcranial Doppler or digital subtraction angiography (O); and randomized controlled trials (S). No language or publication date restrictions were applied. Ten studies were finally included, with a total of 1527 randomly assigned patients. Oral and intravenous nimodipine were both effective in preventing poor outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit. Neither treatment was effective in improving case fatality. Evolving clinical protocols over a 30-year period and the risk of bias of the included studies may limit the strength of our results. Enteral and intravenous nimodipine may have a similar effectiveness in terms of preventing poor outcome, delayed cerebral ischemia, and delayed ischaemic neurological deficit. More research may be needed to fully establish the role of intravenous nimodipine in current clinical practice.
Fresh frozen plasma transfusion in the neonatal population: A systematic review
Blood reviews. 2022;:100951
Although fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions are common practice in neonatology, robust evidence on their use is lacking. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for data on the practice of FFP transfusions in neonates and their association with neonatal morbidity and mortality. The authors identified 40 studies, which met the inclusion criteria for this review. It was demonstrated that the practice of FFP transfusions significantly varies throughout the world. The majority of FFP transfusions are administered "prophylactically", without evidence of active bleeding. Although FFP transfusions may restore coagulation tests results, they do not alter the clinical outcome of the neonates. Reactions following transfusions are probably underestimated in neonates, often undiagnosed and thus, underreported. High quality RCTs aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of FFP in specific clinical conditions are urgently needed, as they could change long-standing FFP transfusion practices, and help reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Prehospital plasma is associated with survival principally in patients transferred from the scene of injury: A secondary analysis of the PAMPer trial
BACKGROUND We sought to characterize if prehospital transfer origin from the scene of injury (SCENE) or from a referral emergency department (REF) alters the survival benefit attributable to prehospital plasma resuscitation in patients at risk of hemorrhagic shock. METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of data from a recently completed prehospital plasma clinical trial. All of the enrolled patients from either the SCENE or REF groups were included. The demographics, injury characteristics, shock severity and resuscitation needs were compared. The primary outcome was a 30-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox-hazard regression were used to characterize the independent survival benefits of prehospital plasma for transport origin groups. RESULTS Of the 501 enrolled patients, the REF group patients (n = 111) accounted for 22% with the remaining (n = 390) originating from the scene. The SCENE group patients had higher injury severity and were more likely intubated prehospital. The REF group patients had longer prehospital times and received greater prehospital crystalloid and blood products. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significant 30-day survival benefit associated with prehospital plasma in the SCENE group (P < .01) with no difference found in the REF group patients (P = .36). The Cox-regression verified after controlling for relevant confounders that prehospital plasma was independently associated with a 30-day survival in the SCENE group patients (hazard ratio 0.59; 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.89; P = .01) with no significant relationship found in the REF group patients (hazard ratio 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.4-3.0). CONCLUSION Important differences across the SCENE and REF cohorts exist that are essential to understand when planning prehospital studies. Prehospital plasma is associated with a survival benefit primarily in SCENE group patients. The results are exploratory but suggest transfer origin may be an important determinant of prehospital plasma benefit.
Balanced Crystalloids versus Normal Saline in Adults with Sepsis: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(7)
The crystalloid fluid of choice in sepsis remains debatable. We aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to compare the effect of balanced crystalloids (BC) vs. normal saline (NS) in adults with sepsis. A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Sciences databases through 22 January 2022, was performed for studies that compared BC vs. NS in adults with sepsis. Our outcomes included mortality and acute kidney injury (AKI), need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), and ICU length of stay (LOS). Pooled risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using a random-effect model. Fifteen studies involving 20,329 patients were included. Overall, BC showed a significant reduction in the overall mortality (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.96), 28/30-day mortality (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.95), and AKI (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93) but similar 90-day mortality (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.90-1.03), need for RRT (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.76-1.08), and ICU LOS (MD -0.25 days, 95% CI -3.44, 2.95), were observed between the two groups. However, subgroup analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed no statistically significant differences in overall mortality (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.82-1.02), AKI (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.47-1.06), and need for RRT (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.36-1.41). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that overall BC was associated with reduced mortality and AKI in sepsis compared to NS among patients with sepsis. However, subgroup analysis of RCTs showed no significant differences in both overall mortality and AKI between the groups. There was no significant difference in the need for RRT or ICU LOS between BC and NS. Pending further data, our study supports using BC over NS for fluid resuscitation in adults with sepsis. Further large-scale RCTs are necessary to validate our findings.
Vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in initial resuscitation of burn injuries: A systematic review
Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 2022
BACKGROUND According to current guidelines initial burn resuscitation should be performed with fluids alone. The aims of the study were to review the frequency of use of vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in initial burn resuscitation, and assess benefits and harms of adding such drugs to fluids. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, UpToDate, and SveMed+ through 3 December 2021. The search included studies on critically ill burn patients receiving vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in addition to fluids within 48 hours after burn injury. RESULTS The literature search identified 1058 unique publications that were screened for inclusion. After assessing 115 publications in full text, only two retrospective cohort studies were included. One study found that 16 out of 52 (31%) patients received vasopressor(s). Factors associated with vasopressor use were increasing age, burn depth and % total body surface area (TBSA) burnt. Another study observed that 20 out of 111 (18%) patients received vasopressor(s). Vasopressor use was associated with increasing age, Baux score and %TBSA burnt in addition to more frequent dialysis treatment and increased mortality. Study quality assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was considered good in one study, but uncertain due to limited description of methods in the other. CONCLUSION This systematic review revealed that there is lack of evidence regarding benefits and harms of using vasoactive and/or inotropic drugs in addition to fluids during early resuscitation of patients with major burns.
Prophylactic Perioperative Terlipressin Therapy for Preventing Acute Kidney Injury in Living Donor Liver Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology. 2022;12(2):417-427
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in the perioperative transplant period and is associated with poor outcomes. Few studies reported a reduction in AKI incidence with terlipressin therapy by counteracting the hemodynamic alterations occurring during liver transplantation. However, the effect of terlipressin on posttransplant outcomes has not been systematically reviewed. METHODS A comprehensive search of electronic databases was performed. Studies reporting the use of terlipressin in the perioperative period of living donor liver transplantation were included. We expressed the dichotomous outcomes as risk ratio (RR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) using the random effects model. The primary aim was to assess the posttransplant risk of AKI. The secondary aims were to assess the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), vasopressors, effect on hemodynamics, blood loss during surgery, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS A total of nine studies reporting 711 patients (309 patients in the terlipressin group and 402 in the control group) were included for analysis. Terlipressin was administered for a mean duration of 53.44 ± 28.61 h postsurgery. The risk of AKI was lower with terlipressin (0.6 [95% CI, 0.44-0.8]; P = 0.001). However, on sensitivity analysis including only four randomized controlled trials (I(2) = 0; P = 0.54), the risk of AKI was similar in both the groups (0.7 [0.43-1.09]; P = 0.11). The need for RRT was similar in both the groups (0.75 [0.35-1.56]; P = 0.44). Terlipressin therapy reduced the need for another vasopressor (0.34 [0.25-0.47]; P < 0.001) with a concomitant rise in mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance by 3.2 mm Hg (1.64-4.7; P < 0.001) and 77.64 dyne cm(-1).sec(-5) (21.27-134; P = 0.007), respectively. Blood loss, duration of hospital/ICU stay, and mortality were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS Perioperative terlipressin therapy has no clinically relevant benefit.
Robotically applied hemostatic clamping for care-under-fire: harnessing bomb robots for hemorrhage control
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 2022;65(2):E242-e249
BACKGROUND Early hemorrhage control after interpersonal violence is the most urgent requirement to preserve life and is now recognized as a responsibility of law enforcement. Although earlier entry of first responders is advocated, many shooting scenes remain unsafe for humans, necessitating first responses conducted by robots. Thus, robotic hemorrhage control warrants study as a care-under-fire treatment option. METHODS Two bomb disposal robots (Wolverine and Dragon Runner) were retrofitted with hemostatic wound clamps. The robots' ability to apply a wound clamp to a simulated extremity exsanguination while controlled by 4 experienced operators was tested. The operators were randomly assigned to perform 10 trials using 1 robot each. A third surveillance robot (Stair Climber) provided further visualization for the operators. We assessed the success rate of the application of the wound clamp to the simulated wound, the time to application of the wound clamp and the amount of fluid loss. We also assessed the operators' efforts to apply the wound clamp after an initial attempt was unsuccessful or after the wound clamp was dropped. RESULTS Remote robotic application of a wound clamp was demonstrated to be feasible, with complete cessation of simulated bleeding in 60% of applications. This finding was consistent across all operators and both robots. There was no difference in the success rates with the 2 robots (p = 1.00). However, there were differences in fluid loss (p = 0.004) and application time (p < 0.001), with the larger (Wolverine) robot being faster and losing less fluid. CONCLUSION Law enforcement tactical robots were consistently able to provide partial to complete hemorrhage control in a simulated extremity exsanguination. Consideration should be given to using this approach in care-under-fire and care-behind-the-barricade scenarios as well as further developing the technology and doctrine for robotic hemorrhage control.
Public safety bomb technicians (n= 4).
Application of wound clamps with the heavy-duty bomb disposal Wolverine robot (n= 2).
Application of wound clamps with the lightweight bomb disposal Dragon Runner robot (n= 2).
There was complete cessation of simulated bleeding in 60% of applications consistently across all technicians and both robots. There was no difference in success rates with the two robots. However, there were differences in fluid loss and application time, with the Wolverine robot being faster and losing less fluid.
A randomized controlled pilot trial of video-modelling versus telementoring for improved hemorrhage control wound packing
American journal of surgery. 2022
INTRODUCTION Exsanguination is the most preventable cause of death. Paradigms such as STOP THE BLEED recognize increased responsibility among the less experienced with Wound Packing (WP) being a critical skill. As even trained providers may perform poorly, we compared Video-modelling (VM), a form of behavioural modelling involving video demonstration prior to intervention against remote telementoring (RTM) involving remote real-time expert-guidance. METHODS Search and Rescue (SAR-Techs), trained in WP were asked to pack a wound on a standardized simulator randomized to RMT, VM, or control. RESULTS 24 SAR-Techs (median age 37, median 16.5 years experience) participated. Controls were consistently faster than RTM (p = 0.005) and VM (p = 0.000), with no difference between RTM and VM. However, 50% (n = 4) Controls failed to pack properly, compared to 100% success in both VM and RTM, despite all SAR-Techs feeling the task was "easy". DISCUSSION Performance of a life-saving technique was improved through either VM or RTM, suggesting that both techniques are beneficial and complementary to each other. Further work should be extended to law enforcement/lay public to examine logistical challenges.