A New Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients After Intravenous Thrombolysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:774654
BACKGROUND We aimed to develop and validate a new nomogram for predicting the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). METHODS A retrospective study enrolled 553 patients with AIS treated with IVT. The patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the training set (70%, n = 387) and the testing set (30%, n = 166). The factors in the predictive nomogram were filtered using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the nomogram was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS After multivariable logistic regression analysis, certain factors, such as smoking, National Institutes of Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), were found to be independent predictors of ICH and were used to construct a nomogram. The AUC-ROC values of the nomogram were 0.887 (95% CI: 0.842-0.933) and 0.776 (95% CI: 0.681-0.872) in the training and testing sets, respectively. The AUC-ROC of the nomogram was higher than that of the Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS), Glucose, Race, Age, Sex, Systolic blood Pressure, and Severity of stroke (GRASPS), and stroke prognostication using age and NIH Stroke Scale-100 positive index (SPAN-100) scores for predicting ICH in both the training and testing sets (p < 0.05). The calibration plot demonstrated good agreement in both the training and testing sets. DCA indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS The new nomogram, which included smoking, NIHSS, BUN/Cr, and NLR as variables, had the potential for predicting the risk of ICH in patients with AIS after IVT.
Saline Compared to Balanced Crystalloid in Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Critical care explorations. 2022;4(1):e0613
OBJECTIVES This systematic review and meta-analysis compared the use of saline to balanced crystalloid for fluid resuscitation in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DATA SOURCES We searched databases including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane registry. STUDY SELECTION We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared saline to balanced crystalloid in patients with DKA. DATA EXTRACTION We pooled estimates of effect using relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes, both with 95% CIs. We assessed risk of bias for included RCTs using the modified Cochrane tool and certainty of evidence using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. DATA SYNTHESIS We included eight RCTs (n = 482 patients). Both time to DKA resolution (MD, 3.51 hr longer; 95% CI, 0.90 longer to 6.12 longer; moderate certainty) and length of hospital stay (MD, 0.89 d longer in saline group; 95% CI, 0.34 longer to 1.43 d longer; moderate certainty) are probably longer in the saline group compared with the balanced crystalloid group, although for the latter, the absolute difference (under 1 d) is small. Post-resuscitation serum chloride level may be higher (MD, 1.62 mmol/L higher; 95% CI, 0.40 lower to 3.64 higher; low certainty), and post-resuscitation serum bicarbonate is probably lower (MD, 1.50 mmol/L; 95% CI, 2.33 lower to 0.67 lower; moderate certainty) in those receiving saline. CONCLUSIONS In patients with DKA, the use of saline may be associated with longer time to DKA resolution, higher post-resuscitation serum chloride levels, lower post-resuscitation serum bicarbonate levels, and longer hospital stay compared with balanced crystalloids. Pending further data, low to moderate certainty data support using balanced crystalloid over saline for fluid resuscitation in patients with DKA.
The Impact of Choice Architecture on Sepsis Fluid Resuscitation Decisions: An Exploratory Survey-Based Study
MDM policy & practice. 2022;7(1):23814683221099454
BACKGROUND Discordance with well-known sepsis resuscitation guidelines is often attributed to rational assessments of patients at the point of care. Conversely, we sought to explore the impact of choice architecture (i.e., the environment, manner, and behavioral psychology within which options are presented and decisions are made) on decisions to prescribe guideline-discordant fluid volumes. DESIGN We conducted an electronic, survey-based study using a septic shock clinical vignette. Physicians from multiple specialties and training levels at an academic tertiary-care hospital and academic safety-net hospital were randomized to distinct answer sets: control (6 fluid options), time constraint (6 fluid options with a 10-s limit to answer), or choice overload (25 fluid options). The primary outcome was discordance with Surviving Sepsis Campaign fluid resuscitation guidelines. We also measured response times and examined the relationship between each choice architecture intervention group, response time, and guideline discordance. RESULTS A total of 189 of 624 (30.3%) physicians completed the survey. Time spent answering the vignette was reduced in time constraint (9.5 s, interquartile range [IQR] 7.3 s to 10.0 s, P < 0.001) and increased in choice overload (56.8 s, IQR 35.9 s to 86.7 s, P < 0.001) groups compared with control (28.3 s, IQR 20.0 s to 44.6 s). In contrast, the relative risk of guideline discordance was higher in time constraint (2.07, 1.33 to 3.23, P = 0.001) and lower in choice overload (0.75, 0.60, to 0.95, P =0.02) groups. After controlling for time spent reading the vignette, the overall odds of choosing guideline-discordant fluid volumes were reduced for every additional second spent answering the vignette (OR 0.98, 0.97, to 0.99, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Choice architecture may affect fluid resuscitation decisions in sepsis regardless of patient conditions, warranting further investigation in real-world contexts. These effects should be considered when implementing practice guidelines. HIGHLIGHTS Time constrained clinical decision making was associated with increased proportion of guideline-discordant responses and relative risk of failure to prescribe guideline-recommended intravenous fluids using a sepsis clinical vignette.Choice overload increased response times and was associated with decreased proportion of guideline-discordant responses and relative risk of guideline discordance.Physician odds of choosing to prescribe guideline-discordant fluid volumes were reduced with increased deliberation as measured by response times.Clinicians, researchers, policy makers, and administrators should consider the effect of choice architecture on clinical decision making and guideline discordance when implementing guidelines for sepsis and other acute care conditions.
Temporal Trajectory of Systolic Blood Pressure and Outcomes in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: ATACH-2 Trial Cohort
BACKGROUND To highlight the heterogeneity of acute temporal blood pressure (BP) changes in the ATACH-2 trial (Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage-2) and associations with the outcomes of intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS One thousand patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage, who had been randomized to intensive (110-139 mm Hg) or standard (140-179 mm Hg) systolic BP (SBP) lowering with intravenous nicardipine in ATACH-2 from 2011 to 2015, were analyzed about temporal changes in hourly maximum SBP up to 24 hours after randomization using group-based trajectory modeling. Outcomes included death or disability (modified Rankin Scale score 4-6) at 3 months, neurological deterioration within 24 hours (≥2-point decrease in Glasgow Coma Scale score or ≥4-point increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score), and acute kidney injury (≥0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours or ≥1.5-fold increase in serum creatinine) within 7 days after onset. RESULTS Group-based trajectory modeling revealed 4 SBP trajectory groups: moderate SBP (from ≈190 mm Hg at hospital arrival to 150-160 mm Hg after randomization; n=298), moderate-to-low SBP (from ≈190 mm Hg to <140 mm Hg; n=395), high-to-low SBP (from >210 mm Hg to <140 mm Hg; n=134), and high SBP (from >210 mm Hg to 160-170 mm Hg; n=173). Patients with intensive treatment accounted for 11.1%, 88.6%, 85.1%, and 1.7% of each group, respectively. Compared with the moderate-to-low SBP group, the high-to-low SBP group showed increased risks of death or disability at 3 months (adjusted odds ratio, 2.29 [95% CI, 1.24-4.26]) and acute kidney injury (adjusted odds ratio, 3.50 [95% CI, 1.83-6.69]), while no increase in neurological deterioration was seen in this group (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.20-1.13]). The moderate SBP and high SBP groups showed no significant risk differences for such outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Data-driven observation using a group-based trajectory modeling approach may be useful to clarify the relationship between antihypertensive treatment, temporal SBP changes, and outcomes in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. REGISTRATION URL: https://www. CLINICALTRIALS gov; Unique identifier: NCT01176565.
Clinical and biochemical endpoints and predictors of response to plasma exchange in septic shock: results from a randomized controlled trial
Critical care (London, England). 2022;26(1):134
BACKGROUND Recently, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated rapid but individually variable hemodynamic improvement with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in patients with septic shock. Prediction of clinical efficacy in specific sepsis treatments is fundamental for individualized sepsis therapy. METHODS In the original RCT, patients with septic shock of < 24 h duration and norepinephrine (NE) requirement ≥ 0.4 μg/kg/min received standard of care (SOC) or SOC + one single TPE. Here, we report all clinical and biological endpoints of this study. Multivariate mixed-effects modeling of NE reduction was performed to investigate characteristics that could be associated with clinical response to TPE. RESULTS A continuous effect of TPE on the reduction in NE doses over the initial 24 h was observed (SOC group: estimated NE dose reduction of 0.005 µg/kg/min per hour; TPE group: 0.018 µg/kg/min per hour, p = 0.004). Similarly, under TPE, serum lactate levels, continuously decreased over the initial 24 h in the TPE group, whereas lactate levels increased under SOC (p = 0.001). A reduction in biomarkers and disease mediators (such as PCT (p = 0.037), vWF:Ag (p < 0.001), Angpt-2 (p = 0.009), sTie-2 (p = 0.005)) along with a repletion of exhausted protective factors (such as AT-III (p = 0.026), Protein C (p = 0.012), ADAMTS-13 (p = 0.008)) could be observed in the TPE but not in the SOC group. In a multivariate mixed effects model, increasing baseline lactate levels led to greater NE dose reduction effects with TPE as opposed to SOC (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS Adjunctive TPE is associated with the removal of injurious mediators and repletion of consumed protective factors altogether leading to preserved hemodynamic stabilization in refractory septic shock. We identified that baseline lactate concentration as a potential response predictor might guide future designing of large RCTs that will further evaluate TPE with regard to hard endpoints. Trial registration Retrospectively registered 18th January 2020 at clinicaltrials.gov (Identifier: NCT04231994 ).
Whole blood versus red cell concentrates for children with severe anaemia: a secondary analysis of the Transfusion and Treatment of African Children (TRACT) trial
The Lancet. Global health. 2022;10(3):e360-e368
BACKGROUND The TRACT trial established the timing of transfusion in children with uncomplicated anaemia (haemoglobin 4-6 g/dL) and the optimal volume (20 vs 30 mL/kg whole blood or 10 vs 15 mL/kg red cell concentrates) for transfusion in children admitted to hospital with severe anaemia (haemoglobin <6 g/dL) on day 28 mortality (primary endpoint). Because data on the safety of blood components are scarce, we conducted a secondary analysis to examine the safety and efficacy of different pack types (whole blood vs red cell concentrates) on clinical outcomes. METHODS This study is a secondary analysis of the TRACT trial data restricted to those who received an immediate transfusion (using whole blood or red cell concentrates). TRACT was an open-label, multicentre, factorial, randomised trial conducted in three hospitals in Uganda (Soroti, Mbale, and Mulago) and one hospital in Malawi (Blantyre). The trial enrolled children aged between 2 months and 12 years admitted to hospital with severe anaemia (haemoglobin <6 g/dL). The pack type used (supplied by blood banks) was based only on availability at the time. The outcomes were haemoglobin recovery at 8 h and 180 days, requirement for retransfusion, length of hospital stay, changes in heart and respiratory rates until day 180, and the main clinical endpoints (mortality until day 28 and day 180, and readmission until day 180), measured using multivariate regression models. FINDINGS Between Sept 17, 2014, and May 15, 2017, 3199 children with severe anaemia were enrolled into the TRACT trial. 3188 children were considered in our secondary analysis. The median age was 37 months (IQR 18-64). Whole blood was the first pack provided for 1632 (41%) of 3992 transfusions. Haemoglobin recovery at 8 h was significantly lower in those who received packed cells or settled cells than those who received whole blood, with a mean of 1·4 g/dL (95% CI -1·6 to -1·1) in children who received 30 mL/kg and -1·3 g/dL (-1·5 to -1·0) in those who received 20 mL/kg packed cells versus whole blood, and -1·5 g/dL (-1·7 to -1·3) in those who received 30 mL/kg and -1·0 g/dL (-1·2 to -0·9) in those who received 20 mL/kg settled cells versus whole blood (overall p<0·0001). Compared to whole blood, children who received blood as packed or settled cells in their first transfusion had higher odds of receiving a second transfusion (odds ratio 2·32 [95% CI 1·30 to 4·12] for packed cells and 2·97 [2·18 to 4·05] for settled cells; p<0·001) and longer hospital stays (hazard ratio 0·94 [95% CI 0·81 to 1·10] for packed cells and 0·86 [0·79 to 0·94] for settled cells; p=0·0024). There was no association between the type of blood supplied for the first transfusion and mortality at 28 days or 180 days, or readmission to hospital for any cause. 823 (26%) of 3188 children presented with severe tachycardia and 2077 (65%) with tachypnoea, but these complications resolved over time. No child developed features of confirmed cardiopulmonary overload. INTERPRETATION Our study suggests that the use of packed or settled cells rather than whole blood leads to additional transfusions, increasing the use of a scarce resource in most of sub-Saharan Africa. These findings have substantial cost implications for blood transfusion and health services. Nevertheless, a clinical trial comparing whole blood transfusion with red cell concentrates might be needed to inform policy makers. FUNDING UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Department for International Development. TRANSLATION For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
Children between 2 months and 12 years old admitted to hospital with severe anaemia, enrolled in the TRACT trial in 3 hospitals in Uganda and 1 hospital in Malawi (n= 3,188).
Whole blood (n= 1,404).
Red cell concentrates: packed cells (n= 692), settled cells (n= 1,092).
Haemoglobin recovery at 8 hours was significantly lower in those who received packed cells or settled cells than those who received whole blood. Compared to whole blood, children who received blood as packed or settled cells in their first transfusion had higher odds of receiving a second transfusion for packed and settled cells, and longer hospital stays. There was no association between the type of blood supplied for the first transfusion and mortality at 28 days or 180 days, or readmission to hospital for any cause.
Comparison of 3-factor versus 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for emergent warfarin reversal: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC emergency medicine. 2022;22(1):14
BACKGROUND Patients requiring emergent warfarin reversal (EWR) have been prescribed three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC3) and four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC4) to reverse the anticoagulant effects of warfarin. There is no existing systematic review and meta-analysis of studies directly comparing PCC3 and PCC4. METHODS The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effectiveness of achieving study defined target INR goal after PCC3 or PCC4 administration. Secondary objectives were to determine the difference in safety endpoints, thromboembolic events (TE), and survival during the patients' hospital stay. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR), and heterogeneity associated with the outcomes. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality, and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. RESULTS Ten full-text manuscripts and five abstracts provided data for the primary and secondary outcomes. Patients requiring EWR had more than three times the odds of reversal to goal INR when they were given PCC4 compared to PCC3 (OR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.97-6.60, p < 0.001). There was no meaningful clinical association or statistically significant result between PCC4 and PCC3 groups in TE (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 0.83-2.91, p = 0.17), or survival during hospital stay (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 0.81-2.23, p = 0.25). CONCLUSION PCC4 is more effective than PCC3 in meeting specific predefined INR goals and has similar safety profiles in patients requiring emergent reversal of the anticoagulant effects of warfarin.
Association of Tranexamic Acid Administration With Mortality and Thromboembolic Events in Patients With Traumatic Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
JAMA network open. 2022;5(3):e220625
IMPORTANCE Tranexamic acid is widely available and used off-label in patients with bleeding traumatic injury, although the literature does not consistently agree on its efficacy and safety. OBJECTIVE To examine the association of tranexamic acid administration with mortality and thromboembolic events compared with no treatment or with placebo in patients with traumatic injury in the literature. DATA SOURCES On March 23, 2021, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for eligible studies published between 1986 and 2021. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials and observational studies investigating tranexamic acid administration compared with no treatment or placebo among patients with traumatic injury and traumatic brain injury who were 15 years or older were included. Included studies were published in English or German. The electronic search yielded 1546 records, of which 71 were considered for full-text screening. The selection process was performed independently by 2 reviewers. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS The study followed the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers and pooled using the inverse-variance random-effects model. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Outcomes were formulated before data collection and included mortality at 24 hours and 28 and 30 days (1 month) as well as the incidence of thromboembolic events and the amount of blood products administered. Owing to missing data, overall mortality was added and the amount of blood products administered was discarded. RESULTS Thirty-one studies with a total of 43 473 patients were included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis demonstrated that administration of tranexamic acid was associated with a significant decrease in 1-month mortality compared with the control cohort (risk ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.71-0.97]; I2 = 35%). The results of meta-analyses for 24-hour and overall mortality and thromboembolic events were heterogeneous and could not be pooled. Further investigations on clinical heterogeneity showed that populations with trauma and trial conditions differed markedly. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These findings suggest that tranexamic acid may be beneficial in various patient populations with trauma. However, reasonable concerns about potential thromboembolic events with tranexamic acid remain.
Effect of washed versus unwashed red blood cells on transfusion-related immune responses in preterm newborns
Clinical & translational immunology. 2022;11(3):e1377
OBJECTIVES Transfusion with washed packed red blood cells (PRBCs) may be associated with reduced transfusion-related pro-inflammatory cytokine production. This may be because of alterations in recipient immune responses. METHODS This randomised trial evaluated the effect of transfusion with washed compared with unwashed PRBCs on pro-inflammatory cytokines and endothelial activation in 154 preterm newborns born before 29 weeks' gestation. Changes in plasma cytokines and measures of endothelial activation in recipient blood were analysed after each of the first three transfusions. RESULTS By the third transfusion, infants receiving unwashed blood had an increase in IL-17A (P = 0.04) and TNF (P = 0.007), whereas infants receiving washed blood had reductions in IL-17A (P = 0.013), TNF (P = 0.048), IL-6 (P = 0.001), IL-8 (P = 0.037), IL-12 (P = 0.001) and IFN-γ (P = 0.001). The magnitude of the post-transfusion increase in cytokines did not change between the first and third transfusions in the unwashed group but decreased in the washed group for IL-12 (P = 0.001), IL-17A (P = 0.01) and TNF (P = 0.03), with the difference between the groups reaching significance by the third transfusion (P < 0.001 for each cytokine). CONCLUSION The pro-inflammatory immune response to transfusion in preterm infants can be modified when PRBCs are washed prior to transfusion. Further studies are required to determine whether the use of washed PRBCs for neonatal transfusion translates into reduced morbidity and mortality.
Pre-term newborns (n= 154).
Washed leucodepleted packed red blood cells (PRBCs), (n= 77).
Standard unwashed leucodepleted PRBCs (n= 77).
Changes in plasma cytokines and measures of endothelial activation in recipient blood were analysed after each of the first three transfusions. By the third transfusion, patients receiving unwashed blood had an increase in IL-17A and TNF, whereas patients receiving washed blood had reductions in IL-17A, TNF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and IFN-γ. The magnitude of the post-transfusion increase in cytokines did not change between the first and third transfusions in the unwashed group but decreased in the washed group for IL-12, IL-17A and TNF, with the difference between the groups reaching significance by the third transfusion for each cytokine.
A Novel Risk Prediction Model for Severe Acute Kidney Injury in Intensive Care Unit Patients Receiving Fluid Resuscitation
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2022;9:840611
BACKGROUND To develop a risk prediction model for the occurrence of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving fluid resuscitation. METHODS We conducted a secondary analysis of the Crystalloid vs. Hydroxyethyl Starch Trial (CHEST) trial, a blinded randomized controlled trial that enrolled ICU patients who received intravenous fluid resuscitation. The primary outcome was the first event in a composite outcome of doubling of serum creatinine and/or treatment with renal replacement treatment (RRT) within 28 days of randomization. The final model developed using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination was validated internally and then translated into a predictive equation. RESULTS Six thousand seven hundred twenty-seven ICU participants were studied, among whom 745 developed the study outcome. The final model having six variables, including admission diagnosis of sepsis, illness severity score, mechanical ventilation, tachycardia, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and emergency admission. The model had good discrimination (c-statistic = 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.697-0.736) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, χ(2) = 14.4, p = 0.07) for the composite outcome, with a c-statistic after internal bootstrapping validation of 0.72, which revealed a low degree of over-fitting. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 58.8 and 89.1%, respectively. The decision curve analysis indicates a net benefit in prediction of severe AKI using the model across a range of threshold probabilities between 5 and 35%. CONCLUSIONS Our model, using readily available clinical variables to identify ICU patients at high risk of severe AKI achieved good predictive performance in a clinically relevant population.